US 7920692 B2
Enhanced call management services to users receiving incoming calls on extensions on a private branch exchange (PBX) is provided by an application server configured to provide call management services to at least one of the users and a protocol proxy configured to receive call information from the PBX according to a protocol for establishing call sessions. The application server is further configured to receive the call information from the protocol proxy.
1. A system for providing enhanced call management services to users receiving incoming calls on extensions on a private branch exchange (PBX), comprising:
an application server configured to provide call management services to at least one of the users; and a protocol proxy in selective communication with the PBX and the application server and configured to receive call information from, and provide instructions to, the PBX according to a protocol for establishing call sessions and send the call information to the application server, the protocol proxy configured to manage an incoming call to the at least one user according to a model selected from at least one of the following:
(1) a third party call control model, wherein the protocol proxy remains in control of the incoming call for the duration of the call;
(2) a call forwarding override model, wherein the protocol proxy removes itself from the incoming call once an action has been taken for redirecting the call; and
(3) a simultaneous ring model, wherein the PBX sends information relating to the incoming call to the protocol proxy and at the same time attempts to connect the incoming call to an extension on the PBX; and
wherein the application server is further configured to receive the call information from, and provide instructions to, the protocol proxy.
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11. A method for using an application server to provide enhanced call management services to users receiving incoming calls on extensions on a private branch exchange (PBX), the method comprising:
receiving at least one of the incoming calls in the PBX;
sending, to a protocol proxy, from the PBX, information relating to the at least one call according to a protocol for establishing call sessions, the protocol proxy being in selective communication with the PBX and the application server; and
sending the information from the protocol proxy to the application server;
providing instructions to the protocol proxy from the application server; and
wherein managing the incoming calls in the protocol proxy according to a model selected from at least one of the following:
(1) a third party call control model, wherein the protocol proxy remains in control of the at least one incoming call for the duration of the call;
(2) a call forwarding override model, wherein the protocol proxy removes itself from the at least one incoming call once an action has been taken for redirecting the call; and
(3) a simultaneous ring model, wherein the PBX sends information relating to the at least one incoming call to the protocol proxy and at the same time attempts to connect the at least one incoming call to an extension on the PBX.
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21. A system for using an application server to provide enhanced call management services to users receiving incoming calls on extensions on a private branch exchange (PBX), comprising:
an application server configured to provide call management services to at least one of the users; and
a protocol proxy configured to receive call information from, and provide instructions to, the PBX according to a protocol for establishing call sessions, the protocol proxy further configured to manage the incoming calls according to a model selected from one of the following:
(1) a third party call control model, wherein the protocol proxy remains in control of at least one incoming call for the duration of the at least one incoming call;
(2) a call forwarding override model, wherein the protocol proxy removes itself from the at least one incoming call once an action has been taken for redirecting the at least one incoming call; and
(3) a simultaneous ring model, wherein the PBX sends information relating to the at least one incoming call to the protocol proxy and at the same time sends the at least one incoming call to an extension on the PBX; and
further wherein the application server is further configured to receive the call information from, and provide instructions to, the protocol proxy,
thereby avoiding the need for the PBX and the application server to communicate via a gateway.
As is known, a private branch exchange (PBX) is a telephone system that may be located within an enterprise such as a business, in contrast to telecommunications networks that may be accessed by the general public, such as the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or the Internet. An enterprise utilizing a PBX benefits in a number of ways, one of which is the significant cost savings that result from being able to use a pooled set of trunk lines for calls out to other networks, such as the PSTN, as opposed to having to maintain a trunk line for each telephone extension within the enterprise. Further, users within an enterprise enjoy many valuable features provided by the PBX, such as voice mail, call forwarding, conference calling, etc. Unfortunately, it is generally the case that call management features such as those described above can presently be provided only from within the PBX, thus limiting the ability of users to manage their calls from outside the PBX. Moreover, present systems and methods for accessing call management features in a PBX via an interface external to the PBX suffer from severe disadvantages.
