|Publication number||US7951634 B2|
|Application number||US 12/173,739|
|Publication date||May 31, 2011|
|Filing date||Jul 15, 2008|
|Priority date||Sep 27, 2004|
|Also published as||CA2520622A1, EP1640321A2, EP1640321A3, US7405861, US20060077504, US20080268620|
|Publication number||12173739, 173739, US 7951634 B2, US 7951634B2, US-B2-7951634, US7951634 B2, US7951634B2|
|Inventors||Philip D. Floyd|
|Original Assignee||Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (100), Non-Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (1), Classifications (10), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/119,651, filed May 2, 2005, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/613,492, filed Sep. 27, 2004, the disclosures of each of which are hereby expressly incorporated by reference in their entireties.
1. Field of the Invention
The field of the invention relates to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).
2. Description of the Related Technology
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) include micro mechanical elements, actuators, and electronics. Micromechanical elements may be created using deposition, etching, and or other micromachining processes that etch away parts of substrates and/or deposited material layers or that add layers to form electrical and electromechanical devices. One type of MEMS device is called an interferometric modulator. An interferometric modulator may comprise a pair of conductive plates, one or both of which may be transparent and/or reflective in whole or part and capable of relative motion upon application of an appropriate electrical signal. One plate may comprise a stationary layer deposited on a substrate, the other plate may comprise a metallic membrane separated from the stationary layer by a gap. Such devices have a wide range of applications, and it would be beneficial in the art to utilize and/or modify the characteristics of these types of devices so that their features can be exploited in improving existing products and creating new products that have not yet been developed.
The systems, methods, and devices described herein each have several aspects, no single one of which is solely responsible for its desirable attributes. Without limiting the scope of this invention, its more prominent features will now be discussed briefly. After considering this discussion, and particularly after reading the section entitled “Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiments” one will understand how the various embodiments described herein provide advantages over other methods and display devices.
An embodiment provides a MEMS device that includes a moveable element, an electrical conductor configured to carry an actuation current that is effective to actuate the moveable element, and a protection element operably attached to the electrical conductor. The protection element is configured to at least partially shunt to ground an excess current carried by the electrical conductor. The moveable element, electrical conductor and protection element are integrated over a substrate.
Another embodiment provides an interferometric modulator that includes an electrode integrated with a substrate and configured to carry an actuation current, and a protection element connected to the electrode and configured to at least partially shunt to ground an excess current carried by the electrode. The protection element is integrated with the substrate.
Another embodiment provides a display device that includes a substrate, a plurality of interferometric modulators formed over the substrate, and a plurality of protection elements integrated with the plurality of interferometric modulators over the substrate. The plurality of protection elements are electrically connected to at least partially protect the plurality of interferometric modulators from an electrostatic discharge.
Another embodiment provides a method of making an interferometric modulator device that includes depositing a first electrode layer over a substrate, depositing a sacrificial layer over the first electrode layer, and depositing a second electrode layer over the sacrificial layer. The method also includes depositing a plurality of doped semiconductor layers over the substrate and forming a ground plane over the substrate. The ground plane and the plurality of doped semiconductor layers are configured to shunt to ground an excess current carried by at least one of the first electrode layer and the second electrode layer.
These and other embodiments are described in greater detail below.
These and other aspects of this invention will now be described with reference to the drawings of preferred embodiments (not to scale) which are intended to illustrate and not to limit the invention.
A preferred embodiment is an interferometric modulator with an integrated electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection element. The protection element may be a diode such as a back-to-back Zener diode, standard Zener diode, low capacitance Zener diode, symmetrical Zener diode, and low capacitance symmetrical diode. The integrated protection element may be formed by depositing appropriately configured doped semiconductor layers onto the interferometric modulator substrate.
