|Publication number||US7926520 B2|
|Application number||US 12/691,562|
|Publication date||Apr 19, 2011|
|Filing date||Jan 21, 2010|
|Priority date||Jun 22, 2006|
|Also published as||EP1870962A2, EP1870962A3, EP1870962B1, EP2605344A1, EP2605344B1, US7650914, US8113243, US8939180, US20070294873, US20100119863, US20110000577, US20120261025|
|Publication number||12691562, 691562, US 7926520 B2, US 7926520B2, US-B2-7926520, US7926520 B2, US7926520B2|
|Inventors||Robert Bogursky, Leonid Foshansky, Craig Kennedy, Wood II Darrel, Mark Saunders|
|Original Assignee||Autosplice, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (37), Referenced by (3), Classifications (11), Legal Events (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a divisional of co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/473,567 filed Jun. 22, 2006 of the same title, issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,650,914, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
A portion of the disclosure of this patent document contains material that is subject to copyright protection. The copyright owner has no objection to the facsimile reproduction by anyone of the patent document or the patent disclosure, as it appears in the Patent and Trademark Office patent files or records, but otherwise reserves all copyright rights whatsoever.
The present invention relates generally to the field of crimping, and in one salient aspect to fine filament crimping of, e.g., shaped memory alloy (SMA) wire.
The crimping of filaments such as metallic wires is well understood. Numerous techniques and configurations for wire and filament crimps are known. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,486,653 to Dohi issued Jan. 23, 1996 entitled “Crimp-style terminal” discloses a crimp-style terminal crimped to connect itself with an end of an electric wire includes an electric connecting part which is electrically connected to the other connecting part; and a crimping part formed integrally with the electric connecting part. The crimping part includes a bottom part and a pair of bends protruding from both sides of the bottom part. Each of the bends is formed to be thinner than the bottom part. In crimping, the pair of bends are deformed in such a manner that each end of the bends is directed to a substantially intermediate position in the width direction of the bottom part, whereby the end of the electric wire is crimped to the terminal securely.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,004,171 to Ito, et al. issued Dec. 21, 1999 and entitled “Crimp-type terminal” discloses a crimp-type terminal for electrically connecting an internal conductor to a mating terminal, includes: an electrical connection portion for fitting connection to the mating terminal; a conductor clamping portion having a base plate, and upstanding walls which extend respectively from opposite side edges of the base plate, and are pressed to clamp the internal conductor; and interconnecting walls respectively connecting the upstanding walls to the electrical connection portion, wherein each of the interconnecting walls have a bend portion for absorbing a stress, produced in a direction of a width of the crimp-type terminal when the interconnecting walls are pressed, by deformation.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,056,605 to Nguyen, et al. issued May 2, 2000 entitled “Contact element with crimp section” discloses apparatus which attempts to reduce the risk of breakage and yet ensure good electric and thermal conductivity, pull-off strength and long service life of the connection, when connecting a contact element to a conductor by crimping, by providing a crimp with the inner surface of the crimp section, in contact with the conductor, having deformations that are grooves and ribs running crosswise and obliquely to the longitudinal axis of the conductor.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,232,555 to Besler, et al. issued May 15, 2001 entitled “Crimp connection” discloses a crimp connection between a flexible flat contact part and a crimping ferrule enclosing this contact part, wherein the crimp connection is characterized in that the crimping ferrule has a base and two side plates adjoining the base on opposite sides. The base has at least one groove towards the interior of the ferrule and transversely to the longitudinal ferrule axis, and ribs arranged at the free ends of the side plates. The ribs at the free end are disposed in such a way that, after crimping has taken place and with the side plates rolled in towards the interior of the ferrule, the said ribs press the flexible contact part into the corresponding groove and engage with the said part essentially positively into the corresponding groove.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,749,457 to Sakaguchi, et al. issued Jun. 15, 2004 entitled “Crimp terminal” discloses a crimp terminal for crimping at least one bare conductor of at least one sheathed electric wire, the at least one bare conductor being placed on a bottom plate. A pair of crimp craws extend from the bottom plate to crimp the at least one bare conductor placed on the bottom plate. A plurality of serrations are formed at least on an inner face of the bottom plate to bite the at least one bare conductor crimped by the crimp claws. At least one of the serrations has a depth different from a depth of each another serration.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,799,990 to Wendling, et al. issued Oct. 5, 2004 entitled “Crimp connector” discloses a crimp connector for electrical contacting at least one electrical conductor embedded in an insulating material. The crimp connector has a crimping region comprising a base having at least one contact strip and at least one piercing tine. The at least one contact strip has a tapered tip and is arranged on the base such that the tapered tip penetrates an insulating material of a conductor from a lower surface to contact an electrical conductor therein when crimped. The at least one piercing tine has a tapered end region and is arranged on the base such that the tapered end region penetrates the insulating material of the conductor from an upper surface to contact the electrical conductor therein when crimped.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,893,274 to Chen, et al issued May 17, 2005 and entitled “Structure of ground pin for AC inlet and process for fastening wire onto same” discloses a structure of an AC inlet that includes a main body, at least one power terminal, at least one power pin coupled with the at least one power terminal and electrically connected to a circuit board, a ground terminal for accepting a ground signal from the AC power source, and a ground pin grounded through a wire and having a first strip coupled with the ground terminal and a second strip essentially parallel with a surface of the main body. The structure is characterized in that the free end of the second strip has a notch for accommodating a bare wire end of the wire and a projecting plate inclined at an elevation angle with the second strip, and the projecting plate is pressed downwards for fastening the bare wire end.
Similarly, the use of filaments, including those of shaped memory alloy (SMA), for various purposes is also well known. SMA generally comprises a metal that is capable of “remembering” or substantially reassuming a previous geometry. For example, after it is deformed, it can either substantially regain its original geometry by itself during e.g., heating (i.e., the “one-way effect”) or, at higher ambient temperatures, simply during unloading (so-called “pseudo-elasticity”). Some examples of shape memory alloys include nickel-titanium (“NiTi” or “Nitinol”) alloys and copper-zinc-aluminum alloys.