Presently, to enable external access of a PBX for the purpose of providing call management functionality such as that described above, it is necessary to couple a gateway server to the PBX. The gateway server may communicate with the PBX using known telecommunications services such as a Primary-Rate ISDN interface (PRI). The gateway server may in turn communicate with an application server using Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), or some other known protocol. SIP is fully discussed in J. Rosenberg et al., RFC 3261, “SIP: Session Initiation Protocol,” June 2002, published by the Internet Society of Reston, Va., presently available on the World Wide Web (e.g., via the faqs.org web site), and fully incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
Accordingly, it is presently possible to notify an application server of a call in a PBX, and for the application server to send instructions to the PBX regarding how the call should be handled (e.g., forward to voice mail, etc.). However, the afore-described architecture suffers from significant shortcomings. The use of the gateway introduces significant additional overhead into a call routing architecture because the PRI circuits required for communication with the gateway consume significant capacity on the PBX. Further, as should be apparent, this overhead is magnified because each call sent from the PBX to the application server results in a “hairpin” routing of a communication, in which the gateway server is responsible for sending call data to the application server, which then returns data to the PBX through the gateway server. Accordingly, the gateway server used in present architectures represents both a potential bottleneck and a potential single point of failure Thus, present architectures for external call management in a PBX are at best inefficient, and at worst unreliable.
Systems for computer-telephony integration (CTI), not requiring a gateway server as described above, are known for allowing a variety of communications, such as telephone calls, facsimiles, e-mails, and the like to be managed with a computer system. For example, call centers handling large volumes of incoming calls generally use CTI systems to route calls to monitor the availability of service agents, queue calls, and route calls to service agents, etc Similarly, call centers handling outgoing calls often use CTI systems to monitor the availability of telemarketing agents, place outgoing calls, connect telemarketing agents to calls, etc. However, present CTI systems are designed to determine how a call should be answered, i.e., where the call should be sent when it is received, but are incapable of providing a call recipient with the ability to control a call once it has been placed. Moreover, CTI systems use proprietary protocols to facilitate communications between a PBX and the application that makes determinations as to how calls should be routed, such protocols being specifically designed to support the aforementioned functionality provided by most CTI systems.
While it is not at present possible to efficiently and economically provide control of calls in a PBX from without the PBX, such functionality would be highly beneficial to users of the PBX. Most if not all users of telephones connected to a PBX in an enterprise sit in front of a computer connected to one or more networks such as an intranet, the Internet, a local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), etc. Further, many users having PBX extensions access computers connected to one or more networks such as the Internet when they are outside of the enterprise, e.g., when at home, at hotels, at branch office locations, etc At present, such users are not typically provided with any interface apart from a conventional telephone through which calls to their PBX extension can be efficiently and effectively managed, and in fact, users of PBX extensions generally have no way at all to determine, on a real time or near real time basis, how a call should be handled. Moreover, to the extent PBX users are presently provided with call management functionality, that functionality is limited to the particular PBX being used.
Accordingly, there is a need to provide call management functionality from outside a PBX to users having PBX extensions. It would be particularly desirable to deploy a system including a proxy utilizing a known protocol or protocols to communicate with an application server providing call management functionality. It would further be desirable for such an application server to accept inputs from a client, and to provide such inputs, specifying how a call should be handled, back to the PBX. Thus, a proxy that provided information to and from a PBX, and to and from an application server, would be a particularly desirable improvement over present systems for managing calls in a PBX.
An end-user having a phone extension in a private branch exchange (PBX) may be provided with an enhanced set of call management services via a call management server that is external to the PBX. According to some embodiments, a forwarded SIP INVITE message provides the call management server with a real-time notification of the incoming call. The call management server can then use that notification to notify an end-user of the incoming call. If so directed by the end-user, the incoming call can be forwarded to another end point, such as a desk phone, cell phone, softphone, e.g., a telephone implemented in a computer, voicemail server, announcement server, or Interactive Voice Response (IVR). The end-user generally receives notification of a call, and provides input directing how the call should be handled, on a real time basis, “real time” as used herein meaning either real time or near real time as those terms are understood by those skilled in the art. Alternatively, the call management server can send the end-user (or a surrogate for the end-user) a notification of the incoming call by email, page, Short Message Service (SMS), etc., and then redirect the incoming call back to the PBX or some other designated end-point. The call management server may also receive notifications of incoming calls from the PSTN, cellular phone networks, a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) network, etc. via Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) triggers. By also allowing the user to direct these calls to a call management server, it is advantageously possible to provide the end-user in the PBX with a unified method for managing all of the end-user's telephone services.