The following detailed description is directed to certain specific embodiments of the invention. However, the invention can be embodied in a multitude of different ways. In this description, reference is made to the drawings wherein like parts are designated with like numerals throughout. As will be apparent from the following description, the embodiments may be implemented in any device that is configured to display an image, whether in motion (e.g., video) or stationary (e.g., still image), and whether textual or pictorial. More particularly, it is contemplated that the embodiments may be implemented in or associated with a variety of electronic devices such as, but not limited to, mobile telephones, wireless devices, personal data assistants (PDAs), hand-held or portable computers, GPS receivers/navigators, cameras, MP3 players, camcorders, game consoles, wrist watches, clocks, calculators, television monitors, flat panel displays, computer monitors, auto displays (e.g., odometer display, etc.), cockpit controls and/or displays, display of camera views (e.g., display of a rear view camera in a vehicle), electronic photographs, electronic billboards or signs, projectors, architectural structures, packaging, and aesthetic structures (e.g., display of images on a piece of jewelry). MEMS devices of similar structure to those described herein can also be used in non-display applications such as in electronic switching devices.
One interferometric modulator display embodiment comprising an interferometric MEMS display element is illustrated in
The depicted portion of the pixel array in
The fixed layers 16 a, 16 b are electrically conductive, partially transparent and partially reflective, and may be fabricated, for example, by depositing one or more layers each of chromium and indium-tin-oxide onto a transparent substrate 20. The layers are patterned into parallel strips, and may form row electrodes in a display device as described further below. The movable layers 14 a, 14 b may be formed as a series of parallel strips of a deposited metal layer or layers (orthogonal to the row electrodes 16 a, 16 b) deposited on top of posts 18 and an intervening sacrificial material deposited between the posts 18. When the sacrificial material is etched away, the deformable metal layers 14 a, 14 b are separated from the fixed metal layers by a defined gap 19. A highly conductive and reflective material such as aluminum may be used for the deformable layers, and these strips may form column electrodes in a display device.
With no applied voltage, the cavity 19 remains between the layers 14 a, 16 a and the deformable layer is in a mechanically relaxed state as illustrated by the pixel 12 a in
In one embodiment, the processor 21 is also configured to communicate with an array controller 22. In one embodiment, the array controller 22 includes a row driver circuit 24 and a column driver circuit 26 that provide signals to a pixel array 30. The cross section of the array illustrated in
In typical applications, a display frame may be created by asserting the set of column electrodes in accordance with the desired set of actuated pixels in the first row. A row pulse is then applied to the row 1 electrode, actuating the pixels corresponding to the asserted column lines. The asserted set of column electrodes is then changed to correspond to the desired set of actuated pixels in the second row. A pulse is then applied to the row 2 electrode, actuating the appropriate pixels in row 2 in accordance with the asserted column electrodes. The row 1 pixels are unaffected by the row 2 pulse, and remain in the state they were set to during the row 1 pulse. This may be repeated for the entire series of rows in a sequential fashion to produce the frame. Generally, the frames are refreshed and/or updated with new display data by continually repeating this process at some desired number of frames per second. A wide variety of protocols for driving row and column electrodes of pixel arrays to produce display frames are also well known and may be used in conjunction with the present invention.
The details of the structure of interferometric modulators that operate in accordance with the principles set forth above may vary widely. For example,
MEMS devices (such as interferometric modulators) are vulnerable to damage from electrostatic discharge (ESD) events. ESD is the transfer of charge between two materials at different electrical potentials. Materials can become electrostatically charged in various ways. For example, electrostatic charge may be created by the contact and separation of two similar or dissimilar materials, e.g., a person walking across the floor generates an electrostatic charge as shoe soles contact and then separate from the floor surface. An electrostatic charge may also be created on a material in other ways such as by induction, ion bombardment, or contact with another charged object. The electrostatic potential on an electrostatically charged material may be many thousands of volts.