SMAs often find particular utility in mechanical actuation systems, in that it can be used to replace more costly, heavy, and space-consuming solenoid, motor driven, or relay devices. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,551,974 to Yaeger, et al. issued on Nov. 12, 1985 and entitled “Shape memory effect actuator and methods of assembling and operating therefore” discloses a shape memory effect actuator. The actuator comprises a biasing means which is normally biased in a first position and a shape memory alloy actuator element cooperatively engaged with the biasing means. The actuator element in a first unactivated condition is biased in the first position by the biasing means. In a second unactivated condition, the actuator element biases and retains the biasing means in a second position. The actuator element in an activated condition biases the biasing means in the second position. Also disclosed is a method of assembling an actuator and a cooperating apparatus and a method of operating the actuator.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,806,815 to Honma issued on Feb. 21, 1989 and entitled “Linear motion actuator utilizing extended shape memory alloy member” discloses a linear motion actuator which has a body; a member which is movable in a linear direction with respect to the body; an extended member made of shape memory alloy material, extended in a direction transverse to that linear direction so as to intersect it, supported at its ends by the body, and coupled at its intermediate portion to the movable member at least with regard to mutual movement therebetween in that linear direction; and an element for biasing the movable member and the intermediate portion of the extended shape memory alloy member in that linear direction, so as to apply an elongation deformation to the extended shape memory alloy member.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,312,152 to Woebkenberg, Jr., et al. issued on May 17, 1994 and entitled “Shape memory metal actuated separation device” discloses a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator pre-deformed in tension that actuates a separation device mechanism. A segmented nut, which engages a threaded bolt to be held and released, is held together by a nut retainer that is movable with respect to the nut and is affixed to the SMA element. The SMA element is heated by an electrical resistance heater to cause it to return to its undeformed state, thereby moving the retainer relative to the nut segments. When the retainer disengages from the segments, the segments are free to move outwardly thereby releasing the bolt or other item. Ones of the shape memory alloy actuator have a plurality of parallelly arranged SMA elements, every other one of which is pre-defaulted in compression and intermediate ones of which are predeformed in tension. The elements are coupled end-to-end so that, when they are heated to cause them to return to their un-deformed states, their respective elongations and shrinkages combine at the output to produce an actuation that is the cumulation in the same direction of the changes of all the elements. The plurality of elements may be in a side-by-side or concentric arrangement. Embodiments of the separation nut also include a plunger arrangement for urging the nut segments to move apart when released by the nut retainer and an ejector for pushing the released bolt or other item out of the separation device housing.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,440,193 to Barrett issued on Aug. 8, 1995 and entitled “Method and apparatus for structural, actuation and sensing in a desired direction” discloses an apparatus, system and method for actuating or sensing strains in a substrate which includes at least one actuator/sensor element which has transverse and longitudinal axes. The actuator/sensor element is attached to the substrate in such a manner that the stiffness of the actuator/sensor element differs in the transverse and longitudinal axes. In this manner, it is possible to sense or actuate strains in the substrate in a desired direction, regardless of the passive stiffness properties of the substrate, actuator element or sensor element. An isotropic actuator/sensor element attached to a substrate in this manner can then operate in an anisotropic way. In a preferred embodiment, the actuator/sensor element is bonded to the substrate at an area of attachment occupying only the central third of the actuator/sensor element in its longitudinal axes. The actuator/sensor element may be a piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, thermally actuated lamina (including bi-metallic) or shape memory alloy element.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,563,466 to Rennex, et al. issued on Oct. 8, 1996 and entitled “Micro-actuator” discloses micro-machining fabrication techniques to achieve practical electrostatic actuation forces over a length change of the order of 20 to 50 percent. One basic design utilizes diamond-shaped attractive elements to transmit transverse forces for longitudinal, two-way actuation. Another basic design features interlocking, longitudinally attractive elements to achieve longitudinal, two-way actuation. Other improvements include means for locking the actuator at an arbitrary displacement as well as means for amplification of either the actuation force or length change.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,685,148 to Robert issued Nov. 11, 1997 and entitled “Drive apparatus” discloses a drive apparatus for reversible movements of an actuator with a drive element made from a shape memory alloy with one-way effect. The drive element acts upon a lever rotatable about an axle in opposition to the force of a resetting element, wherein the lever can be used as a coupling member for converting a deformation of the drive element into a movement of the actuator. The drive element is a winding with a plurality of turns of a wire, wherein the turns are fixed and arranged mechanically parallel between an anchor point and the lever so that the lever is rotatable about the axle by means of a deformation of a turn, and the tractive force acting upon the lever by means of the drive element results from the individual forces of the turns of the winding acting mechanically parallel upon the lever. The diameter of the wire is advantageously approximately equal to the standardized diameter of the crystalline grain of the shape memory alloy in the austenitic state.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,763,979 to Mukherjee, et al. issued on Jun. 9, 1998 and entitled “Actuation system for the control of multiple shape memory alloy elements” discloses an actuation system for the control of multiple shape memory alloy elements that is achieved by arranging the shape memory actuators into a matrix comprised of rows and columns which results in approximate a fifty percent reduction in the number of electrical connecting wires. This method of actuation provides the scope for resistance measurements of the shape memory alloy actuators and therefore feedback control of the actuators can be accomplished without additional wires.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,870,007 to Carr, et al. issued on Feb. 9, 1999 to “Multi-dimensional physical actuation of microstructures” discloses a microstructure that includes a substrate and a movable platform which is tethered by a first cantilever arm to the substrate. The first cantilever arm is comprised of a sandwich of first and second materials, the first and second materials exhibiting either different thermal coefficients of expansion or a piezoelectric layer. A second cantilever arm includes a first end which is tethered to the platform and a free distal end which is positioned to engage the substrate. The second cantilever arm is constructed similarly to the first cantilever arm. A controller enables movement of the platform through application of signals to both the first cantilever arm and the second cantilever arm to cause flexures of both thereof. The second cantilever arm, through engagement of its free end with the substrate, aids the action of the first cantilever arm in moving the platform. Further embodiments include additional cantilever arms which are independently controllable to enable multiple ranges of movement of the platform by selective actuation of the cantilever arms; and plural opposed cantilever arms that are connected between the substrate and the platform, but are independently controllable to achieve complex modes of movement of the platform. A further embodiment includes plural actuation regions within each cantilever arm to enable countermovements of each cantilever arm to be achieved.