US 794683 A
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PATENTED JULY 11, 1905.
0. 0. RIOTTE. INTERNAL COMBUSTION MOTOR.
s SHEETS-SHEET 1,
APPLICATION FILED MAB.5,1904.
No. 794.688. PATENTED JULY 11, 1905. 0. 0. RIOTTE.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION MOTOR.
APPLIOATIQN FILED MAR. 5, 1904.
3 SHEETSSHEET 2.
Mme-coco No. 794,683. PATENTED JULY 11, 1905. C. C. RIOTTB.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION MOTOR.
APPLICATION FILED MAR. 5, 1904.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
I [mugs E UNITED STATES Patented July 11, 1905:.
CARL C. RIOTTE, OF N EIV YORK, N. Y., ASSIGNOR TO THE STANDARD MOTOR CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, OF JERSEY CITY, NEW JERSEY,
A CORPORATION OF NEW JERSEY. I
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 794,683, dated July 11, 1905.
' Application filed March 5, 1904. Serial No. 196,643.
To a, whom. it Tit/Ly concern.-
Be it known that I, CARL C. RIor'rE, a citizen of the United States, residing at New York, in the county of New York, State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Internal Combustion Motors, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description.
My invention relates to engines of the internal-combustion type, the main objects being to provide in a motor of this type a construction which shall be simple, durable, positive in handling and in controlling, and which shall be reversible and self-starting in either direction.
In the accompanying drawings l have shown one form of my invention, in which- Figure l is a side elevation of an engine constructed to embody my invention. Fig. 2 is a relatively enlarged side elevation, partly in section, of a portion of the engine shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is an end view of the'parts shown in Fig. 2, the fly-wheel being removed. Figs. 4, 5, 6, and 7 are diagrammatic views, on an enlarged scale, of certain cams and adjacent cooperating parts.
In the engine shown in the drawings the.
type is of the four-cycle variety and there are six cylinders, (indicated at A, B, C, D, E, and F.) The usual pistons (not seen) are employed, together with the usual connecting-rods and cranks. The cranks are so set that there is no dead-center. Hence in starting the engine there is always one crank at least in such a position that animpelling force applied to its piston will move it and cause the main shaft to rotate inthe desired direction.
1 is the main shaft.
2 is a cam-shaft, the same being geared to the shaft 1 by any suitable system of gears so that said shaft 2 will rotate at one-half the speed of the engine shaft. In the drawings, 3, I, 5, and 6 are casings covering the gears (not seen) by which the said motion is transmitted from the main shaft to the cam-shaft 2. The cam-shaft 2 has a longitudinal-sliding action in the gear contained in casing 5, the same being effected by the well-known featherspline. This sliding action is provided so that said shaft 2 may be shifted longitudinally without altering the position of the said gear. In the particular form of my invention shown in the drawings I have provided an extension from the cam-shaft 2, which I shall term a secondary cam-shaft 7. The earn-shafts 2 and 7 are driven simultaneously at the same speed by means of gears 8 and 9. The shaft 2 and the secondary shaft 7 have a simultaneous longitudinal-shifting action, the same being effected by means of a lever 10, which carries a toothed segment 11, Fig. 3, taking into a rack formed by a series of annular teeth 12 on the shaft 2.
13 14 are two circular plates of slightly larger diameter than the gear 8, which may be afiixed to the shaft 2 on each side of the gear 8, the edges of said plates overstanding the sides of gear 9, as best seen in Fig. 2, so as to practically connect said shafts 2 7. This constitutes one simple means which may be employed to cause said shafts 2 and 7 to move simultaneously in the same direction.
Before describing the cam action I will refer to certain other features and parts of the engine which should first be understood.
15 is an air-pipe leading from a suitable compressed-air reservoir. Not shown.) In the form shown this pipe 15 branches off at the head to the three cylinders A, B, and C.
15 is an air-valve in said pipe.
16 is a gas-pipe branching off to all of the cylinders of the engine.
17 is an exhaust pipe having suitable branches to each of the cylinders.