A MEMS device may become electrostatically charged, e.g., during manufacture, packaging, testing or use, as the device and/or metal leads make contact(s) and separation(s) with various surfaces. The transfer of electrostatic charge to or from a MEMS device is an example of an ESD event. The electrical current that flows as a result of an ESD event may damage a MEMS device because of the relatively small size of the MEMS device component(s) and the relatively high voltages that may be involved. For example, an electrical conductor in a MEMS device may be designed to operate at voltages in the range of about 0.1 to about 25 volts. An electrostatic potential of thousands of volts resulting from an ESD event may result in excess current flows that cause, e.g., metal melt, junction breakdown, and/or oxide failure, leading to device damage and/or failure. As used herein, the term “excess current” refers to an amount of electrical current in an electrical conductor of a MEMS device that is in excess of the amount that the conductor was designed to carry or an amount that causes or has the potential to cause damage to a MEMS device containing or attached to the electrical conductor. The term “MEMS device” includes MEMS devices that are in the process of being manufactured, packaged, tested and/or attached to other devices, and thus includes “unreleased” MEMS devices (i.e., with a sacrificial material occupying the cavity in which motion is later accommodated) and partially released MEMS devices, as well as MEMS devices that have been incorporated into other products or devices. For example, the term “interferometric modulator” includes both functioning interferometric modulators and unreleased interferometric modulators.
An embodiment provides a MEMS device that is at least partially protected from an excess current (caused by, e.g., an ESD event) by a protection element. The MEMS device may include a moveable element and an electrical conductor configured to carry an actuation current that is effective to actuate the moveable element. The MEMS device may also include a protection element operably attached to the electrical conductor and configured to at least partially shunt to ground an excess current carried by the electrical conductor. The moveable element, electrical conductor and protection element are preferably integrated over a substrate. Various aspects of a MEMS device embodiment are illustrated below in the context of an interferometric modulator. However, it will be understood that these aspects are applicable to other interferometric modulator configurations (such as those illustrated in
The interferometric modulator array 100 and the individual interferometric modulator devices 102 thereof may be subject to damage or malfunction upon undesired exposure to an excess current such as that caused by an ESD event. Accordingly, the interferometric modulator array 100 is provided with a plurality of protection elements 110 that, in this embodiment, are provided to each of the row and column lines 104, 106 in a one-to-one correspondence. In other embodiments however, a plurality of row and/or column lines 104, 106 may be connected in parallel to a single protection element 110 and in yet other embodiments, a single row or column line 104, 106 may be connected to multiple protection elements 110. Thus, the one-to-one correspondence between row or column lines 104, 106 and protection elements 110 shown in
The protection elements 110 are interconnected between corresponding row and column lines 104, 106 in such a manner that an excess current appearing on a row or column line 104, 106 is shunted via a corresponding protection element 110 to ground to reduce the likelihood of damage or malfunction to the corresponding interferometric modulator device(s) 102.
Thus, in an embodiment, undesirable excess currents on the row or column lines 104, 106 will induce a reverse bias to the n-p-n junctions of the protection elements 110 and if of sufficient magnitude will induce a reverse breakdown of a p-n junction. The magnitude at which reverse breakdown occurs may be selected by controlling the amount of dopant in the semiconductors 112, 114, 115 and the thicknesses of the layers. Typically, the p+ and n+ dopant concentrations in the amorphous silicon semiconductor layers 112, 114, 115 are about 1018 cm−3 or higher (dopant atoms per cubic centimeter) and each of the layers 112, 114, 115 has a thickness in the range of about 500 Å to about 5000 Å. Reverse breakdown is typically by a Zener mechanism, avalanche mechanism and/or a combination thereof. The protection elements 110 allow a relatively large reverse breakdown current to be conducted through the protection elements 110 in a manner that in many situations is nondestructive to the protection elements 110. Thus, in these embodiments, depending on the magnitude of the undesirable excess current experienced by the interferometric modulator array 100, the protection elements 110 can provide protection for multiple ESD events.