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,236,300 to Minners issued on May 22, 2001 and entitled “Bistable micro-switch and method of manufacturing the same” discloses a bistable switch using a shape memory alloy, and a method for manufacturing the same. More specifically, the bistable switch includes a substrate having at least one power source; a flexible sheet having a first distal end attached to the substrate; a bridge contact formed at a second and opposite distal end of the flexible sheet; and at least one heat activated element connected to a first surface of the flexible sheet and between the second distal end and the power source. During operation, current from the power source passing through the heat activated element to indirectly bend the flexible sheet and short the signal contacts on the substrate with a sustainable force.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,326,707 to Gummin, et al. issued on Dec. 4, 2001 and entitled “Shape memory alloy actuator” discloses a linear actuator that includes a plurality of sub-modules disposed in adjacent array and adapted to translate reciprocally parallel to a common axis. A plurality of shape memory alloy wires extend generally linearly and parallel to the axis, and are each connected from one end of a sub-module to the opposed end of an adjacent sub-module. The SMA wires are connected in a circuit for ohmic heating that contracts the SMA wires between the sub-modules. The sub-modules are linked by the SMA wires in a serial mechanical connection that combines the constriction stroke displacement of the SMA wires in additive fashion to achieve a long output stroke. Moreover, the sub-modules are assembled in a small volume, resulting in an actuator of minimal size and maximum stroke displacement. The sub-modules may be rods or bars disposed in closely spaced adjacent relationship, or concentric motive elements, with the serial mechanical connection extending from each motive element to the radially inwardly adjacent motive element, whereby the innermost motive element receives the sum of the translational excursions of all the motive elements concentric to the innermost element. The SMA linear actuator includes a restoring spring assembly having a restoring force that decreases with increasing displacement to minimize residual strain in the SMA components. The SMA wires are connected for ohmic heating in various series and parallel circuit arrangements that optimize force output, cycle time, current flow, and ease of connection.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,379,393 to Mavroidis, et al. issued on Apr. 30, 2002 and entitled “Prosthetic, orthotic, and other rehabilitative robotic assistive devices actuated by smart materials” discloses medical devices using smart materials and related emerging technologies under development for robotics. In particular, the invention is directed to the development of rehabilitative (i.e. prosthetic, orthotic, surgical) devices actuated by smart material artificial muscles to increase the dexterity and agility of an artificial limb or a dysfunctional body part, so that movement of the limb more accurately simulates movement of a human appendage. A kinetic assistive device is provided is provided which is constructed of a lightweight material (such as aluminum) and has a plurality of smart material actuators attached thereto.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,425,829 to Julien issued on Jul. 30, 2002 and entitled “Threaded load transferring attachment” discloses a Nitinol element which is threaded by first heating it to a temperature of about 800 C., and then applying a threading tool, such as a tap or die, to form the threads. Nitinol has a unique property of increasing yield strength as cold work is applied, but this property ceases to exist above a temperature of about 800 C. The strength of the material at this temperature, however, is sufficient to resist the torque applied by a threading die being screwed onto a Nitinol blank even though it is low enough to permit the Nitinol to flow when the cutting threads of the threading die are forced into the material. At this temperature, the Nitinol is not actually cut by the cutting threads of the tap, die or other threading tool, but instead, the material flows around the cutting threads to form threads in the Nitinol. Since the metal flows into spaces between the threads of the “cutting” or forming tool, it is necessary to use slightly undersized rod or slightly oversized holes when using conventional dies and taps since no chips are removed.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,574,958 to MacGregor issued on Jun. 10, 2003 and entitled “Shape memory alloy actuators and control methods” discloses stroke-multiplying shape memory alloy actuators and other actuators using electromechanically active materials [collectively referred to in this application as SMA actuators] providing stroke multiplication without significant force reduction, that are readily miniaturizable and fast acting, and their design and use; economical and efficient control and sensing mechanisms for shape memory alloy actuators (including conventional shape memory alloy actuators as well as the stroke-multiplying SMA actuators of this invention) for low power consumption, resistance/obstacle/load sensing, and accurate positional control; and devices containing these actuators and control and sensing mechanisms.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,832,477 to Gummin, et al. issued on Dec. 21, 2004 and entitled “Shape memory alloy actuator” discloses actuators that employ a shape memory alloy component as the driving element include linear and rotational devices. An Intrinsic Return Means (IRM) may be imparted to the SMA actuator, thereby reducing the use of a spring return mechanism. The rotational actuator may include a cylindrical bobbin with a helical groove to receive an SMA wire. A number of turns may be placed in a small length of bobbin to amplify the rotational excursion. In another rotational actuator, a plurality of narrow, coaxial rings are provided, the rings being nested in close concentric fit or stacked in side-by-side fashion. Each ring is provided with a groove extending thereabout to receive an SMA wire and contraction of the wire causes each ring to rotate with respect to the adjacent ring. In an embodiment for linear actuation, the invention provides a bar-like component having SMA wires joined between bars. The invention includes a lost motion coupling to join two counter-acting SMA stroke amplification devices, whether linear or rotational.
U.S. Patent Publication No. 20020185932 to Gummin, et al. published on Dec. 12, 2002 and entitled “Shape memory alloy actuator” discloses actuators that employ a shape memory alloy component as the driving element include linear and rotational devices. An Intrinsic Return Means (IRM) may be imparted to the SMA actuator, thereby reducing the use of a spring return mechanism. The rotational actuator may include a cylindrical bobbin with a helical groove to receive an SMA wire. A number of turns may be placed in a small length of bobbin to amplify the rotational excursion. In another rotational actuator, a plurality of narrow, coaxial rings are provided, the rings being nested in close concentric fit or stacked in side-by-side fashion. Each ring is provided with a groove extending thereabout to receive an SMA wire and contraction of the wire causes each ring to rotate with respect to the adjacent ring. In an embodiment for linear actuation, the invention provides a bar-like component having SMA wires joined between bars. The invention includes a lost motion coupling to join two counter-acting SMA stroke amplification devices, whether linear or rotational.