18 is an air-compressor suitably connected with the engine-for example, to the main shaft 1-so that when desired the said compressor may be thrown into action for the purpose of storing in any suitable reservoir compressed air at the desired pressure.
19 is a water-supply pipe by which water may be conducted to a jacket around the several cylinders to prevent overheating.
20 is the water-outlet pipe, which may discharge in the exhaust-pipe 17.
21 is a gas-charge inlet-valve located in each of the cylinders and provided to control the- Each valve 21 is of the gas-charge passages. puppet type in the preferred form.
22 is an exhaust-valve located in each cylinder, provided to control the exhaust-passages. This valve 22 is mechanically actuated in the manner hereinafter described.
23 is a mechanically-actuated independent air-valve by which compressed air maybe allowed to enter the cylinder at the proper time. In the drawings I have shown only three of the six cylinders as equipped with these air-valves 23, contemplating theuse of compressed air in only one-half of the cylinders in starting the engine. Each air-valve 23 is preferably of the balanced type, requiring only a light spring 23 to keep it normally seated. Each air-valve 23 is equipped with a valve-stem 23.
24 is a sparker or igniter, which may be of any approved style, but which in the form shown is of the make-and-break variety. An igniter 24 is applied to each of the cylinders A to F, so as to ignite the charge in each of said cylinders at the proper moment, which moment may be varied in any well-known manner or in the manner hereinafter shown and described which constitutes one preferred form of shifting the so-called lead of the spark in either direction irrespective of the direction of rotation of the engine.
25 is the lever by which the lead of the spark is varied and controlled. 26 is a shaft to which said lever 25 is connected and which may be given a partial rotation by shifting the position of the lever 25. Upon this shaft 26 is rotatably supported a frame 27, having two arms 28 and 29. The arm 28 bears under the exhaust-valve stem 22, while the arm 29 supports an antifriction-roller 30, which has a fiat periphery of a certain width useful for the purpose hereinafter described, while each edge of the roller adjacent to the flat periphery is preferably beveled off also for the purpose hereinafter described.
From the foregoing it will be seen that when the roller 30 is elevated the frame 27 will rock on shaft 26 and through the medium of arm 28 will elevate the exhaust-valve stem 22 and open the exhaust-valve 22. The means for operating each exhaust-valve comprises two sets of cams, each set including a main cam and a relief-cam. These sets of cams are spaced apart, so that when they stand in the position shown in Figs. 1 and 2 none of said cams would encounter the roller 30 if the engine were turned over. Hence in this position the engine must necessarily be idle. Referring more particularly to the aforesaid cams, the main exhaust-valve cams are'indicated at 31 and 32, while the relief-cams for the respective main cams are indicated at 31 and 32, Figs. 2 and 5. The cams 31 and 31 are placed (see Fig. 2) so that when the shaft 2 .has been shifted to acertain position for start-.
ing the flat periphery of the roller 30 will ride over the tops of both of the cams, and hence the exhaust-valve will be opened at each revolution of the engine. The cams 32 and 32 are likewise so placed that if the shaft 2 should be moved to another certain position for starting the engine in the opposite direction the said cams would move under the roller 30,so that the flat periphery of said roller would ride over the top of each of the same. Both ends of the cams 31 and 32, are beveled or inclined, while the adjacent inner ends of the main cams 31 and 32 only need be beveled. The top of each main cam 31 and 32 is of such a length that when the cam-shaft 2 is thrown to the limit of its excursion in either direction one of said main cams will continue to actuate the exhaust-valve, although its respective relief cam '31 or 32 will be moved to one side, so as not to operate said valve. The angular position of the cams 31 and 32 is such that one set (31 and 31, for example) will operate the exhaust-valve when the .engine is running in one direction, while the other set will operate the exhaust-valve when the engine is running in the opposite direction. Between both sets of cams there is suf- [icent space to receive the roller 30 and to allow it to remain idle.
