US 795762 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
PATENTED J LY 25, 1905.
M. R. GARCIA.
WIRELESS TELEGEAPHY. APPLICATION FILED JAN.10, 190$ l SHEETSSHEET 1.
PATENTED JULY 25, 1905.
M. R. GARCIA. WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY.
APPLICATION FILED JAN. 10, 1901.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
ifimliill PATENTED JULY 25, 1905.
M. R. GARCIA. WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY. APPLIOATIONFILED JAN.10, 1901.
Z$HEETSSHEET 3v ERR PATENTED JULY 25, 1905 M. R. GARCIA.
APPLICATION FILED JAN.10,'1901.
4 SHEETS-"SHEET MANUEL RODRIGUEZ GARCIA, 0F PARlS, FRANCE.
Specification of Letters Patent,
Patented July 25, 1895.
Application filed January 10, 1901. Serial No. 42,726.
To rt/l 11 7mm it may concern/.-
Be known that i, MANUEL RonnIoUuz (.irARG ,"aitizen of'the Republic of France, residing at Paris, France, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in critelating to'lYireless 'lelegraphy, (for which I have obtained Letters Patent of France No. 801,264, dated June 1 t, 1900,) of which the following is a specification.
telegraphyby means of Hertzian waves, involving: first, a special arrangement, at each station, of a group or number of aerial conductors or antennae al varying inclinations; second, a special group of electric capacities, arranged in such a manner that they can be, at will, comnrcted, one by one, with the cor responding primary receiver; third, two
tems'ot contact-b'reakers with handles, one of which is eonjoiutly employed with a special shunt system. The combination of these various modifications is involved in the new arrangement of'a station for purposes of wireless telegraphy, and the objectof this new arrangement consists in the following application: The solving of the problem according to which a given vessel will receive information as to the direction and distance of a source of waves emanating from anot ier vessel, thereby avoiding the risk of collision when direct vision is interfered with, as at night-time crowing to a perturbed state of the atmosphere, from whatever cause it may arise. But such arrangement in a station naturaily implies all the conditions necessary for the two following applications, which, consequently, are also covered in the claims, -viz: lirst, the emission of waves in one direction only in such a manner, that any receiver stationed outside a certain zone of the horizon, is not influenced thereby; second, the substitution ot' the usual verticalconductors or antenme by a more suitable and easier arrangement.
1n the aeeouunnrving drawings, Figure l gives a sketch oi the arrangement of a post shmving the principal angular posit-ions which theumial antennacan occupy. Fig. 2 shows a plan of the arrangementgivingthe various elt'cctivc and non-efiective zones with regard to a given antenna A C. Figs. 3, a, and 5 show positions of theautennac of two stations correspondmg to diminishing rangeof communi 'tltlOl'i. Fig. 6 shows :1 sketch 1n eleva- 'cupying tion of a post placed on a vessel. Fig. 7 is a plan of the same. Fig. 8 is a plan showing details of a transmitting and receiving apparatus constituting the station of a vessel. Fig. 9 is a plan of the receiving apparatus. Fig. 10 is a plan of a commutator arranged to put two receiving apparatus successiveiy in communication with several series of syncmetrical antennae. Fig. 11 a vertical sec- The present invention relates to wireless tion of the same commutator with a symmetrical interrupter L at the end. Fig. 12 is a horizontal section of the interrupter. I Fig". 13 is a vertical section of a comnnitator which serves to successively connect the various receiving, antennae with condensers of determined capaeities. Fig. 1st is a plan of the same commutator.
In order to facilitate the uinlerstanding of the following description, it necessary tirst to explain the method of communication according to the new system on which are based the arrangements described.
Let A represent the transmitting and receiving apparatus of a station, Fig. 1. This apparatus A is'placed at a height above the ground, on an insulated support, represented by the dotted line A B while A C, A C and A 0' represent various aerial antennae ter minating in the station A. The two inclined antemue A J and A (3, are so arranged on either sidcpf the horizontal antcnuaJs. (I that they form with the latter two equal angles, and it is assumed here, that these angles have-a certain limit or extreme value The characteristic phenomenon of this arrangement is as follows: it will be observed that every aerial antenna, whether horizontal like A U, or inclined like A O, or 1 G, or ocany intermediate position between the 'extreme positions as marked by A C and A .3, and whether used for the emission or reception of waves presents the following phenomenon: at each end of such an antenna there is a zone of effective influence both as regards emission orcollection of waves. Each of these zones forms a zone of the horizon, the apex of the angle of which is at the corresponding end of the antenna. The angle which limits this zone is divided into two equal parts by the projection of the antenna on the round, and the opening of the angle increases in proportion as the distance from the transmitter grows less, and decreases as such distance increases. The two zones thus defined are separated by two lateral zones within which there is no appreciable effect observable.