U.S. Patent Publication No. 20040256920 to Gummin, et al. published on Dec. 23, 2004 entitled “Shape memory alloy actuators” discloses linear actuators comprised of a plurality of geometric links connected together in displacement multiplied fashion by a plurality of SMA wires. The links may have a trigon or chevron configuration. The trigon links may be combined with a hexagonal or rhomboidal shaft to create a defined stacking pattern of links about the shaft. The shaft extends from the medial portion of the stack. Ohmic heating circuits connect to non-moving ends of SMA wires. Various groupings of links in parallel displacement are described.
U.S. Patent Publication No. 20050229670 to Perreault, published on Oct. 20, 2005 and entitled “Stent crimper” discloses an apparatus for applying an inward force to a medical device may include at least two independently operable sections. Each section may include a plurality of movable blades arranged to fowl an aperture or chamber whose size may be varied. Each blade may be pivotally connected to a mount and slidably engaged with a constraining member. The blades are movable so as to allow the aperture to be sized to contain the medical device and to alter the size of the aperture.
U.S. Patent Publication No. 20050273020 to Whittaker, et al. published on Dec. 8, 2005 and entitled “Vascular guidewire system” discloses a vascular guidewire in an embodiment of the present invention, having such features as uniform diameter, low-profile cross section over its length and a distal tip capable of deflection and variable configurations, provides a range of advantages. A variable distal tip of shape-memory alloy deflects into varied configurations when remotely actuated. Such actuation, according to an aspect of the present invention, can be by way of a side entry, easily repositioned, single-handed controller that allows both rotational control of the guidewire and control of the variable tip. In another aspect, a longitudinal element in the guidewire, such as an exterior wire wrap, can provide dual functionality, including structural support as well as an electrical path for use in energizing, and thus deflecting, the distal tip. In yet another aspect, the overall guidewire geometry having constant circumference and low profile, as well as side-access controllability, permits advantageous coaxial mounting and removal of catheters over the proximal guidewire end and facilitates insertion and removal of guidewires through catheters in vivo.
U.S. Patent Publication No. 20050273059 to Mernoe, et al. published Dec. 8, 2005 and entitled “Disposable, wearable insulin dispensing device, a combination of such a device and a programming controller and a method of controlling the operation of such a device” discloses a disposable, wearable, self-contained insulin dispensing device includes a housing and an insulin source in the housing that is connected to a catheter for injecting insulin into a user. The catheter projects generally perpendicularly to a generally planar surface of the housing configured for abutting a skin surface of the user; which planar surface includes an adhesive layer for adhering the housing surface to the skin surface. A removable release sheet covers the adhesive layer for protecting the adhesive layer prior to use of the device. The release sheet is provided with a catheter protection element to enclose and protect an end portion of the catheter, such that removal of the release sheet for exposing the adhesive layer also exposes the end portion. A pump in the housing includes an actuator employing a shape memory alloy wire.
Deficiencies of the Prior Art
Despite the broad range of crimp technologies and implementations of SMA filaments, there has heretofore been significant difficulty in effectively crimping SMA filament wire when finer wire gauge sizes are chosen. Specifically, prior art approaches to crimping such filaments (including use of serrations or “teeth” in the crimp surfaces) either significantly distort or damage the filament, thereby altering its mechanical characteristics in a deleterious fashion (e.g., reducing its tensile strength or recovery properties), or allowing it to slip or move within the crimp. These problems are often exacerbated by changes in the environment (e.g., temperature, stress, etc.) of the SMA filament and crimp. Other techniques such as brazing, soldering, and the like are also not suitable for such fine-gauge applications.
Furthermore, no suitable solution exists for maintaining a constant and uniform tensile stress on the filament during crimping. Typical SMAs such as Nitinol can recover stress induced strain by up to about eight (8) percent. Therefore, in applications where filament length is relatively small, it is critical to maintain accurate spacing of the end crimping elements connected by the SMA wire after completion of the crimping process.
There is, therefore, a salient unsatisfied need for an improved crimp apparatus and methods of manufacture that specifically accommodate finer gauge SMA filament wire assemblies, especially so as to maintain the desired degree of filament length control post-crimp for, inter glia, length-critical actuator applications.
In addition, improved apparatus and methods for the manufacture and packaging of SMA wire assemblies are also needed in order to maintain these precision assemblies cost-effective and competitive from a manufacturing perspective. Such improved manufacture and packaging approaches would also ideally be compatible with extant industry-standard equipment and techniques to the maximum degree practicable, thereby minimizing the degree of infrastructure and equipment alterations and upgrades necessary to implement the technology.
The invention satisfies the aforementioned needs by providing an improved crimp apparatus and methods that are particularly useful with smaller gauge filaments (e.g., SMA wire). In addition, machines and methods for the automated manufacture of such assemblies are also disclosed.
In a first aspect of the invention, a filament crimping element is disclosed. In one embodiment, the element comprises: a first plurality of cavities, the first set of cavities disposed at a spacing which creates a first plurality of features; and a second plurality of cavities, the second set of cavities disposed at a spacing which creates a second plurality of features; wherein the first and second pluralities of cavities are substantially opposite one another when the crimping element is crimped, the first plurality of features adapted to be placed at least partially within the second plurality of cavities and the second plurality of features adapted to be placed at least partially within the first plurality of cavities. In one variant, the first and second pluralities of cavities and features form a substantially serpentine channel therebetween for the filament when the crimping element is crimped. In another variant, at least one of each of the first and second pluralities of features comprises substantially rounded edges, the substantially rounded edges mitigating deformation of at least a portion of the filament during crimping.
In still another variant, the crimping element is formed from a material which has a hardness less than that of the filament, the lesser hardness of the material at least mitigating deformation of the filament by the crimping element during crimping.
In another embodiment, the filament crimping element comprises: a first plurality of cavities, the first plurality of cavities disposed at a spacing which creates a first plurality of features; and a second plurality of cavities, the second plurality of cavities disposed at a spacing which creates a second plurality of features. The first and second pluralities of cavities are substantially opposite to yet substantially offset from one another when the crimping element is crimped; and the first and second pluralities of cavities and features form a substantially serpentine channel therebetween for receiving the filament when the crimping element is crimped.