Turning now to the means for controlling the admission of compressed air for starting the engine, 33 is a shaft which may rotatably support a frame 34, from which frame project the arms 35 36. The arm 35 bears under the airvalve stem 23", while the arm 36 supports a roller 37, having a flat periphery and beveled edges. Upon the secondary shaft 7 is mounted two sets of cams 38 38 and 39 39. Both ends of each of these cams are beveled, and both sets are spaced apart, so as to afford a neutral or idle position to receive the roller 37. In Fig. 2 the rollers 30 and 37 are shown 4 in the neutral position with a set of cams on each side. When the shaft 2 is shifted, it also moves the shaft 7, they" being practically a continuation one of the other. The result is that on the first step of the movement in either direction one set of cams 38 or 39 will be thrown into such position as to raise one of the rollers 37 and open one of the air-valves 23. Simultaneously one of the sets of cams 31 31 or 32 32 will be thrown into position to operate the exhaust-valve. The admission of compressed air into one of the cylinders will cause the piston therein to descend and start the engine; When the same piston as: cends, the exhaust-valve 22 will be opened by one of the cams 31 31 or 32 32, so as to relieve the pressure therein to allow the piston to ascend freely. There being two cams in each of the sets of air-cams, it is obvious that air will be admitted to the cylinder at the top of each stroke of the piston therein. Consequently an'impulse will be given to each downstroke of the piston located in any cylinder into which compressed air is admitted. As indicated above, the shaft 2 and its extension 7 is shifted by means of a lever 10. When it is shifted to the first or starting position in either direction, which may be indicated by means of a notch in a suitable sector 10, the engine ma) be started under the power of the compressed air admitted to the cylinders A, B, and C. Simultaneously therewith the pistons in the other cylinders D, E, and F are being operated, and hence they each will draw in and compress acharge of gas, which will be fired by the sparker 24 at the proper moment, thus supplementing the powerof the compressed air in starting theengine. In this manner the work of the compressed air is substantially lessened and the engine will respond quickly to the desire of the operator in starting, stopping, or reversing. If there are charges of gas in the cylinders into which the compressed air is admitted, the introduction of air will not render said charges nonexplosive, but because of the increased compression will render the same more readily explosive. Hence when the engine is started these charges ignite and expand and supplement the compressed air, producing a very powerful starting efiort. It should be stated that on the shaft 2 there is a double set of cams for operating the exhaust-valve in each cylinder similar to those already described. When the cylinders I), E,-and F have begun to operate under the power of the expanding gas, the operator may shift the lever 10 to the farthermost notch in the sector 10, which action shifts the shaft 2 and its extension 7 and the cams carried thereby, which movement shifts the particular relief-cam 31 or 32, as the case may be, out of range of the roller 30, and it also shifts the particular aircams 38 or 39 out of the range of action of the rollers 37, whereupon the admission of compressed air to all of the cylinders is discontinued, and the first three cylinders A, B, and C, the main shaft being driven by the cylinders D, E, and F, will start to operate after the manner usual in engines of the internaleombustion type. In starting the engine there is no suction stroke in any of the cylinders into which compressed air is admitted.
This is so because the said compressed air is introduced at the top of each stroke of the to a rocking frame 24 pivoted to the under side of a bracket 24, which latter is keyed on shaft 26. Upon the shaft 2 are two oppositely-faced earns 40 41, which are spaced apart, as indicated in solid and dotted lines,
I Fig. 2, a distance sufficient to allow the trips 24 and 24 of the igniter mechanism to stand in a neutral position, wherein neither of the cams 4O or 41 will engage said trips. Since the longitudinal shifting of the shaft 2 will also shift the cams 40 41, said shifting of the shaft in one direction will bring the cam 40 into proper position to engage the trip 24, while in the opposite direction it will bring the cam 41 to the position to engage the trip 24 The trip 24 may swing in one direction while it is blocked inthe other direction. The trip 24 is correspondingly mounted, but has its swinging movement in a direction opposite to that of the trip 24 When the engine is in motion and the cam 40, for example, is operating, it will ride under the trip 24 and elevate the rod 24 preparatory to actuating the igniter, which will occur when the high part of the cam passes said trip and allows the latter to drop quickly. The cam 41 acts in a similar manner to the cam 40, although only when the engine is running in the opposite direction. The cazn 41 operates the igniter through the medium of the trip 24 only.
