|Publication number||US7941502 B2|
|Application number||US 12/792,537|
|Publication date||May 10, 2011|
|Priority date||Sep 30, 2003|
|Also published as||US7765272, US20100238945|
|Publication number||12792537, 792537, US 7941502 B2, US 7941502B2, US-B2-7941502, US7941502 B2, US7941502B2|
|Inventors||James McKernan, Nojan Moshiri|
|Original Assignee||Cisco Technology, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (3), Classifications (6), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/676,696, filed on Sep. 30, 2003, now pending, the disclosure of which is herein incorporated by reference.
The present claimed invention relates to the field of computing networks. Specifically, the present claimed invention relates to a method and system for migrating content on a network.
The growth of the Internet over the past decade has provoked a tremendous rush to adoption of web sites by almost every company doing business today. This rush has included both internal (Intranet) presence as well as external (Internet) based presence. These myriad web sites each face the problem of web migration individually, so one company may have to tackle the challenge of web migration once for each unique environment it has built and supported.
The problem has to do with the rapid change of technology. By the time a large web site is complete it quickly becomes outdated. In the intervening years since web sites are built and deployed, technology continues to march forward while both static and dynamic web sites are frozen in time and lag behind. Sites are often trapped by the inability to make large-scale changes without impacting stability and customer satisfaction.
In short, once a web site is built and deployed, keeping up-to-date on upgrades (both software and hardware), the latest technologies, business process, etc., has meant a compromise between risking changes that might lower customer satisfaction or taking an extremely time-consuming and drawn out process that requires enormous personnel resources and devotion to quality assurance. In fact, web migration is quickly becoming one of the most important and costly challenges facing any business with a web presence.
The present invention provides, in various embodiments, a method and system for migrating content on a network. In one embodiment, the present invention accesses a directory having a network address. A business rule is created and a directory is scripted based on the business rule. Next, a content switch automatically directs future access to the directory to a new environment based on the scripting, wherein the future access to the directory uses the same network address. In so doing, the migration of content on a network is greatly simplified.
The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and form a part of this specification, illustrate embodiments of the invention and, together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the invention:
In the following detailed description of the present invention, a method and system for migrating content on a network, specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. However, it will be recognized by one skilled in the art that the present invention may be practiced without these specific details or with equivalents thereof. In other instances, well known methods, procedures, components, and circuits have not been described in detail as not to unnecessarily obscure aspects of the present invention.
Some portions of the detailed descriptions that follow are presented in terms of procedures, steps, logic blocks, processing, and other symbolic representations of operations on data bits within a computer memory. These descriptions and representations are the means used by those skilled in the data processing arts to most effectively convey the substance of their work to others skilled in the art. A procedure, computer executed step, logic block, process, etc., is here, and generally, conceived to be a self-consistent sequence of steps or instructions leading to a desired result. The steps are those that require physical manipulations of physical quantities.
Usually, though not necessarily, these quantities take the form of electrical or magnetic signals capable of being stored, transferred, combined, compared, and otherwise manipulated in a computer system. It has proven convenient at times, principally for reasons of common usage, to refer to these signals as bits, values, elements, symbols, characters, terms, numbers, or the like. It should be borne in mind, however, that all of these and similar terms are to be associated with the appropriate physical quantities and are merely convenient labels applied to these quantities. Unless specifically stated otherwise as apparent from the following discussions, it is appreciated that throughout the present invention, discussions utilizing terms such as “creating”, “initiating”, “accessing”, “transmitting”, “storing”, “inputting”, “rolling”, “authorizing”, “utilizing”, “resolving”, “processing” or the like, refer to the action and processes of a computer system (e.g.,
The present invention described herein makes it possible to have thousands of simultaneous layer 4-7 rules on each device controlling traffic during web site renovation. For example, a web site that contains 750 top-level directories could be replaced, one directory at a time with no impact to performance, no URL changes and no impact to customer service.
In one embodiment, the techniques allow for the addition or change of hundreds of rule sets within seconds via XML based rule uploads. The rules are customer driven through the use of a spreadsheet template. The template allows content or application owners to build simple tables that are then parsed via scripts creating content switch compliant XML files. Then, the XML files are uploaded to the content switch via additional scripts.