In yet another embodiment, the filament crimping element comprises: a first substantially planar portion having a first face; a second substantially planar portion having a second face; a fold region coupling the first and second substantially planar portions, the fold region being adapted to allow the first and second faces to be disposed substantially opposite one another during a crimping operation; at least one first raised feature disposed substantially on the first face; and at least one second raised feature disposed substantially on the second face. The at least one first and second features are substantially opposite to yet substantially offset from one another when the crimping element is crimped.
In a second aspect of the invention, apparatus for the automated manufacture of filament crimp apparatus is disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus for automated manufacture comprises: apparatus configured to present a plurality of crimping elements; a tensioning station, the tensioning station adapted to keep a filament wire under a tension during at least a portion of a crimping process; and a crimping apparatus, the crimping apparatus adapted to crimp at least one of the crimping elements to the filament wire under tension to produce one or more of the filament crimp apparatus.
In one variant, the apparatus configured to present comprises a de-reeling station, the de-reeling station comprising a plurality of crimp element carrier assemblies.
In another variant, the crimping elements are each joined together to at least one other crimping element, and the apparatus further comprises a singulation station, the singulation station adapted to singulate the crimp elements from one another.
In a third aspect of the invention, a crimped filament assembly is disclosed. In one embodiment, the assembly comprises: at least one crimp element assembly, the at least one element assembly comprising: a plurality of crimp heads, each of the crimp heads comprising a metal alloy with a plurality of crimping cavities therein, the plurality of crimping cavities adapted to retain a filament wire therein; and a filament wire, the filament wire crimped to at least two of the crimp heads; and a carrier; the carrier adapted to locate the at least one crimp element assembly.
In a fourth aspect of the invention, a method for manufacturing a crimp element carrier assembly is disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises: providing a plurality of crimp elements; disposing a filament wire proximate at least one of the plurality of crimp elements; crimping the filament wire under tension to the at least one of the plurality of crimp elements to form a crimped assembly; and placing the crimped assembly onto a carrier.
In a fifth aspect of the invention, a method of crimping a fine-gauge filament is disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises: providing a filament; providing a crimp element having substantially offsetting features; and deforming the filament into a substantially serpentine shape within the substantially offsetting features of the crimp element.
In a sixth aspect of the invention, a method for manufacturing crimp element assemblies is disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises: providing a plurality of crimp elements; disposing a filament wire proximate at least two of the plurality of crimp elements; crimping the filament wire to the at least two of the plurality of crimp elements; and severing the filament between the at least two crimp elements so as to form at least two crimp element assemblies.
The features, objectives, and advantages of the invention will become more apparent from the detailed description set forth below when taken in conjunction with the drawings, wherein:
Reference is now made to the drawings wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout.
As used herein, the term “shape memory alloy” or “SMA” shall be understood to include, but not be limited to, any metal that is capable of “remembering” or substantially reassuming a previous geometry. For example, after it is deformed, it can either substantially regain its original geometry by itself during e.g., heating (i.e., the “one-way effect”) or, at higher ambient temperatures, simply during unloading (so-called “pseudo-elasticity”). Some examples of shape memory alloys include nickel-titanium (“NiTi” or “Nitinol”) alloys and copper-zinc-aluminum alloys.
As used herein, the term “filament” refers to any substantially elongate body, form, strand, or collection of the foregoing, including without limitation drawn, extruded or stranded wires or fibers, whether metallic or otherwise.
As used herein, the term “progressive stamping” shall be understood to include any metalworking method including, without limitation, punching, coining, bending or any other method of modifying or otherwise changing metal raw material. Such stamping may be combined with an automatic feeding system.
As used herein, the term “controller” refers to, without limitation, any hardware, software, and or firmware implementation of control logic, algorithm, or apparatus adapted to control the operation of one or more component of a machine or device, or step(s) of a method.
As used herein, the term “computer program” is meant to include any sequence or human or machine cognizable steps which perform a function. Such program may be rendered in virtually any programming language or environment including, for example, C/C++, Fortran, COBOL, PASCAL, assembly language, markup languages (e.g., HTML, SGML, XML, VoXML), and the like, as well as object-oriented environments such as the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), Java™ (including J2ME, Java Beans, etc.) and the like.
As used herein, the terms “processor” and “microcontroller” are meant to include any integrated circuit or other electronic device (or collection of devices) capable of performing an operation on at least one instruction including, without limitation, reduced instruction set core (RISC) processors, CISC microprocessors, microcontroller units (MCUs), CISC-based central processing units (CPUs), and digital signal processors (DSPs). The hardware of such devices may be integrated onto a single substrate (e.g., silicon “die”), or distributed among two or more substrates. Furthermore, various functional aspects of the processor may be implemented solely as software or firmware associated with the processor.
In one salient aspect, the present invention discloses improved crimp apparatus and methods useful in variety of applications including, inter cilia, crimping fine-gauge SMA (e.g., Nitinol) wire. This apparatus provides a cost-effective, easy to use, and effective way of fastening such fine-gauge wires so that desired strength and other mechanical properties (including maintaining precise length relationships after crimping) are preserved. These properties can be critical to precision applications of such crimped fine-gauge wire, such as in medical device actuators.
Key to maintaining these properties is the use of a novel crimp geometry, which in effect “kinks” the filament without any significant intrusion or filament over-compression, thereby locking the filament in place with respect to the crimp.
The material chosen for the crimp element of one exemplary embodiment is also softer than that of the filament being crimped (e.g., SMA), thereby mitigating or eliminating any damage to the filament which would otherwise reduce its strength (and the strength of the crimp as a whole).
The foregoing features (i.e., choice of material hardness and properties, and filament geometry or “kink”) also cooperate in a synergistic fashion to make the crimp stronger and more reliable than prior art approaches.
In one embodiment, a desired level of tension is maintained on the filament during the crimp process, which helps preserve the desired length relationships of the SMA filament post-crimping.
In another aspect of the invention, improved apparatus for processing the aforementioned crimp apparatus, in order to manufacture precision crimp and wire assemblies, is disclosed. In one variant, the apparatus comprises a substantially automated machine having a plurality of functional modules or stations therein. Crimp element assemblies are fed into the machine, which automatically aligns these assemblies, places the filament within the crimp heads of the crimp elements, and then crimps the filaments under tension to produce final assemblies which have the aforementioned desirable mechanical properties.