A. System Overview
When PBX 110 receives a call from one or more calling parties 155 over network 125, it forwards the call to call management server 130, which is connected to one or more telecommunications networks 140. A SIP interface on PBX 110 is used to forward the incoming call as a SIP INVITE message to the external call management server 130. Generally, one or more clients 150, associated with users 120, may be in communication with call management server 130 for the purpose of displaying information to, and receiving inputs from, users 120 regarding calls received from calling parties 155.
1. Network Details
Telecommunications network 125 represents one or more known networks over which telecommunications services such as telephony may be provided, e.g., the PSTN for circuit-switched calls, a cellular telephone network, the Internet or some other IP network for VoIP communications, etc. In some embodiments, networks 125 and 140 will in fact be the same network, e g., a packet-switched network such as the Internet, whereas in other embodiments, such as the embodiment represented in
2. Call Management Server
Call management server 130 generally includes call manager proxy 134 and call management application server 136. Call manager proxy 134 receives call information from PBX 110. In many embodiments, this means that proxy 134 is a SIP proxy that receives messages from a SIP interface attached to PBX 110 as described above, and send requests and/or instructions to call management application server 136 based on received SIP messages. Application server 136, in turn, may communicate with clients 150 for the purpose of sending and/or receiving instructions, requests, inputs, information for display, etc. Application server 136 generally includes, or communicates with, a database containing information regarding the addresses and/or locations of clients 150 along with the identities of the extensions 115 and/or particular users 120 with which each particular client 150 is associated.
In general, call management server 130, including call manager proxy 134 and call management application server 136, and also clients 150, are each combinations of software and hardware. In particular, it should be understood that proxy 134 and application server 136 may be implemented together on one physical computing device or may be implemented on more than one physical computing device. Accordingly, each of call management server 130 and clients 150 may include any one of a number of computing devices known to those skilled in the art, and may employ any of a number of computer operating systems known to those skilled in the art, including, but by no means limited to, known versions and/or varieties of the Microsoft Windows® operating system, the Unix operating system, and the Linux operating system. Call management server 130 is generally (although not necessarily) a non-portable desktop or server computer, while a client 150 may be a desktop, laptop, notebook, or handheld computer, including a personal digital assistant, cellular telephone, or similar computing device, etc. Accordingly, it will be understood that call management server 130 and client 150 may generally include a display device such as a monitor, and a user interface, as well as one or more input devices known to those skilled in the art for receiving user inputs, such as pointing devices, keyboards, touchpads, pressure sensitive screens, etc. The user interface included in each of call management server 130 and client 150 is generally a graphical user interface (GUI), although it is to be understood that other kinds of interfaces, e.g., audible interfaces providing audio output, text interfaces, etc., are practiced in certain embodiments.
Accordingly, those skilled in the art will recognize that the various processes described herein with reference to client 150 and call management server 130, including call manager proxy 134 and/or call management application server 136, may be implemented at least in part as instructions executable by one or more computers. In general, a processor (e.g., a microprocessor) receives instructions, e.g., from a memory or other computer-readable medium, and executes those instructions, thereby performing one or more processes, including one or more of the processes described herein. Such instructions may be stored and transmitted using a variety of known computer-readable media.
A computer-readable medium includes any medium that participates in providing data (e.g., instructions) which may be read by a computer. Such a medium may take many forms, including, but not limited to, non-volatile media, volatile media, and transmission media. Non-volatile media include, for example, optical or magnetic disks and other persistent memory. Volatile media include dynamic random access memory (DRAM), which typically constitutes a main memory. Transmission media include coaxial cables, copper wire and fiber optics, including the wires that comprise a system bus coupled to the processor. Transmission media may include or convey acoustic waves, light waves and electromagnetic emissions, such as those generated during radio frequency (RF) and infrared (IR) data communications. Common forms of computer-readable media include, for example, a floppy disk, a flexible disk, hard disk, magnetic tape, any other magnetic medium, a CD-ROM, DVD, any other optical medium, punch cards, paper tape, any other physical medium with patterns of holes, a RAM, a PROM, an EPROM, a FLASH-EEPROM, any other memory chip or cartridge, a carrier wave as described hereinafter, or any other medium from which a computer can read.
3. Calling Party
A calling party 155 may place a call accessing a network 125 and/or 140 in a variety of different ways known to those skilled in the art. For example, calling party 155 may use a PSTN phone via a Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) line, a Primary Rate Interface (PRM) line, a SIP line, or a line using the International Telecommunications Union's H.323 standard for packet-based multimedia communications systems. Further, a calling party 155 may use an extension 115 on PBX 110, including local and/or tie line digital, analog, or IP telephone extensions 115.