It may be remarked here. that the height of the support A B (Fig. 1) will be less than that which determines the formula: H I MD, used in the ease of communications between parallel horizontal antennae, with a view of avoiding the effects of transmission which characterize this kindof communication. In the formula H a J1) the value H represents the height of the horizontal antenna above the ground, is an empirical coefficient depending on the capacity, on the selfinduction of the station and on the length of the antenna. D represents the distance separating the two corresponding stations. This formula is well known but can only be expressed in numbers if the empirical values (X and D are given. The height of this support A B may be even reduced to zero. so that a horizontal antenna like A (1, may lie on the surface of the ground, without anyappreciable decrease as regards the effect produced. Fig. 2 represents a schematic View of a horizontal projection of these diverse zones: 01 marking the two effective zones at the ends of an antenna A C, while fl mariithe two lateral zones where no appreeialeie effect is produced.
There are several other points yet tobe indicated to render the invention perfectly clear: These points are: I First. in thecaseof every inclined antenna such as the one marked A C", Fig. 1, the free end of which is directed toward the groumi, the effective zone at the free end C extends to a greater distance than that which characterizes the length ol the second effective zone at the other end A of the said antenna A 1. Second. The arrangement asillustrated by A. C" is the one which insures the greatest range of communication for an antenna of a given length.
Third. For a certain distance between two stations, thc'angle of the effective zones of the respective antcnme becomes larger as the-effective extent of the corresponding antenna increases. This range varies by reason of t me known factors, viz: the amount of inclination and the length of the antennae.
Fourth. Assuming that A A are two posts acting as transmitters and receivcrs 'and each provided, with an inclined ai'itenna, the free end of which is inclined toward the ground and so placed that the horizontal projections of thoantcnna: coincide with the same straight line. it will be understood that the maximum distance of their commoni ation will decrease as thevare s\u';ccssivri placed. in the relative Q .itions indicated, in lheir order. in Figs. 1}, .ud
x inference ot position as indicated in rigs. J
The ditiercncr is cvidem, from the i l and 4, and still more marked, when passing i from the relative position indicated in Fig. 4 to that indicated in Fig. 5. in which latter l position communicationis only possible withi"in a very short distance. These principles having been explained,the arrangement of the apparatus will now be de- 5 scribed.
1 Let H. indicate atop placed over'the bridge 0 P (Fig. 6) of a vessel, at a height less than that given by the formula H J1), from the surface of the bridge, and m, 11,, a I), l) 7/ represent horizontal and inclined antennae of equal length and arranged on both sides of the topin the manner asillustrated in Fig. 1.
ating from the top, each containing three antennae, such as a a. a. In each group the variously-inclined antennae lie in the same vertical plane, thedirection of which planes on the bridge are marked by Hal H61 Ila HI), Fig. 7. The groups H61 H]; on one side, and ll/u Ha on the other, inclose between their respective vertical planes, the greatest angle compatiblo with the size of the ship. An insulated antenna H E is provided in the axial toward the bridge and toward the bow of the vessel.
The groups of antennae lI/L Hm HI; H61 correspond with many distinct receivers and each antenna can be connected, separately and at will, with the receiver of its group, while the median antenna H It is permanently connected with the exciter of the station.
The general arrangement of the station in resented in Fig. 8.
, The conductors 6 1/ 15', 711 I: 71.1, 1/. I 1/, (o, m, to represent the various groups of receiving-antennae referred to above.
For the purpose of description the figure represents the antenna? arranged in parallel vertical planes in each of the groups. Rb lib R11. R14 indicate l'our recei ving apparatus, each corresponding to a group of antennae and marked by the same letter as the index of the latter. These ai'iparatus are hermetically inelosed in metal cases F, F, F, F'.
Each rcceivexwcircuit consists of two coherm-tubes v: 9' connected in parallel, to obtain greater reliance as regards effect on the receiver. Each primary receiver-circuit actu-' f ates, by means of a relay, a bell, the bells of the four receivers being each of a dili'crcnt pitch. The arrangement of the relay, of the prin'iary and secondary circuits of each receiver involves no new features and is not represented in the drawings.
llach boil or signaling device is soarranged 1 as to siarl. sounding when the receiver is inllucnccil or energized, and to coiitinueto do i so, until it IS stopped by decoheriug the co- Thus there are four groups of antennas radiplane of the vessel, with its free end inclined the interior of the top H is schematically repherer affected. For this purpose the following system. is employed, which also permits of the hermetic closure of the metallic ease inclosing the receiver.
