Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS7959 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 4, 1851
Publication numberUS 7959 A, US 7959A, US-A-7959, US7959 A, US7959A
InventorsW. Brewer
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 7959 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

3 Sheets-Sheet 1.


N6. 7,959, Patented Mar. 4, 1851,

3 SneeLs --r$neet W. BREWER & J. SMITH.


No. 7,959. Patent ed Mar. 4. 1851.

n NORRJS mans ca. PHOTO-LING" gamma-nu, u. c.

3 SheetsSheet 3.



Patented Mar. 4, 1851,

I ji z z/ezzyoaas' I Zzakse-sx 1p: mums Pawns no. Pupm-umo WASN NGYON a c UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.


* Specification of Letters Patent No. 7,959, dated l lvliarch 4, 1851.

" facture of paper and card board with a r i a or stretched, wires and it 1s upon, these, wires, that the pulp is placed when'a sheet water inarkexhibiting an uniformity and peculiarity of design not attainable in the process ofmanufacture as hitherto con= ducted. s r

' Designs, figures, or devices, commonly called water marks, are of various descrip-, tions, and well known; butdeslgns, figures,

or devices, as water marks, of the kind which we can produce, have been hitherto unattainable with moldsor apparatus of the ordinary construction; and our invention consists ina new or improved mold, for the manufacture of paper or for the purpose of producing better water marks therein, than has been effected by molds as ordinarily constructed. s a

A In the process ofpaper making by hand, apparatus ormachinery technically called a paper mold is employed, upon which the pulp forming the sheet, of paper is placed) This mold consists of a frameof the shape of, and nearly corresponding to, the sheetof paper required to be produced. Between the sides of the frame are placed,

ofpaper is to be made; the superfluous water in the pulp draining off between thefwires. The size of the sheet, is determined by a, shifting frame,j "o ;r deckle? putlroundf the, edges of the frame before mentioned, which forms the edges of thesheet. The deckl? is sometimes made in compartments, this subdividing the full sheet upon the face of themold. Two descriptions of wire work are employedin the molds, oneof which is called laid wire, theother woven wire.

A laid wire mold is illustratedin Fig nre 1 Sheet A, thewires a, (4, are placed parallel, their, ends and seams belng secured to the frame 0, 0, the interval of space "between them,flbeing usually about equal to i a PAPER-MOLD.

the thickness of the wire employed. These parallel wires are connected together, jmeans of the seams b, b, whichare otherandj finer wires interlacing the several parallel: wires transversely, likewise at intervals, this is called a laid wire mold n Fig. '2, represents a wove wire'mold, the wire surface a, a, is secured to the frame 0, 0, as' lbefore, but inthis caseit is composed of or- .dinary woven wire cloth, this is a wove, wire mold The paper made from .these' ;two molds will present no water mar ets properly. socalled, althoughthe wires form iing them produce slight marksin it, those in the paper made from the laidwire, being lsomewhat more distinct, than those visible,

in the paper from the wove wire ,mold. When it is required to produce a water mark in the paper manufactured,Itheldesign lrequired to beproduced is formed upon the iupper surface of the ,laid, or wove :wire mold, "by means of one, or more, pieces iof cylindricalwire being curved, bent, or gformed, into the shape necessary to form") jthe design; and which is then laid upontlie wire work of the mold, and stitchedthereto iwith a finer description of wire. The :stitches of finer'wire passing over some po'ritions of the design, and under somepor-f ftic-ns of the wire work of the mold; and thusthe design is attached to the mold. Fig. 8, shows a portion of a laid wire mold and Fig. 4 a section of ditto through the, line l-2 havingthe design uponit for p o-'1 I ducing the water mark in the paper. "This figure shows the old method adopted ffor making and forming the mold and design;9O and is drawn to a scaleconsiderably above its real or full size for the purpose ofre'n dering it more distinct, a a. being the paral} I :lel laid wires Z) 6 the seams which are twist ed so as to connecttogether the parallellaid wires a a. The design (Z, which of course may 'be'ofany deviceother than that here shown, V whichis merely an example, is formed ofycy lindrical wire into the shape required, and then attached to the laidwires a, a, by means of the stitches e,e, of finer wire, which a ses over the wire forming the design and under some of the laid wires, In a, some designs the wire forming them will not unfrequently be found tofcross eachother, this is exemplified in the example Fig. 3 at f," the I variation in the water mark.

consequence is that at these points the device or design will project a greater distance from the laid wire surface than the other portions of it, thus producing an irregularity in the water mark detrimental to its uniformity. When it is required to produce a water mark in the paper, portions of which shall vary in its shade, or in other words of greater or less intensity, the mold is formed, as to such parts, of wires of varying thicknesses or diameters; thus, for producing. a deeper or more distinct mark, a thicker wire is employed, and for a finer or less distinct mark a finer wire is used; but it must be observed that the transitions from one depth or shade of water mark to another by this mode of forming must be sudden, in consequence of thewires employed being cylindrical. The disadvantages attending the above described which is the ordinary method of forming and constructing the molds are numerous We will state a few of the most important of them.

As all the wires forming the letters, figures or other devices, which constitute the designs upon the mold, have to be formed by hand it is impossible in the first instance to shape them with suflicient precision, and

in the second place, to place and attach them upon the laid or wove wire so as to retain the form previously given to them.