B. Call Handling Models
There are different models according to which proxy 134 may handle calls received in PBX 110. Although three such models are described herein, it is to be understood that embodiments are possible in which other models are followed As discussed with respect to each model, there are advantages to each model. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the choice of which model to employ will often be determined by the particular features present in PBX 110 supporting the protocol, or protocols, e.g., SIP, used to communicate with proxy 134.
One such call handling model is called the Third Party Call Control model (3PCC). Under this model, PBX 110 in different embodiments sends call information to proxy 134 using either SIP INVITE or REFER messages. Under 3PCC, the proxy 134 remains in control of a call for the duration of the call. The 3PCC model thus has the advantage of making it possible to process a call according to predetermined rules. However, in embodiments using SIP, depending on how the SIP connection from the PBX 110 to the proxy 134 is licensed, the 3PCC model may be undesirable for the same reason that it advantageously allows proxy 134 to control an entire call; that is, under the 3PCC model a call consumes SIP resources for its entire duration.
A second model according to which proxy 134 may handle calls received in PBX 110 is referred to as the Call Forwarding Override (CFO) model, or the Redirect model. Under the CFO model, the proxy 134 redirects calls according to inputs received from a user 120 via a client 150. Once establishment of a call connection has been completed, i.e., forwarded to the destination selected by the user 120, the proxy 134 removes itself from the call flow, i.e., drops out of the call. The CFO model thus advantageously alleviates the consumption of resources of such as SIP resources for the entire duration of a call, although those skilled in the art will recognize that it will be necessary, under the CFO model, for PBX 110 to send messages, e.g., SIP NOTIFY messages, to proxy 134 regarding call state changes.
A third model according to which proxy 134 may handle calls received in PBX 110 is referred to as the Simultaneous Ring (SimRing) model. Under the SimRing Model, PBX 110 simultaneously rings a called extension 115 while contacting proxy 134. While use of the SimRing model adds complexity to call management operations, as discussed above, the SimRing model may be required to support the configuration requirements of some models of PBX 110.
A. High Level Process Flow
In step 205, PBX 110 receives a call for an extension 115. The received call may originate from a network 125, a tie-line trunk to PBX 110, another extension 115 within the PBX 110, etc. Following step 205, control proceeds to step 210.
In step 210, PBX 110 notifies call management server 130 of the call, in many embodiments by forwarding the call received in step 205 to call management server 130. In various embodiments the call may be forwarded via (1) a SIP interface to proxy 134 included within call management server 130, or (2) a local extension 115 belonging to call management server 130 having a SIP interface that is registered to the PBX 110. In any event, the result of the call forwarding performed in step 210 is that call management server 130 receives a SIP INVITE request and establishes a call session.
Further, in some embodiments, under the SimRing model discussed above, in step 210 the PBX 110 simultaneously rings both the extension 115 for which the call was intended and a local extension 115 belonging to call management server 130. Those skilled in the art will recognize that, in such embodiments, provisions must be made to avoid race conditions. That is, the call management server 130 should terminate the call if call-forwarding is provided for the call in PBX 110, if a predetermined time (configurable in most embodiments) has expired, or if a user 120 answers the call or makes a real-time forwarding decision as described below with respect to step 230.
Moreover, in some embodiments, the call received in step 205 is not forwarded to call management server 130 at all. In these embodiments, PBX 110 holds the call in an internal queue, and the notification performed in step 210 includes querying call management server 130, e.g., in some embodiments, application server 136 via proxy 134, for instructions regarding how to handle the call. Such instructions are based on the call handling rules and user inputs described below with reference to steps 215-230. In the presently referred to embodiment, as with other embodiments, instructions for handling calls, e.g., redirecting, forwarding, etc., are provided by call management server 130 based on call handling rules as discussed below. However, in the presently referred to embodiment, such instructions are applied not by call management server 130, as discussed below, but rather are applied by PBX 110 to the call held in the internal queue mentioned above, according to instructions provided through proxy 134. Embodiments using such an internal queue are only available where PBX 110 provides such a queue, and advantageously reduces overhead bypassing information related to a call between the PBX 110 and call management server 130, rather than the call itself.