Therefore, during large enterprise migrations or the build of additional platforms, these automation techniques greatly reduce the chance of human error as well as vastly improving productivity, while saving vast amounts of administration time.
With reference now to
Network 100 includes routers 120 and 125 connected via trunk line 130. Network 100 also includes switches 140 and 145 which may be transparent switches to direct content to the routers. Network 100 also includes web servers 110 and 115 which are well known in the art. These components (e.g., routers 120 and 125, switches 140 and 145, and web servers 110 and 115) may be any of a number of devices known by one in the art. In addition, any well-known communications technology (e.g., wired or wireless) may be used to connect these devices (e.g., full gigabyte structure).
Referring still to
In general, network 100 shows the connection of two web servers connected to the network. The two servers illustrate one embodiment, wherein an old environment (e.g., stored on server 115) and a new environment (e.g., stored on server 110) are operating in the same network and the switches 140 and 145 and 4-7 15 layer switches 150 and 155 may direct content between the router and the old or new (e.g., server 115 or 110) environment.
With reference now to
In one embodiment, the client 210 accesses a network and requests a database via a network address 215. The client 210 may access the network via a wired or wireless connection. In addition, client 210 may use the Internet or Intranet to access the network. Once switch 250 (e.g., a 4-7 layer switch) receives the network address 215 request from client 210 the switch 250 directs the access request to the server supporting the network address 215.
For example, if the network address 215 is for an address on the legacy 245 server 115, then the switch 250 will direct the client 210 request to server 115. However, if the network address 215 is for an address on the legacy server which has been migrated to the new servers 110, then the switch 250 will automatically direct the client 210 to access the new server 110 instead of the legacy server 115. This automatic redirection to the new server 110. In one embodiment, this may occur without requiring an update to the network address 215 utilized by client 210.
That is, the migration architecture may seamlessly deliver content and applications from the old monolithic environment and the new load balanced environment with the same virtual Internet protocol. This is accomplished through layer 4-7 content rules and automation techniques described herein. For example, the present invention may seamlessly and automatically redirect the client 210′s request to the correct server location without requiring a change to the network address 215 and without first accessing the legacy 245 location for further direction regarding the location of the desired network address 215.
In another embodiment, the new server 110 and the old server 115 may be two partitions on the same server instead of two separate servers as shown in
With reference now to
Development 325 may be the stage in the business structure wherein initial changes to a network are proposed. For example, if a need to upgrade, move, or the like is necessary, then the development 325 stage is utilized as the initial starting point. In the old environment 315, each stage (e.g., development 325, staging 350, and production 375) was limited to a single action. In the new environment 310, the next stage (e.g., staging 350) provides the developer with at least two choices. Although two choices are shown in the staging 350 of new environment 310, there may be 2000 choices. The use of two choices in the staging 350 environment is merely for clarity.
Staging 350 may be the point in the business structure wherein integration and business decisions (e.g., rules) are performed. That is, the plans and architecture for the web-based migration are decided there. For example, the entire data set delegated to each staging partition may be analyzed for replacement of servers or upgrade of servers, requiring a migration. Therefore, the staging 350 phase of the new environment 310 may change the architectural map of the switch to utilize a new Internet service provider (ISP) address or Internet protocol (IP) address when an original (e.g., non-modified) network address (e.g., URL) is provided to the switch. In one embodiment, the rules may be in the form of a spreadsheet, a document, a database, etc. In one embodiment, as shown in.
Production 375 may be the reduction-to-practice of the rules developed in the staging 350 portion to an actual layer 4-7 switch in the network. That is, after the staging 350 has constructed the rules for migration based on the desired client business rules, the rules are put into production 375.
For example, production 375 implements the rules established by staging 350 to allow the migration architecture to seamlessly delivers content and applications from the old monolithic environment and the new load balanced environment with the same virtual Internet protocol. For example, when a client requests a network address, the production 375 allows the switch to seamlessly and automatically redirect the client 210′s request to the correct server location without requiring a change to the network address and without first accessing the legacy location. In addition, if the production 375 has no updated staging 350 direction regarding a network address, it may default all references to the old address. In another embodiment, the default may be directed to anywhere that is desired by the network administrator designing the business rules.