Methods of manufacturing including those using the aforementioned apparatus are also described in detail.
Filament Crimping Apparatus
Referring now to
The end crimp element 100 of the illustrated embodiment generally comprises a metal alloy having a plurality of arm elements 102, leg elements 106, and a head element 110. The metal alloy of the element 100 itself comprises a copper based alloy (such as, C26000 70/30 “cartridge brass”, or UNS C51000), post plated with a tin-lead (“Sn—Pb”) overplate, although any number of conventional material and plating choices could be substituted consistent with the principles of the present invention. While the present invention is generally contemplated for use with shape memory alloy (SMA) filaments, other fine gauge filament wires or elongate structures could also be used consistent with the principles of the present invention.
As previously noted, the use of a material that is softer than the filament being crimped (e.g., SMA) also advantageously avoids damage to the fine-gauge filament, thereby enhancing the strength of the filament and the crimp as a whole (as compared to prior art techniques which substantially cut into or deform the filament).
In a related fashion, the proper selection of materials and the design of the crimp head (described below) further avoid any significant deformation of the filament (e.g., reduction in its thickness/diameter, or alteration of its cross-sectional shape) that could also weaken the strength of the filament and the crimp as a whole.
It will be recognized that the terms “arm”, “leg” and “head” as used herein are merely a convenient reference (in effect anthropomorphizing the element 100), and hence no particular orientation or placement of the element 100 or the individual components 102, 110, 106 is required to practice the invention. For example, as shown in
The exemplary end crimp element 100 of
Referring again to
Also, it will be noted that the end crimp element 100 of
The “leg” elements 106 of the end element 100 generally comprise a post with chamfered lead features 108. The legs 106 are characterized by their length “a” which is the insertion depth of the feature into a respective receptacle (not shown) or via a through-hole mounting. Although depicted in an arrangement for use as a plug or through-hole mounted device, the legs 106 of the device 100 could easily be altered for other configurations such as e.g. surface-mounting or self-leading. The use of surface mounted leads is well known in the electronic arts, and can be readily implemented with the present invention by those of ordinary skill given the present disclosure.
Referring now to
Cavity pitch dimension (“p”) and cavity width (“w”) can also be important considerations when designing the end crimp element 100. Dimensions “p” and “w” should be adjusted so that when crimped (as shown in
As shown in
The exemplary embodiment of the crimp element also optionally includes one or more substantially planar (e.g., flat) surfaces disposed somewhere on the body, arms, legs, etc. in order to facilitate pickup by a vacuum pick-and-place or other comparable apparatus. For example, in the embodiment of
Referring now to
As used herein, the term “serpentine” broadly refers to, without limitation, any alternating, wave (sinusoidal, square, triangular, or otherwise), or displaced shapes or faun part of or formed within a component such as a filament. Such alternating features, shapes or displacements may be, e.g., in one dimension, or two or more dimensions, relative to a generally longitudinal dimension of the filament. Furthermore, such features, shapes or displacements may be substantially regular or irregular
It will be recognized that the cavities 112 a and ribs 112 b of the exemplary embodiment also purposely do not project along their longitudinal axis into the bend or fold region 105 of the 110 element; this acts to increase the strength of the fold when ultimately crimped.
As shown best in
In one variant shown in
In another useful embodiment, the carrier 130 may comprise a continuous reel, so that the devices 100 and carrier 130 can be spooled onto a reel for continuous processing. A continuous reel configuration lends itself to efficient manufacturing techniques such as e.g. progressive crimping of the filament wire 120 to the end crimp element 100 such as through the use of the exemplary automated manufacture equipment 400 discussed with respect to
Referring again to
The term “central” as used with respect to the crimp elements 180 is also merely used for reference in the illustrated embodiment; these crimp elements 180 accordingly may be used in embodiments where they are not central (e.g., they may comprise “ends”), and also may be stationary or movable with respect to the other elements of the assembly. They may also comprise a geometry and/or crimp type that is different in configuration than that shown and that of the end elements 100. The “central” elements 180 may also comprise part of a larger, fixed assembly or device, and may be attached thereto or integral therewith. They also need not necessarily be used with or contain their own crimp.
Note that the carrier 130 shown in the embodiment of
Referring now to
The aforementioned tape can also comprise notches or apertures formed therein and placed coincident with the substantially planar surfaces of the crimp elements 100, 180 so as to allow the pickup and placement of the assemblies while still attached to the carrier.
The carriers 170, as previously mentioned, ideally comprise a sufficiently flexible and low-cost (yet mechanically robust) polymer material such as polyvinyl chloride (“PVC”) having a plurality of reel feed holes 172 and assembly holes 174. The reel holes 172 are used for, inter cilia, feeding the reel through an automated machine, and may be placed at industry standard, e.g. EIA, spacing if desired so that the resultant reel and end crimping element carrier may be utilized on existing placement equipment. In addition, the carriers 170 also comprises a plurality of clearance slots 176. These slots allow removal of part from carrier (i.e., provide sufficient clearance). It will be appreciated that based on the particular needs of a given application, any of the feed or assembly holes previously described 134, 172, 174 can conceivably be used for indexing and/or establishing proper assembly length, such uses being readily implemented by those of ordinary skill provided the present disclosure.
In the illustrated embodiment, each carrier strip 170 has associated with it: (i) two end crimp elements 100 of the type shown in
Variations in the geometry, materials etc. of the assembly 190 of
It will also be recognized that while the illustrated embodiments of the crimp elements 100, 180 of the invention utilize a shape having “arms”, “legs”, and/or a “body”, other embodiments of these elements (not shown) do not include such components, but rather merely a crimp head 110 and cavities 112 and ribs 112 b. Stated differently, the crimp elements 100, 180 may comprise only the components absolutely necessary to form the crimp of one or more filaments. This configuration may be used, inter alia, for crimping the ends of two filaments together.