Following step 210, control proceeds to step 215. In step 2l5, call management server 130, e.g., in some embodiments, application server 136, determines the rule or rules that apply for handling calls to the extension 115 for which a call was received in step 205. Specific call handling rules implemented in various embodiments are discussed in more detail below. In general, the call handling rule or rules determined in step 215 specify a location, e.g., a second telephone number, Uniform Resource Indicator (URI), etc , to which the call received in step 215 should be forwarded.
The call handling rules determined in step 215 may be implemented in a variety of different ways. For example, in some embodiments, a call forwarding table is used in application server 136 to identify a telephone number or SIP URI to which the call should be forwarded. In some embodiments, the call forwarding table includes or is associated with calendar information that allows for different call handling rules to apply to calls intended for an extension 115 depending on the day, date, and/or time. Where a SIP URI is included in the call forwarding table, the URI may represent any one of a number of different resources known to those skilled in the art, such as a telephone, an interactive voice response system (IVR), an announcement server, etc. Further, the call handling rules determined in step 215 may be implemented according to various heuristics instead of, or in addition to, the call forwarding table described above.
In order for call handling rules to be properly accessed in step 215, it is important that an Originally Called Number (OCN), i.e., telephone number or other identifier, be included in the signaling that forwards the call received in step 205 to call management server 130 in step 210. The OCN or other identifier allows call management server 130 to access the call handling rules that should be applied for a particular extension 115 and/or user 120. The OCN associated with a call may be provided to call management server 130 in a number of different ways. One way in which the OCN may be provided to call management server 130 is by providing the OCN as part of the header information provided with the call. In some embodiments, the OCN provided as part of Signaling System 7 (SS7) call signaling message associated with the call may be mapped to SIP information, as described in G. Camarillo et al., RFC 3398, “Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) User Part (ISUP) to Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Mapping,” December 2002, published by the Internet Society of Reston, Va., available on the world wide web (presently via the faqs.org web site), and fully incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
Further, in some embodiments, each extension 115 may be assigned an unpublished, “phantom” telephone number, i.e., a unique telephone number to which calls should be forwarded by PBX 110. Upon receiving a call forwarded from an extension 115 to such a phantom number, a routing table or similar reference consulted by PBX 110 for routing calls directs that the call be routed to proxy 134. The unique phantom number is then also used as a unique identifier for the extension 115 (and, consequently, generally also for a user 120) within call management server 130, which contains routing tables, lookup tables, etc., or accesses a database containing such information.
Moreover, in some embodiments, each trunk outbound from PBX 110 is assigned a unique prefix. This prefix may be appended to the OCN (or other identifier) in the “To” field described in SIP, and used by the PBX to select the proper trunk When forwarding the call. Upon forwarding the call, the prefix may be stripped from the “To” field, thereby providing the OCN in the “To” field when it is forwarded to call management server 130.
Following step 215, control proceeds to step 220. In step 220, call management server 130 selectively redirects the call received in step 205, i.e., call management server 130 takes action with respect to the call according to the call handling rule or rules identified in step 215. In some embodiments, not shown in
In step 225, one or more users 120 is notified of the call received in step 205. This notification may take one or more different forms in various embodiments, some of which are described in more detail below, For example, a pop-up window with information relating to the call may be displayed within an interface of a client 150. Such a pop-up widow may present the user 120 with various choices regarding a call, such as forward to voice-mail, forward to a specified extension 115, forward to another telephone number, do not disturb, etc. Further, call management server 130 may send, or may cause to be sent, a message such as an e-mail, page, SMS message, etc., to client 150. In some embodiments, not shown in
In step 230, the call received in step 205 is selectively redirected according to one more inputs provided by a user 120 via a client 150. In many embodiments, the user 120 is presented with a list of one or more options that may be selected regarding a call in an interface such as a GUI on client 120, and selects one or more of the options through the interface. For example, as described in more detail below, a user 120 may choose to forward a call to voice mail, forward a call to another telephone number, etc. In some embodiments, the process waits for user 120 input for a predetermined period of time (e.g., 18 seconds in one embodiment) and, if such input is not received within the predetermined period of time, redirects the call according to specified rules. Following step 230, the process 200 ends.