Let p 7) (Fig. 9) be a surface, taken on one of the sides of the case F. This surface corresponds with a spot where the side of the ease'is very thin. The metal diaphragm which forms this surface, is flexible and forms a concavity toward the intcrior'of the case F. This plate or surface can be pushed inward by pressure applied from the outside, and afterward returns to its first shape and place, when such pressure ceases, owing to the elasticity of its material.
A contact-block bis fixed to the'inner side of the surface 1) p by means of an intermediate disk of insulating material. contact I) is arranged a second contact 7) fixed in a similar manner on a support t. Asmall, independent battery 8 actuates a little hammer acting as a trembler, at D, and which, by
striking against an armature or covering a. a
common to both coherers r r, causes them to decohere. The circuit of the battery .9 terminates at one end in the contact 7) and at the other in the contact I). A simple pressure on the surface p 32, therefore, will eifect conta t between Z; and I), and by closing the cii'eui decohere the coherer-tubes. Two condensers c c placed in shunt in this circuit a, tend to preventor lessen the break-spark.
dA table T (Fig. 8) supportsa switch or contact-breaker device, provided with a handle and is intended simultaneously to put in communication with the corresponding receivers,
two symmetrical antennae or antennae of the same inclination, of each of the groups 7) and In. On a second table T1 is arranged a second s vitch device of almost similar construction,
which serves the following purpose: Suppose tw o symmetrical antennae of any kind'have been connected with the corresponding receivers by means of switch T. It will now be possible, by means of the switch T, to connect these two antennae, respectively, with two capacitiesof the same surface, from the two groups of capacities marked 61,02, Ca, and U 0'2 0 3. These capacities are placed on supports of insulating material. The con-' nections to the several condensers C C C in Fig. 14; have not been shown in order to simplify the figure. A reference-letter has been placed on each condenser, indicating the connections. Two switches T and TH similar to those marked T Ti, respectively are provided sinlilarly'for the receivers Ru. and Rm.
Figs. 10, 11, and 12 refer to details of the switch device T.
Each of the antennae Z1, 1/, 1/, and 7J1, 7/2,
In, is connected with a contact-stud 57' (Fig.
10,) while two other studs 1/. n are insulated from every conductor. Two arc-shaped con- Facing the tacts M N are connected with thrterminals, each to each, of the coherers of the receivers R/n R1). The cross-bar switch ii 0 i, revoluble around its center 0 can be turned round in any direction by means of a handle 1 Each end of the cross-bar K l is provided with a spring brass blade, intended to establish communication between one of the contacts g with one of the se mcntal contacts M or N. 'lhccontactstuds g are so arranged that the ends K, I, of the cross-bar cannot simultaneously put in communication the sop; mentahcontacts M N, with the studs except wl. it .-3 is on two contact-studs r connected witntwo symmetrical antennae, one in each group. When the ends K, I are in contact withthe studs 11 there is no communication between the receivers R61, Rb and their respective antennae.
Fig. 11 is a vertical section of the switch device. The segmental contacts M N and the studs g pass through the table being insulated therefrom by 'gutta-percha sleeves as represented in thick lines. The ends K, I, are provided with brass spring-blades each having two arms A A, and A A,.the.ends of which press simultaneously on one of the segmental contacts and on one of the studs 7'.
The ends K, 1, of the cross-bar are of ebony in orderto insulate the springs A A and A A from each other. A rod V, which serves as the axis of rotation for the cross-bar, is
continued below the table T and is provided at L with a special circuit-breaker of cylindrical shape. This circuit-breaker L (Fiq'.
. '12) is provided on part of its circumference with twometallic surfaces (0 i1 and or! connected with each other by a central conductor m. These contact-surfaces a I), a (Z, are separated from each other by two similar insulating-surfaces c c, and I; (Z. Two elastic brass blades A B, U I), press against the sides of the cylinder L.
According to the angular position of the contact-surfaces or the insulating-surfaces of the cylinder L, the two contact-blades are either in electrical communication with each other or insulated from each other. T heiirst happens when the contact-surfaces a b and (1 (Z are in contact with the blade A B and U 1), while no communication takes place when the blades A B, C D are. in contact with the insulating portions of the cylinder. The contact-blades AB, C D are connected with two conductors, for a purpose which will be explained hereinafter.