Moreover, it will be appreciated by those of ordinary skill that the exemplary configurations of the crimp elements (and carrier strip approach of
In another embodiment of the crimp element, the cavities and ribs 112 a, 112 b are replaced with ribs or features that are merely raised above a substantially planar surface or face of the crimping element (as opposed to having cavities form at least one set of the features as in the embodiment of
In still another embodiment (
Referring now to
The embodiment of
This embodiment is substantially the inverse of the prior embodiment of
The features 258 are also ideally configured with somewhat rounded distal (engagement) edges as shown in
As with other embodiments, a comparatively softer material is optionally used to form the crimp element 250, so as to further mitigate or eliminate damage to the filament which might weaken it (and the crimp assembly as a whole).
The bending or folding region 260 of the crimp element 250 is kept free from crimp features 258 as shown, so as to facilitate uniform bending of the material in that region without weakening of the material, which could reduce its “clamping” force when crimped (i.e., the force needed to separate the two crimp regions 254, 256 when crimped over the filament).
Referring now to
It will be appreciated that while the following discussion is cast in terms of the exemplary embodiments shown and described with respect to
In step 302 of the method 300, a rolled or otherwise continuous sheet of a metal alloy is punched using a progressive stamping equipment to form the end crimp element assembly 150 of
In step 304, the head elements 110, 182 of the crimp elements of both assemblies 150, 160 are preformed to form an approximate 180 degree bend as best shown in
In step 306, the filament wire 120 (e.g. SMA Nitinol) is routed into the pre-formed crimping head elements 110, 182 using a filament routing apparatus and the filament wire 120 is crimped while the crimping element assemblies 150, 160 are separated from the reel. To accomplish this, a first continuous stamping (e.g. end crimp element assembly 150) is fed into the manufacturing apparatus 400 utilizing a stepper motor. A locating pin engages the stamping at the indexing hole 134 and holds the stamping in place. Filament wire is routed using filament guides into the head element 110. If the filament wire is an SMA such as Nitinol, tension is required in order to ensure proper function of the assembly in the end-user application (such as e.g. SMA linear actuators). For embodiments containing SMA wire, an apparatus is used to maintain a constant and consistent (i.e., uniform, and consistent across multiple assemblies) wire tension of 15-30 g as the wire is placed and routed in the end crimping element heads 110, although other tension values can be used. Wire tension is also optionally monitored in step 306 either continuously or at intermittent time intervals.
In step 308, the preformed crimping head 110 is crimped to secure the filament 120 to the end crimping elements as best shown in
For mixed assemblies, i.e. those that utilize two or more different crimping elements such as that shown in
Either serially or in parallel to steps 306 and 308, in step 305, PVC sheeting having a thickness of approximately 0.5 mm is punched or otherwise perforated to form the overall dimensions of the PVC carrier strips 170, as well as providing standard indexing holes 172. The indexing holes 172 are preferably punched at the same pitch as the indexing holes 134, used on the end crimping element assembly 150 and center crimping element assembly 160. This is to insure no error in tolerancing when the crimping element assemblies are later assembled onto the carrier 170. The resultant PVC sheeting is then placed onto an industry-standard carrier reel adapted for use on a machine; e.g., one adapted for automated placement of components.
In step 307, the stamping pocket slots 176 and additional part indexing holes 174 are punched or formed into the carrier at a predesignated pitch (e.g., utilizing a user-designated custom pitch). The stamping pocket slots 176 are utilized for clearance during singulation stages after the crimping element assemblies are attached to the carrier. By separating the stamping performed in step 307 from the stamping in step 305, custom dimensions for the indexing holes can be used, advantageously allowing for multiple uses of a single step 305 produced carrier tape. Note that it is envisioned that these steps could alternatively be combined into a single processing step; however, as is disclosed in the current embodiment, it is in many instances desirable to index these features separately so that the indexing pitch may be readily changed without having to re-punch or perforate the entire carrier 170.
In step 310 of the method 300, the crimped assemblies are assembled onto the carriers 170 as best shown in
In step 312, the crimped and taped assemblies are loaded into a pneumatic die or the like, and singulated so that the two parallel unitary carriers 170 (see
In step 314, the singulated carrier tape assemblies are loaded; e.g., onto reels for shipment to the end customer, or further processing.
It will be appreciated that any number of combinations of crimping and filament tension may be applied in accordance with various aspects of the present invention. For example, one variant of the methodology described above comprises crimping one end of a filament, and then crimping the other end while placing the filament under tension.
In another variant, the exemplary crimp elements are used in a “loose piece” fashion; e.g., wherein the filament is tensioned, and two or more crimps are applied (e.g., crimped onto what will become the ends of that segment of the filament) under tension.
Automated Manufacture Equipment
Referring now to
In the illustrated embodiment, the equipment 400 comprises a plurality of stations, each of which perform a specific task in the manufacture of the end product (e.g., that shown in
The exemplary apparatus 400 shown in
Referring now to
The spool itself comprises a polymer hub with cardboard flanges, although this is but one of many possible configurations. These materials are chosen because they are readily available and cost effective.
The modular stand 404 comprises an aluminum or aluminum alloy, although other materials could be chosen if desired. Aluminum is desirable because, inter alia, it is easily machineable, is lightweight, cost effective, and readily available. Leveling feet 403 are also utilized to make sure the station 402 is level and square during operation of the equipment 400. A payout system using a motor and associated controller, and motion arm (or sensor beam) is used in the exemplary embodiment to ensure that the material is dispensed at an appropriate rate.
In an alternate embodiment, the reel station 402 can be obviated by or replaced with the progressive stamping equipment of the type well known in the art that manufactures the crimp element carrier assemblies previously discussed. The manufactured crimp elements can then be utilized in the automated manufacture equipment 400 immediately following their completion, however such an embodiment tends to be more complicated and provides less operational flexibility than the embodiment of
Referring now to
The tensioning station 406 comprises one or more tensioned spools 409 followed by one or more routing spools 408. A tensioner 407 maintains a uniform tension of between 15-30 g of tension on the SMA (e.g. Nitinol) filament 120 being routed into the subsequent stations. The tensioning station 406 optionally comprises a monitoring apparatus (not shown) disposed proximate to the tensioning spool so that proper tension can be monitored on a periodic or even continuous basis. The tensioning station 406 acts to maintain an accurate tensioning of the filament 120 being crimped into the crimping elements 100, 182. This ensures that the final assembly 550 will actuate accurately in order to control the end-user device properly.