To vary the time of the spark, the lever may be shifted. This shifting of this lever rotates the shaft 26 and moves the bracket 24 (see Fig.4) so as to change the position of the trips 24 and 24 relatively to their cams 41 40, respectively. Obviously this shifting of the trips relatively to the cams causes the said moment or time of the spark to be varied. For example, if the shaft 26 (shown in Fig. 4) should be shifted clockwise,
it would move the trip 24 to the left. The
consequence is the cam would actuate the same more quickly than if itstood in the position indicated in said Fig. 4.
I have not attempted to illustrate the vaporizer by which gas is supplied to the cylinders, nor have I attempted to illustrate the compressed-air-supply tank, since the same may be well understood without special illustration. r
Operation: Assuming the parts to be in the position indicated in Fig. 1 and the engine motionless and assuming it is the desire of the operator to start the engine in a forward direc tion, he first moves the lever 10 into the first right-hand notch of sector 10. This act shifts the cams into the positions hereinbefore mentioned and opens one of the air-valves 23 ready for the admission of the compressed air into one of the first three cylinders A, B, or C. The operator then opens the air-valve 15*. The admission of compressed air into one of the cylinders A, B, or C causes the piston therein to descend, starting the engine. Just before this piston reaches-its lowermost position air is admitted to the next cylinder in which the piston is uppermost, causing the piston in said second cylinder to descend, and Simultaneously gas is being drawn into, compressed, and exploded in the other ITO . length and position.
cylinders D, E, and F, supplementing the power of the compressed air in starting the engine. Of course during the starting of the engine all of the relief-cams are in operation to relieve the compression in all of the cylinders, thereby offering less resistance to the starting of the motor. When the cylinders D, E, and F are all in operation, the air-valve 15may be closed and the lever 10 shifted to the furthermost notch in the sector 10', which act throws out of operation the air-cams and the relief-cams; but the exhaust-valve cams still continue to act, owing to their greater When this occurs, the cylinders D, E, and Ewill be operated under full compression, giving a powerful impulse to the engine sufiicient to cause the cylinders A, B, and C to draw in gas and operate after the usual manner. When the operator desires to reverse the motor, the lever 10 is moved to the central notch or intermediate position, whereupon all of the cams will be thrown out of the range of the several operating devices which they control. The several cylinders will then act as dash-pots to resist the free movement of the pistons therein, thus bringing the engine to a standstill almost instantly, yet easily and with a cushioning efiect. To reverse, the lever 10 is moved to the left and hooked into the first notch in the sector 10. Compressed air is again admitted and the engine started thereby, and under such conditions the gas within the cylinders into which the compressed air is admitted may also be ignited and expanded, with the result that only a comparatively small amount of compressed air is required to produce a very powerful starting effort. When the cylinders D, E, and F are operating in the manner above referred to, the lever 10 is moved into the further-most notch, cutting out the relief-cams and the air-cams, so that more gas may be drawn in through the charge-inlets, compressed, and discharged in cylinders A, B, and G the same as in cylinders D, E, and F.
As above indicated, the angular position of all of the cams is such relatively to the angular position of the main shaft that all the cams on one side will cooperate in such a manner as to cause the engine to run properly in one direction, while all the cams on the other side will cooperate in such a manner as to cause the engine to run properly in an opposite direction.
It is obvious that the shaft 7 is merely an extension of the shaft 2. All of the cams might by being arranged more compactly be placed upon a single shaft; but such a modification would be obvious to the mechanic skilled in the art and need not be shown or described.
The number of cylinders employed is obviously immaterial. The number of cylinders into which compressed air is admitted is also immaterial so long as the compressed air may be supplied to a suffi cient number to obviate the danger of the engine stopping on any dead-center. Compressed air might, in fact, be admitted to all of the cylinders atzthe outset and then cut out of said cylinderssuccessively. In this event the engine might be started by compressed air alone and then gradually transformed into a normally acting internal-combustion motor, the compressed air and the exploding charges acting simultaneously, or substantially so, during the said transformation.