Although a production portion 375 is shown as a one-for-one match with staging portion 350, there may be more or less production portions 375 than staging portion 350. The numbers shown herein are merely for purposes of clarity.
With reference now to
Layer 4-7 switches also work in harmony with content caches, security processors, and other purpose-specific components to extend content awareness and traffic-management intelligence to a complete content distribution network. In general, the seven-layer protocol stack in the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) data connectivity model includes: Layer 1 (physical 470), Layer 2 (data link 460), Layer 3 (network 450), Layer 4 (transport 440), Layer 5 (session 430), Layer 6 (presentation 420), and Layer 7 (application 410). Standards-compliant devices agree on conventions for describing the attributes of a network connection at each level.
The Layer 2 (interface, Ethernet) section of a packet header may contain an 802.1p code that specifies priority. The Layer 3 (Internet) portion of the packet header may include a ToS (type of service) field that indicates desired service level. The Layer 4 (transport, TCP, UDP, etc.) layer of the packet may include a port number that identifies the application, since certain types of applications/services are usually associated with designated port numbers, by agreement.
By utilizing Layer 4-7 switching the ability to make switching decisions based on awareness of users and content enables Layer 4-7 switches to support a number of advanced services, such as but not limited to: Intelligent load balancing across servers, firewalls, and many other devices based on sophisticated load-balancing algorithms, content, and policies; continuous health-checking; support for backup and overflow devices; and active-active redundant switch configurations—to ensure that requests are efficiently sent to and served by the most appropriate network device.
Content-intelligent application redirection based on full Layer 7 inspection of URLs, cookies, and host headers across multiple requests and responses, applied against powerful filtering rules. ‘Cookie-aware’ differentiated services, such as special treatment for frequent shoppers versus casual browsers—plus differentiated bandwidth and jitter characteristics for different types of content based on awareness of the requested URL, not just on IP address or application port.
Virtual hosting, by enabling a single public IP address to represent multiple domains, and automatically redirecting requests to the appropriate server or server farm. Persistent connections to improve session performance for eBusiness transactions (shopping carts and multi-page forms, for example) and wireless applications. Content-aware security that protects servers and applications against attacks and unwanted intrusion while providing continuous service for legitimate traffic.
With reference now to the table of
The XML files are then uploaded to the layer 4-7 switch via additional scripts. In general, table 500 may be used to maintain the migration in an organized format. For example, if the migration is large (e.g., tens of thousands of files and tens of thousands of gigabytes of content) an additional level of granularity may be used by the migration. These “complex” migrations may necessitate the management of the content rules on a second or third level from the web server 20 root. Therefore, to manage both simple and complex migrations, a spreadsheet may be used for both staging and production of content rules.
In one embodiment, if the migration is complex, the spreadsheet 500 may have hundreds of records and a plurality of phases (some directories ready to migrate before others (e.g., ready for migration 540)). In another embodiment, if the migration is smaller, the spreadsheet 500 may have only a few records and only one phase. Table 500 includes future 510, current 520, content rule owner 530 and ready for migration 540. The spreadsheet 500 may be a scripting language written in Perl (or any other scripting language) for text manipulation. In general, the spreadsheet 500 may parcel text files, grab elements for migration, and reformat the parcels to switch compliant language such as XML or the like. Then, when the migration is performed, the switch compliant language is uploaded to the switch (e.g., a CSS or CSM switch) and the migration is complete.
In one embodiment, future 510 may be the new location that the switch will direct future accesses to the desired content (e.g., the migrated location). Current 520 may be the present location of the desired content to be migrated (e.g., the premigration location). Content rule owner 530 may be the group or personnel responsible for the operation or content which is being migrated (e.g., the management). Ready for migration 540 may be the preparedness of the desired content for migration (e.g., ready to migrate or not).