A dielectric layer 122 is formed over the optical layer 120. During operation, the dielectric layer 122 prevents electrical shorts between the optical layer 120 and a moveable mechanical/mirror layer 126. The mechanical/mirror layer 126 is supported over the substrate 116 by a plurality of vertically extending posts 124. The mechanical/mirror layer 126 is an electrical conductor and is optically reflective, and may be referred to herein as an electrode. The mechanical/mirror layer 126 functions in a manner similar to the moveable reflective layer 14 illustrated in
In the embodiment illustrated in
As illustrated in
The interferometric modulator array 100 including integrated protection elements 110 as described offers the advantage of a relatively simple structure that may provide effective ESD protection in a manner that does not significantly increase the overall extent or footprint of the array 100. Further, the protection elements 110 may be readily fabricated with materials which are already utilized in formation of embodiments of the interferometric modulator devices 102. For example, the ground plane 132 may be readily and effectively formed from aluminum or aluminum alloys which may also be readily used to form portions of the interferometric modulator, including, e.g., the mechanical and/or mirror layers. The n+-type semiconductor layers 112, 115 and the p+-type semiconductor layer 114 in certain embodiments comprise doped silicon, and silicon may be readily employed in the fabrication of the interferometric modulator array 100. For example, silicon may be advantageously employed as a sacrificial layer in intermediate steps in forming the gap 130.
An embodiment provides a method for making an interferometric modulator device that includes an integrated protection element. Various aspects of such a method are illustrated in the series of cross-sectional views shown in
Other integrated configurations of the ground plane and doped semiconductor layers may be deposited and used to shunt to ground an excess current carried by at least one of the first electrode layer and the second electrode layer. For example, the process illustrated in
Other process flows may be used to make interferometric modulator devices that include integrated protection elements. For example, an array of interferometric modulator devices may be fabricated on a substrate, then masked. One or more protection elements may then be fabricated on the substrate, e.g., on an unmasked periphery of the substrate, then connected to the array of interferometric modulators. Such a process may also be carried out in reverse order, e.g., the one or more protective elements may be fabricated on the substrate, then masked, followed by fabrication of the interferometric modulators on the substrate and connection to the protection elements.
The integrated interferometric modulators and protection elements described herein may be incorporated into any device that is configured to display an image, as discussed above. Such incorporation generally involves electrical attachment of the integrated interferometric modulators and protection elements to various other components such as power sources, controller integrated circuits, memory, etc. Preferably such electrical connections to the integrated interferometric modulators are made via the integrated protection elements described herein. The integrated interferometric modulators and protection elements may also be electrically attached to various types of test equipment during manufacture. Such attachments are also preferably made via the integrated protection elements described herein.
These integrated protection elements are particularly advantageous for the protection of the integrated interferometric modulators during manufacture and testing. Although workers in such a manufacturing environment may be instructed to take suitable precautions to avoid exposing MEMS devices to ESD events, in actual practice some workers may fail to take such precautions in all cases. Integrated protection elements as described herein may be used to provide ESD protection that begins at or near the time that the MEMS device is fabricated, thereby decreasing the likelihood of damage during subsequent processing steps and increasing manufacturing yield.
It will be understood by those of skill in the art that numerous and various modifications can be made without departing from the spirit of the present invention. Therefore, it should be clearly understood that the forms of the present invention are illustrative only and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.
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|U.S. Classification||438/48, 359/295|
|Cooperative Classification||G02B26/001, B81B2201/047, B81B7/0012, H01L27/0248|
|European Classification||B81B7/00F7, H01L27/02B4, G02B26/00C|
|Jul 16, 2008||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: IDC, LLC, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:FLOYD, PHILIP D.;REEL/FRAME:021250/0539
Effective date: 20050701
|Oct 28, 2009||AS||Assignment|
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Owner name: QUALCOMM MEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.,CALIFORNIA
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