It will be observed that the relative widths of the three camsthe exhaust-cam, the relief-cam, and the air-cam-are such that while said cams are in one position all of them will be operating conjointly to perform certain important functions, including admitting air under pressure at each downstroke of each piston' and of relieving the compression at each upstroke thereof. When such cams are shifted to the position in which they stand when the engine is running normally, only the main exhaust-cams will be operating. In other words, the width and position of each main exhaust-cam relatively to its relief-cam and its air-cam is such that it will continue to operate when the relief-cam and compressed-air cam are idle or thrown out.
l/Vhile of course it is preferred that the cranks of this engine should be so set as to prevent the possibility of any dead-center in those cylinders into which compressed air is admitted in starting, nevertheless an arrangement might be made in which it might be possible for the said cranks to stop on a deadcenter, and yet in such case my invention would be applicable, since if the user found the engine to be on a dead-center he might turn the engine over to a sufficient extent to overcome the same, whereupon the compressed air would be available in starting. When so set, such an engine would be self-starting and might embody many substantial advantages, but would not be of the preferred form.
What I claim is 1. The combination in a multiple-cylinder engine, of a valved charge-inlet and an exhaust-outlet for each cylinder, valved compressed-air inlets for a plurality of said. cylinders, means to open the air-valves once in each revolution of the engine, means to normally open the exhaust-valves once in every two complete revolutions, supplemental means to open the exhaust-valves in alternation with the normal opening means, and means for at will throwing out all the compressed-air valves and the supplemental exhaust-valve-opening means.
2. The combination in a multiple-cylinder engine, of a valved charge-inlet and an exhaust-outlet for each cylinder, valved compressed-air inlets for a plurality of said cylinders means to open the air-valves once in each revolution of the engine, means to normally open the exhaust-valves once in every two complete revolutions, supplemental means to open the exhaust-valves'in alternation with the normal opening means, and means for at will simultaneously throwing out all the compressed-air valves and the supplemental exhaust-valve-opening means.
3. The combination ina multiple-cylinder engine, of a valved charge-inlet and an exhaust-outlet for each cylinder, valved compressed-air inlets for a plurality of said cylinders, means to open the air-valves once in each revolution of the engine, means to normally open the exhaust-valves once in every two complete revolutions, supplemental means to open the exhaust-valves in alternation with the normal opening means, and means for at will throwing out all the compressed-air valves and the supplemental exhaust-valve-opening means, said valve-controlling means operating in either direction.
4. In combination, in an engine of the internal-explosion type, of a plurality of cylinders, a main shaft in common to all the cylinders, charge-inlets and exhaust-outlets for each cylinder, a valved compressed-air inlet for more than one but less than all of said cylinders, means to open the air-valves once in each revolution of the engine, in starting, means to normally open the exhaustvalves once in every two complete revolutions, supplemental means to open the exhaust-valves in alternation with the normal opening means, in startinlet and an exhaust-outlet for each cylinder, valved compressed-air inlets for a plurality of said cylinders, means to operate the airvalves once in each revolution of the engine, means to normally open the exhaust-valves once in every two complete revolutions, supplemental means to open the exhaust-valves in alternation with the normal opening means, and means for at will throwing out of action all the compressed-air valves and supplemental eXhaust-valve-opening means.
6. In combination with an engine of not less than three cylinders, of a valved chargeinlet and an exhaust-outlet for each of said cylinders, valved compressed-air inlets for a plurality of said cylinders, means to normally open the exhaust-valves once in every two complete revolutions, supplemental means to open the exhaust-valves in alternation with the normal opening means, and means for at will throwing into or out of action all the compressed-air valves and the supplemental eXhaust-valve-opening means.
7. In an engine of the internal-explosion type, six cylinders, a valved charge-inlet and an exhaust-outlet for each cylinder, valved compressed-air inlets for three of said cylinders, means to open each of the air-valves once in each revolution of the engine, means to normally open the exhaust-valves once in every two complete revolutions, supplemental means to open the exhaust-valves in alternation with the normal opening means, and means for at will throwing out all the compressed-air valves and the supplemental ex haust-valve-opening means.
Signed at New York city, New York, this 3d day of March, 1904.
CARL C. RIOTTE.
R. O. MITCHELL, L. VREELAND.