Let B represent the coil of the oscillator of thepost (Fig. 8) while S indicates a source of electricity of any kind-a battery of accumulators-:accordi-n'g to the figure-and let "E represent the special antenna of the oscillator, 1
' the pole of the exciter, which is-op osite to the one at which the emission antenna terminates.
A special arrangement will have lobe used in order to. prevent the oscillator from being drawn into action in consequence of an overconductivity. lhcsecomluctors are in shunt at i and if, on the circuit oi" the source of electricity S and tcrmirn te in the two contactplates A B, (l l) which press against the circuml'erenccot' the cylinder L(Fig. 12.) The rotation oil the cross-bar involves that of the switch [1 which is rigidly connected with it, and is so arranged that there is communication established between the blades A B, U l) for every position of the cross-bar corresponding to the connection of the receivers with any two antennae, while such communi-' cation is broken by placing the ends K, I of the cross-bar on-the contact-studs n n.
When there is communication between the contact-blades A B and G l) (Fig-.12) the shunteircuit .1) l) (Fig. 8) is closed, and this circuit being of less resistance than the primary circuit of the coil 13, the greater part of the current from the source S passes by. way of the shunt D l), in consequence of which the oscillator cannot be actuated. H", on the contrary, the contact-blades A. B, I) are insulated from each other, the circuit 1) 1) is open and the shunt has no effect on the working of the oscillator.
An lilOl'itiCfll arrangement ex ists with regard to the shunt-circuit D, l.), which terminates in the system T.
The apparatus is completed by the arrangenlentot' two cross-bar switchboardsT1 and Th, the purpose ol -which has been explained above. arranged in the l'ollowing manner: A crossbar- U() V revolubly mounted at O, is provided at its ends with brass plate-springs l1 11', (see Fig. flisimilar to the springs A A. 'r.epresented "ififisg. ll. Segmental contacts B,
B l are connected with antenna: 6' while other and similar contacts Bi 1% PM are connected with antennze //1 in; (Fig. 14). Facing each of the contacts 151 lb lb are con- Til! are in connection with Let I) D (Fig. b) represent two conductors of great capacity and high ()ne of the said devices, say Ti.
and their corresponding tact-studs ('1 m (2-; which are connected respectively to capacities marked by the same letters. The same remarks apply to contactstuds Ci z (1'3 which 'are arranged before the contacts B B 1-3. These contacts and studs are inserted in insulating-sleeves of gutta-pereha, as represented in the drawing. Fig. 1-3, by thick lines. By means of the brass springs (these sprii'igs being insulated t'rom each other as in the caseof s 'n'ings A A and A A Fig. 11), provided at the ends U and V of the cross-bar, (Fig. 13) it is possible to establish, at will, comnnmication between one of the contacts B, B B, and consequently one of the corresponding antannzr, with one 0! the capacities which are connected respectively with the three contact-studs ("1 1:3; 11', and sinniltaneously it is possible to establish relation between one of the three antenna: which terminate at the contacts Bl B7; lb with one of the capacities terminating at the studs #1 o; m. These capacities are made of different dimensions in each group, and their importanceincreases with the increase of the index of the letter which refers to them, while on the other hand they ace so constructed that it is possible to lix the following equivalents: (1'|- C|,()-;-(1- :(-L;.'
According to the :n-rangement represented in Fig. 13 andthe arrangement of the crossbar U 0 V it is not possible to ci muect. by thissystem, more than two equivalent capacities with two symmetrical antenmn oi the groups 1/ I)" If and ln 0-; l1
The contact-stmlsJ J, without connections are so arranged that all the capacities are insulated when the ends U and V of the crossbar press against them. Thus it will be seen that the purpose of the switch T turning with the circuit-lweaker L, consists in ell'ecting simultaneously a relation between two symmetrical antennze of the groups I) h 6 and in [)2 1m with the receivers, respectively, and at the same time protecting these two receivers against radiation from the neighboring oscillator.
The object of the switch device T1 is to simultaneously connect the two receiving antennae, between which connection has been established in the manner described, with any of the capacities between which equality exists.
What i claim as my invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. In a system of wireless telcgraphy, a plurality of groups of antennai, receivers there for and a commutatingswitcl1 device arranged and adapted to establish simultaneous conimunication between two symmetrical autemue receivers and to bseak connection between the antenna: and their receivers.
for deeohering the receivers Without breaking the continuity of the said metal case.
In testimony whereof Iv hnvesigned my name to this specification in the preeence of two su l)- scribing witnesses.
MANL'E l1 ROUKIG I] EZ (H [ti /IA, W 'tnesses:
EDGAR I. MAOLEAN, LOUIS SULLIGER.