In general, when call management server 130 redirects or forwards a call, for example, as described above with reference to
B. Exemplary Call Flows
1. 3PCC Model
a. Call Notification
Proxy 134 receives the INVITE message, establishes a SIP call session for the call request, and sends a service request to the application server 136 of call management server 130. Application server 136, upon receiving the service request from proxy 134, identifies a client 150 associated with user 120, and causes a pop-up window to be displayed by client 150. The pop-up window may include such information as the name of the calling party, the caller ID number or other line identifier for the calling party, and/or a location of the calling party. Such information may be obtained by application server 136, as noted above, through access to various databases, such a network provider databases or private contact databases. The pop-up window may be displayed on the client for a predetermined amount of time (e.g., 18 seconds in some embodiments).
In the embodiment illustrated by
b. Route to Default Telephone Number
Once a user selection is received, application server 136 sends a response message to proxy 134 indicating that the call should be routed to the predetermined telephone number, which causing proxy 134 to in turn send a SIP INVITE message to PBX 110 indicating the routing decision. PBX 110 then attempts to connect the call to the predetermined telephone number (in this example, called extension 115) using an appropriate signaling method, and the call is established in a manner similar to
c. Call Forward
d. Forward to Voicemail
The initial steps of the embodiment illustrated by
The proxy 134 sets a timeout period for the call attempt to called extension 115. If no response is received from the application server 136 (indicating that an instruction has not been received from the client 150) or from the PBX 110 (indicating an answer at called extension 115) prior to the end of the timeout period, proxy 134 indicates to application server 136 that the call result was no answer, and to PBX 110 that the call attempt to called extension 115 should be cancelled. Application server 136 may then send a message to proxy 134 to route the call to a voice mail associated with the called extension 115 or user 120. Proxy 134 then sends a message to PBX 110 to establish a connection with the associated voice mail, and PBX 110 establishes the connection (using an appropriate signaling method) with the associated voice mail.
Additionally, although not shown in the call flow diagram of
e. Find Me Follow Me
As indicated in
2. CFO Model
a. Call Notification
NOTIFY messages as shown in
It will be seen that the call flow of
b. Route to Default Telephone Number
c. Call Forward
The call flow shown in
d. Find Me Follow Me
In general, because PBX 110 is likely unable to forward a call to an address outside the PBX 110,
3. Simultaneous Ring Model
a. Call Notification
If there is no answer to the call, the PBX 110 applies normal call coverage routing options known to those skilled in the art, e.g., overflow to voicemail or any of the valid PBX 110 processing options for dealing with a no answer scenario. In the case of overflow to voicemail, the PBX 110 will still send a CANCEL message to proxy 134 to terminate the pending INVITE transaction with proxy 134 also sending a “<serviceUpdate>Result=NoAnswer” message.
b. Route to Default Telephone Number
c. Call Forward
d. Forward to Voicemail
The initial steps of the embodiment of
The scenario shown in
e. Find Me Follow Me
The initial steps of the embodiment of
In response to the no connection message, application server 136 may then send a message to proxy 134 with find me follow me instructions for the call—for example, the application server 136 may send an address (e.g., a telephone number) for user 120 that is indicated as the first routing option for find me follow me purposes. Proxy 134 then sends a message to PBX 110 to establish a connection with the find me follow me address, and PBX 110 attempts to establish the connection (using an appropriate signaling method) with the find me follow me address. If the call is answered at the find me follow me address, the call is established and connected. Although not shown in
With regard to the processes, methods, heuristics, etc. described herein, it should be understood that, although the steps of such processes, etc. have been described as occurring according to a certain ordered sequence, such processes could be practiced with the described steps performed in an order other than the order described herein. It further should be understood that certain steps could be performed simultaneously, that other steps could be added, or that certain steps described herein could be omitted. In other words, the descriptions of processes described herein are provided for the purpose of illustrating certain embodiments, and should in no way be construed so as to limit the claimed invention
Accordingly, it is to be understood that the above description is intended to be illustrative and not restrictive. Many embodiments and applications other than the examples provided would be apparent to those of skill in the art upon reading the above description. The scope of the invention should be determined, not with reference to the above description, but should instead be determined with reference to the appended claims, along with the full scope of equivalents to which such claims are entitled. It is anticipated and intended that future developments will occur in the field of call management, and that the disclosed systems and methods will be incorporated into such future embodiments. Accordingly, it should be understood that the invention is capable of modification and variation and is limited only by the following claims