|Publication number||US7957843 B2|
|Application number||US 12/258,326|
|Publication date||Jun 7, 2011|
|Filing date||Oct 24, 2008|
|Priority date||Oct 24, 2008|
|Also published as||US9258951, US20100106337, US20110231025|
|Publication number||12258326, 258326, US 7957843 B2, US 7957843B2, US-B2-7957843, US7957843 B2, US7957843B2|
|Original Assignee||National Diversified Sales, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (61), Referenced by (11), Classifications (6), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates to a system and method for regulating the operation of an irrigation system. More particularly, the invention pertains to a system and method for regulating the operation of an irrigation system which is responsive to user programmed information.
Automatic irrigation systems such as those employed for landscape and agricultural watering are well known in the art. Typical irrigation systems use a means of controlling the watering cycles via an automatic controller. The need to control watering cycles due to seasonal changing environmental conditions is important for saving costs, optimizing growing conditions, and preventing unsafe conditions.
Typically, a user will enter instructions into a microprocessor based controller that will cause the irrigation system to start irrigation at a certain time, on certain days, for a certain duration, according to the user's instructions. Irrigation may be based on “zones” in which a group of sprinkler heads discharge in unison, or sequentially, or a combination of both.
Typically, a user who programs the microprocessor in the summer month of July to deliver an irrigation event of a certain duration on certain days from a particular irrigation system, would, if reminded to attend to the issue, reduce that duration over the fall, winter, and spring months to take account of changing seasonal environmental conditions that can be expected to prevail in the vicinity of the irrigation system, and the user might reduce the duration accordingly each month, or shorter period, before increasing it again. Typically, however, many users tend to forget to downwardly adjust the irrigation duration after the hot summer months to account for the reduced evapo-transpiration rates over the following months. At best, a user will typically remember to adjust irrigation for some months or shorter period, but not others. As a result, the irrigation system continues to discharge water in irrigation during the fall, and winter at a rate that was selected to be suitable during the summer, or some other time that is inappropriate. This can be very wasteful, not to mention destructive in the case of certain crops, grasses, flowers, and shrubs that react adversely to over or under watering.
Consequently, solutions have been developed for taking into account actual environmental conditions prevailing, and for automatically adjusting irrigation duration to take account of changed conditions in real time. These solutions typically employ a sensor that monitors changes in environmental conditions in real time. A sensor may be located near an associated controller, and may be linked to the controller either by wireless communication or by physical connection. Such a sensor may measure actual precipitation, actual temperatures, actual wind speed, soil moisture, humidity, and other environmental factors, all in real time. Based on these measurements which are transmitted back to the controller, the controller uses preprogrammed logical algorithms and decides how to adjust a preprogrammed irrigation schedule to account for changed environmental conditions. For example, if high temperatures and dry conditions are recorded, irrigation duration may be increased. If wet or cold conditions are noted, irrigation may be reduced or suspended altogether.
However, such sensor based systems have drawbacks and disadvantages. They are notoriously complex, and difficult to calibrate and install. Typically, weather sensors are mounted where they are exposed to the elements and once mounted are not easily adjusted or manipulated. They add significantly to the cost of a controller system that must be pre-programmed to take into account a host of new variables and logic subroutines. They are prone to malfunction, and difficult to maintain in operation.
Accordingly, there is a need in the art for an irrigation controller that may be sold and used universally, that is easy to use, that is inexpensive to manufacture, that is easy to install, initialize, maintain, and operate, and that yet takes account of the fact that seasonal environmental conditions vary during the year in any location—and that, accordingly, enables the amount of irrigation in any location to be automatically varied for efficient use of the system. The present invention addresses these and other needs.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, there is described an irrigation controller suitable for use in any part of the world, that takes into account average environmental changes over the course of a year, but that is simple to use and inexpensive to make.
In one aspect, the invention is a controller for controlling an irrigation schedule in an irrigation system that includes a plurality of sprinkler heads connected via a plurality of conduits to a water source. The controller comprises a database that includes information relating to historical evapo-transpiration (“ET”) rates for a plurality of sectors located within a geographical area. The information includes Period Reduction Factors for each sector. The Period Reduction Factors are a compilation (for each period) of the ratio of ET rate for the current period divided by the maximum ET rate that occurs during the year in the location of the controller. The controller further includes an input means for permitting a user to enter irrigation parameters into the controller, wherein the parameters include a Maximum Irrigation Duration (“Dmax”, the maximum irrigation duration, chosen to coincide with the period of maximum ET rate), an identifier for identifying the sector in which the irrigation system is located, and the current date. A microprocessor is configured to adjust the Maximum Irrigation Duration that has been entered into the controller by multiplying the Maximum Irrigation Duration by a Period Reduction Factor for the current period, associated with the sector that has been identified by the user, to obtain an Actual Irrigation Duration (“Dactual”) for the current period for the identified sector. The microprocessor is configured to cause the irrigation system to irrigate for the Actual Irrigation Duration during the current period, rather than the Dmax, which will only occur in the period of highest ET rate.