The tensioning station spool(s) 409 and routing spool(s) 408 are advantageously designed to prevent the SMA wire from twisting during the process of being unwound. It is understood by the Assignee hereof that twisting the SMA wire prior to crimping may produce adverse affects on the accuracy of the strain recovery during actuation in the end-user device. Therefore, the tensioning station 406 spools and routing spools 408 are ideally positioned inline with the subsequent wire crimping station 414 so as to mitigate any torsion or other such effects. Further, the tensioning station spools 409 can also optionally be configured to slide laterally as the SMA wire un-spools, thereby helping to ensure that the SMA wire does not become significantly twisted during the routing, and crimping processing steps to be discussed subsequently herein. The routing spool 408 advantageously contains a diameter approximately equal to or larger than that of the spool 409 of the tensioning station 406. This feature further ensures that undue stress is not added to the SMA wire 120 by introducing too small of a diameter routing spool. Other features to mitigate stress (such as curved or polished spool surfaces, guides, etc.) can also be utilized to provide optimal transit of the filament between locations within the apparatus 400.
Referring now to the linear slide station 410 of
In the current embodiment, the slide station 410 will first advance the end crimp element carrier assembly 150 to the singulating station 412. A total of four (4) end crimping elements 100 will be singulated from the reel as shown in
While discussed primarily in terms of two different supply reels (one for each of the different crimp elements 150, 160), it is envisioned that more than two reels can be utilized.
Further, if only one reel is utilized, the entire sliding station may be obviated for a simpler assembly that merely drives the end crimping element carrier assembly into the resultant processing stations.
In yet another alternate embodiment, the rotary gear 504 may be obviated in place of a linear actuating device (not shown) or other comparable mechanism present on the slide station 410.
Referring now to
The hardened steel die set comprises an anvil, a stripper plate (which firmly holds the assembly in place during the cutting operation), filament wire routing apparatus and a cutting/crimping die. As the die opens, actuators retract and allow the end crimping element carrier assembly 150, 160 to advance within the die using the walking beam 450. Prior to being stamped, the walking beam 450 disengages and other actuators engage the end and/or center crimping element carrier assembly and hold the piece in place as it is singulated. Singulating dies are well understood in the mechanical arts and as such will not be discussed further herein.
In the illustrated embodiment, the crimping station 412 b of the apparatus 400 operates to crimp each of the end and central crimp elements 100, 180 to the Nitinol filament wire 120 that has been routed via the routing apparatus. The crimping station 412 b of this embodiment is similar to the aforementioned singulating station 412 a in that it comprises a hardened die steel set operated by the same pneumatic press as before, however other approaches (e.g., electromotive force such as via solenoids or motors) may be used in place thereof, or in combination therewith. Alternatively, the crimping and singulating dies could be separated into two separate die structures if desired. These and various other alternatives may readily be implemented by one of ordinary skill given the present disclosure.
In the illustrated embodiment, the press is operated by a pneumatic cylinder controlled by the aforementioned PLC device. The resultant assembly 550 produced by this process (after three (3) singulating/crimping cycles) is best shown in
Referring now to
A rotary actuator utilizes the punched sprocket holes 172 to advance the carrier 170 through the station 424 and onto subsequent manufacturing stations. Note that it is preferable that the pitch between sprocket holes 172 be identical to the pitch used on the crimping element assemblies 150, 160. By maintaining an identical pitch, the crimping element assemblies and carrier tape can be advanced together (such as by using the aforementioned walking beam 450) ensuring proper alignment between the various components during subsequent processing steps. Referring back to station 424, the punched carrier 170 is then routed to a position past the aforementioned crimping station 414 via a pulley 436 using a de-reeler motor (not shown). The carrier is routed so that the crimp/filament assembly 550 (
Referring again to
Referring now to
While primarily contemplated as processing two separate carrier tape assemblies 570 in parallel, in order to reduce material waste during the initial progressive stamping of the crimp element carrier assemblies 150, 160, more or less tape assemblies could be processed at the same time, as would be readily apparent to one of ordinary skill given the present disclosure. For example, the apparatus 400 can be readily adapted to process four (4) carriers 170 and two sets of parallel end crimps 100 and central crimps 180, so as to produce four final assemblies 570.
It will be recognized that while certain aspects of the invention are described in terms of a specific sequence of steps of a method, these descriptions are only illustrative of the broader methods of the invention, and may be modified as required by the particular application. Certain steps may be rendered unnecessary or optional under certain circumstances. Additionally, certain steps or functionality may be added to the disclosed embodiments, or the order of performance of two or more steps permuted. All such variations are considered to be encompassed within the invention disclosed and claimed herein.
While the above detailed description has shown, described, and pointed out novel features of the invention as applied to various embodiments, it will be understood that various omissions, substitutions, and changes in the form and details of the device or process illustrated may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the invention. The foregoing description is of the best mode presently contemplated of carrying out the invention. This description is in no way meant to be limiting, but rather should be taken as illustrative of the general principles of the invention. The scope of the invention should be determined with reference to the claims.
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|Cooperative Classification||H01R43/048, H01R4/188, H01R4/01, Y10T29/49181, Y10T29/49204, Y10T29/5121, Y10T428/1241|
|European Classification||H01R4/18M, H01R43/048|
|Feb 10, 2014||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: GAZDZINSKI & ASSOCIATES, PC, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:AUTOSPLICE, INC.;REEL/FRAME:032238/0984
Effective date: 20051006
|Feb 20, 2014||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: AUTOSPLICE, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:GAZDZINSKI & ASSOCIATES, PC;REEL/FRAME:032254/0589
Effective date: 20140220
|Jul 1, 2014||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MEDLEY CAPITAL CORPORATION, AS AGENT, NEW YORK
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:AUTOSPLICE, INC.;REEL/FRAME:033263/0447
Effective date: 20140630
|Sep 18, 2014||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: WELLS FARGO BANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:AUTOSPLICE, INC.;REEL/FRAME:034587/0542
Effective date: 20140917
|Nov 28, 2014||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Feb 19, 2015||SULP||Surcharge for late payment|
|Feb 19, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4