As described in detail herein, ready for migration 540 may be utilized to create a plurality of rule iterations. For example, if the status is set to yes a rule is created, if it is set to no, the record may be ignored by the switch language (e.g., XML) and no rule will be generated for the particular iteration. This may be used to migrate the database in a step type format, thereby allowing for another layer of architecture. In one embodiment, prior to the content rule generation for the specific iteration, the spreadsheet 500 is saved “as is” to provide a database of the content and migrations performed. This method of retaining the pre-migration data may provide for an efficient and quick rollback of the content switches thereby allowing the switches to direct access back to the original environment if a problem occurs post migration. switched, if any error occurs, the rollback is also seamless and efficient.
With reference now to
As described in detail herein, the migration may be from a first server 115 to a second server 110, or from one location on a first server 110 to another location on the first server 110. In general, the preparation for the migration also includes inputting the directory status into a spreadsheet template.
Status may include the directory location, the current rule owner, the operational status, the desired future location of the directory, or the like. In one embodiment, the spreadsheet may be any type of spreadsheet which utilizes a scripting language such as Perl and allows for text manipulation.
Inputting the directory status into the spreadsheet may also include building simple tables that are parsed with scripts to create switch compliant files. For example, as shown in Table 500 of
Although the above mentioned columns are stated, it is appreciated that the spreadsheet may include more or less columns of information. For example, the table may include date columns, status columns, data type columns, or the like. In general, the spreadsheet 500 parcels text files, grabs elements for migration, and reformats the parcels to switch compliant language such as XML or the like. Then, when the migration is performed, the switch compliant language is uploaded to the content switch (e.g., a CSS or CCS switch) via additional scripts and the migration may be performed.
With reference now to step 602 of
Referring now to step 603 of
In addition, the present embodiment may allow for rolling back the content switch to direct access to the old environment if the new environment is unacceptable. For example, if an error occurs during the migration of the directory or the new business or migration rules are not sufficient. Then, the initial spreadsheet may be accessed, and the content switch may be provided with a new set of directions which may return all (or a portion of) the migration back to the pre-migration status. Thus, if an error is found in all or a portion of the migration, the fix (or rollback) may be performed in a seamless and efficient manor thereby returning the network to operational status. In one embodiment, the rollback may return the directory to its last state previous to the migration. Therefore, the rollback not only allows for continued operation of the network, it also reduces any losses within the directory during the migration attempt.
Referring now to
With reference now to step 702 of
With reference now to step 704 of
Referring now to step 706 of
With reference now to step 708 of
Referring now to step 714 of
With reference now to step 718 of
With reference now to
Computer system 800 of
System 800 also includes one or more signal generating and receiving devices 808 coupled with bus 855 for enabling system 800 to interface with other electronic devices and computer systems. The communication interface(s) 808 of the present embodiment may include wired and/or wireless communication technology. For example, within the present embodiment, the communication interface 808 may be a serial communication port, a Universal Serial Bus (USB), an Ethernet adapter, a FireWire (IEEE 1394) interface, a parallel port, a small computer system interface (SCSI) bus interface, infrared (IR) communication port, Bluetooth wireless communication port, a broadband interface, or an interface to the Internet, among others.
The system 800 of
Thus, the present invention provides, in various embodiments, a method and system for migrating content on a network. In one method embodiment, the present invention accesses, a directory having a network address. The present invention then creates a business rule and scripts a directory based on the business rule. Next, the present invention uses a content switch to (automatically direct future access to the directory to a new environment based on the scripting, wherein the future access to the directory uses the same network address. In so doing, the present invention simplifies the migration of content on a network.
The foregoing descriptions of specific embodiments of the present invention have been presented for purposes of illustration and description. They are not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise forms disclosed, and obviously many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching. The embodiments were chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the invention and its practical application, to thereby enable others skilled in the art to best utilize the invention and various embodiments with various modifications are suited to the particular use contemplated. It is intended that the scope of the invention be defined by the Claims appended hereto and their equivalents.
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|U.S. Classification||709/217, 709/223|
|International Classification||G06F15/16, G06F15/177|