In a further aspect of the invention, the microprocessor is configured to sequentially recalculate the Actual Irrigation Duration in each new period by applying the Period Reduction Factor associated with the new period, and causing the irrigation system to irrigate for the Actual Irrigation Duration during the new current period. In a preferred aspect of the invention, the period associated with the Period Reduction Factor is a day.
In yet a further facet, the invention is a method of controlling the duration of irrigation by an irrigation system that includes a plurality of sprinkler heads connected via a plurality of conduits to a water source. The method comprises compiling a database that includes information relating to historical evapo-transpiration rates for a plurality of sectors located within a geographical area. A further step includes deriving, from the information, Period Reduction Factors applicable over a year for each sector. Irrigation parameters are entered into the controller, wherein the parameters include, a Maximum Irrigation Duration, an identifier for identifying the sector in which the irrigation system is situated, and the current date. Thereafter the Maximum Irrigation Duration is adjusted by multiplying the Maximum Irrigation Duration by a Period Reduction Factor for the current period associated with the sector that has been identified by the user, to obtain an Actual Irrigation Duration for the current period for the identified sector. Finally, the irrigation system is caused to irrigate for the Actual Irrigation Duration during the current period.
In a further aspect, entering a sector identifier into the controller includes entering a zip code, and the period associated with the Period Reduction Factor is one day.
Finally, in a yet a further aspect, adjusting the Maximum Irrigation Duration includes sequentially recalculating the Actual Irrigation Duration in each new period by applying the Period Reduction Factor associated with each new period, and causing the irrigation system to irrigate for the Actual Irrigation Duration during the new current period.
These and other advantages of the invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description thereof and the accompanying exemplary drawings.
With reference to the drawings, which are provided for exemplification and not limitation, a preferred embodiment of an irrigation controller is described having features of the present invention.
With respect to
In this context, a preferred embodiment of the present invention is described with respect to
Importantly in the present invention, the microprocessor 30 also includes a database 34 configured to enable the controller 28, independently of the user, to adjust the duration of irrigation for an irrigation event that has been instructed by the user. This adjustment is directed at reducing the amount of water discharged during irrigation for periods of the year when the evapo-transpiration (“ET”) rate in the vicinity of the system 20 is lower than at its peak level. The peak level typically occurs some time in June through August of any year in the northern hemisphere. Evapo-transpiration is a term used to describe the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the earth's land surface to atmosphere. Evaporation accounts for the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and waterbodies. Transpiration accounts for the movement of water within a plant and the subsequent loss of water as vapor through stomata in its leaves. Evapo-transpiration is an important part of the water cycle. Historical records of the ET rate for the United States have been kept and are available from a number of sources, including government managed weather stations such as CIMIS (California Irrigation Management Information System, maintained by the California Department of Water Resources), CoAgMet maintained by Colorado State University-Atmospheric Sciences, AZMET maintained by University of Arizona-Soils, Water and Environmental Science Department, New Mexico State University-Agronomy and Horticulture, and Texas A&M University-Agricultural Engineering Department. Although slight variations in the methods used to determine the ET values do exist, most ET calculations are based on the following environmental factors: temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and humidity. A typical plot of average evapo-transpiration rates against time for different cities in California in the United States over the period of a year is shown in
In a preferred aspect of the invention, the database 34 is derived from historical records of the ET rate over a year throughout a geographical area, preferably throughout the United States, and also preferably throughout any part of the world in which historical ET rate records are known and where the irrigation system 20 may be used. The geographic area for which the database 34 is compiled is preferably broken down into a plurality of smaller sectors, each sector being identified for example by the name of a nearby town, or by county name, or even by state, where the ET rates are relatively uniform, but most preferably may be identified by a postal zip code as a small area within which the ET rates are likely to be uniform. Thus, in a preferred embodiment, the database 34 is compiled to reflect the average ET rate in each postal zip code area in the United States for a monthly, weekly, or shorter time period, over the duration of a year. While a month is a useful period of time in which to capture the changes in ET rate in a sector, a half-monthly period provides a smoother transition over the course of a year, and a weekly or daily period provides an even smoother transition. Daily average ET rates are also available in the historical record, and these rates may be used where it is desirable to follow a precise transition over the course of a year in short increments. For example, in
It will be understood that in a country such as the United States, many zip codes that are relatively closely situated will share the same ET data over the course of a year, but this fact need does not alter the ease with which each zip code may be assigned the appropriate ET data from historical sources. To this end, although the controller 28 may call for the entire zip code to be entered by a user, the database may be based on only the first three digits of a zip code, thus giving a less detailed breakdown of ET rates, although no less effective.
Once the above described data is assembled for a geographical area, it is processed by performing the following steps for each sector (e.g., zip code):
As used above, the term “period” may refer to the period of a month, although a half-monthly, weekly, or even daily period may apply where appropriate.
Thus, preferably before any instructions have been entered into the microprocessor 30 by the user, the manufacture has compiled and stored in the database 34 an array of information in which each sector (preferably, zip code) in a geographical area has, associated with it, a plurality of PRFs—one for each period of the year whether the period be a month, a half-month, a week, or a day. (See,
When the user purchases and installs an irrigation control system 20 having features of the present invention, the controller 28 calls for certain information via the LCD screen 33, by prompting the user to enter the information sequentially via the input means 32. (
Moreover, after the current “period” has passed (as noted, “period may be month, half month, week, day or other suitable time period), the microprocessor 30 is configured to sequentially recalculate the Actual Irrigation Duration in each new period by applying the Period Reduction Factor (PRF) associated with each new period, and causing the irrigation system to irrigate for the resulting Actual Irrigation Duration (Dactual) during the new current period. (See,
It will be appreciated that, in use, after the above procedure of information entry and duration adjustment has been completed in a period that does not coincide with maximum ET rate, a user may monitor the actual irrigation duration, Dactual, caused by the controller according to the above described process. After observing the actual irrigation durations, it is possible that a user may conclude that insufficient water (or too much water) is being caused to discharge by the controller in each irrigation event. Under these circumstances, a user may manually alter the Dmax that he had previously input, so that the current Dactual increases or reduces proportionally. When the user is satisfied that the Dactual for the current period is acceptable, he can reasonably assume that the Dactual that will be caused in the period of greatest ET rate (that will in effect be 100% of Dmax) will be appropriate for that period also. Thus, by a series of small initial adjustments, even during a period when maximum ET rate does not exist, a user may achieve an optimal rate of irrigation that applies over the period of a whole year.
In the manner described, once the data entries have been made and adjustments are concluded, it will be appreciated that the microprocessor continually adjusts the irrigation duration for any individual sprinkler system to take into account the historic variation in period average ET rates over the period of a year, each adjustment being made incrementally after a period of time which may be a month, a half month, a week, or a day, depending on the requirements of the irrigation project. Preferably, use of the smooth ET rate and PRF curves exemplified in
The invention thus has the advantage of efficiently and rationally applying a modification in water irrigated onto a landscape to accommodate the seasonal changes in ET rate of a particular sector. The invention has versatility in that it may be sold, with a preprogrammed database 34 that includes either a table of Period Reduction Factors (PRFs), or the information necessary (e.g. ET rates) to extract, via an algorithm, PRFs in any sector based, preferably, on the postal zip code where the system 20 will be used. Thus, a purchaser may install such a system in Mississippi or in California and enter the information required to initialize the system, including the zip code where the system is to be used, and the date. In each case the information in the database allows the microprocessor 30, by using the database 34, to periodically select the duration of actual irrigation (Dactual) for any particular sector in a way that is rationally and efficiently based on the changing seasonal ET rate in the selected sector, and accounts for likely rainfall, and for dry, hot, and windy conditions. This aspect of the invention has the considerable advantage of relieving the user of responsibility for manually adjusting the duration for irrigation every period, which a user typically may forget to do after a few adjustments. It also has the advantage of achieving a result that is very similar to a result in which a sprinkler system uses a sensor device to measure the actual environmental conditions for adjustment based on actual environmental conditions, while avoiding all the disadvantages including the cost of such systems.
Thus, it will be apparent from the foregoing that, while particular forms of the invention have been illustrated and described, various modifications can be made without parting from the spirit and scope of the invention.
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|U.S. Classification||700/284, 137/78.2|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10T137/1866, A01G25/16|
|Dec 16, 2008||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: NATIONAL DIVERSIFIED SALES, INC.,CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SACKS, RAEL;REEL/FRAME:021988/0392
Effective date: 20081112
Owner name: NATIONAL DIVERSIFIED SALES, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SACKS, RAEL;REEL/FRAME:021988/0392
Effective date: 20081112
|Sep 28, 2011||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: PNC BANK, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, PENNSYLVANIA
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:NATIONAL DIVERSIFIED SALES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:026983/0463
Effective date: 20110922
Owner name: PNC BANK, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, PENNSYLVANIA
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:NATIONAL DIVERSIFIED SALES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:026983/0418
Effective date: 20110922
|Dec 1, 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4