The consequence is that two molds made by the same workman will differ in several particulars. The only guide which the workman has to govern the forming of the designs, being a rough outline, other differences must exist. Hence it follows that the water marks produced in paper manufactured by different molds, cannot possibly be identical although they are intended to be so. This mode of attaching the wires, form ing the device or design to the laid or wove wire by means of stitching or interlacing with smaller wires, does not secure the permanent maintenance of the first form of the design; as the stitching does not sufficiently retain the design in its place, to prevent its being displaced by working or other causes, and the shifting of any portion of the design necessarily produces a corresponding And again the stitching is extremely liable to become loose or fractured, (and this is continually taking place) and as a consequence-,a portion at least of the design shifts, and its shape or contour becomes changed, entailing a corresponding change in the water mark produced. The fracture or breaking up of the stitching wires, is very much facilitated by the action upon the metal composing them, of the chemicals contained in the pulp from which the aper is manufactured, which corrode and destroy them very rapidly. These causes render frequent reparation to the molds necessary, and such reparations very frequently have also the efiect of permanently altering and changing the design. fro-m its original shape. Another disadvantage attending the employment of the stitching wire to connect the design to the laying, is the streaked or clouded appearance given to the water mark produced in the paper, by reason of such stitches projecting a little above the surfaces of the wires composing the design itself, as those stitches are not placed sufliciently close to form an even surface, and the accumulation of these stitches produced by the repairs increase this evil from the great number of angles presented in the molds by the junction of the wires, From the action of the acids and chemicals contained in the pulp corrosion of the mold takes place and it gets clogged to a considerable extent. The usual remedy adopted in this case is to dip the mold into water after a few sheets have been made from it. By this means the acid is partially washed off the mold but this entails a considerable loss of time, and only partially lessens the effect, as corrosion still takes place rapidly, the clogged state of the mold continues to increase, and the paper manufactured by it is produced with a spotted or shaded appearance.

Having made a few remarks upon the ordinary method of making the wire molds employed in the manufacture of paper and the disadvantages attendant on the manufacture of the paper therefrom, we will now proceed to describe our improvement. An improvement effected by us in the manufacture of paper and card board, consists in producing designs or devices as water marks which have hitherto been unattainable, and this by the employment of our improved molds in the manufacture of the paper, as they are made and constructed according to the manner hereinafter to be described.

The wat'er marks we produce in paper are in the first place, free from that cloudy and irregular appearance, observable in the water marks produced in the paper, when it is made in molds of the old construction; there being in our improved molds no stitching or other similar fastening wires for attaching the design to the laid surfaces; there being also fewer irregularities and fewer angles at the junctions of the wires. The molds even if placed under the same circumstances as the old molds will not become corroded and clogged to nearly so great an extent, and thus the paper produced from them will present water marks more clear and distinct that the old molds; and the general surface of the paper itself will be greatly improved and present less of. spots or shades. The mode adopted of cleaning the old molds from corrosion and clogging,

Viz, by simply dipping them into water occasionally efiects that object very imperfectly, and the fragile andloose construction of the mold precludes more effectual means of cleansing being adopted; while from the peculiar construction of our improved molds we are enabled to adopt more effectual means of cleansing them,and thus always preserve them in a state fit to produce a superior de 3 scription of work. For instance we are enabled to apply a brush to them for this purpose, which applied to the old molds would be destructive or injurious to them, by breaking up the fine stitching wires and seams. Our improved molds may also "be cleansed by dipping theminto dilutedacid,

which would, if applied to the old molds, speedily corrode anddestroy the fine stitchmg wlres and seams.

The absence of stitching Wires and seams on the surface ofour improved molds also presents less obstruction to the escape ofthe water from thevpulp when placed 1 upon the mold; The superfluous waterdrains away with greater facility and the quality of the paper manufactured is considerably improved, it being more regular and evenin its texture, less spotted or shady in its appearance, ismanufactured with greater fa cility, and lesswaste paper is IIlELClGu We in the same design (thereby producing a difi'erence of intensity or shade 1n the water mark,) still the transition from the one to the other is sudden andnot gradual. Indei pendent of the water marksproperly so called producedin the paper by the design or device upon the mold for that purpose, other andlighter marks are produced by theseams which interlace thelaying- By the employment of our improved molds for making the paper we entirely remove all seams employed informing the laying itself,

I the seams or the parts corresponding to them which we employ injthe laid surface as indeed in thewhole construction of the molchbeing so placed as to be below the under surface of thepulp when it is upon the mold, and therefore not touching: the pulp no marks are produced in the paper (as there is when the Old Laid Molds are employed) by the'wires forming the seams pro ecting upward above the laid wires and consequently into the pulp. \Ve are also enabled by our method of making and constructing our improved molds for manufacturing paper and which method will hereinafter be fully described and ascertained, to produce sheets or pieces of paper bearing designs or devicesthereon as water marks to any extent of repetition required and all such designs or devices of water marks shall be identical. Thus we effect by producing any number of the molds re quired all of which shall likewise be identi- I: cal, and. which effect it is an impossibility to accomplish by the oldmethod of forming the "molds where the only guide or security to accuracy and identity is the deviating eye and hand of the workmen employed. The

importance in this respect of providing a security against fraud and forgery is so im- Hmense and generally acknowledged to be a great desideratum, that it maybe necessary jfor us to state some of the purposes to which our improvement is applicable for effecting that security to a very consider? able extent, as the most elaborate designs of watermark can be produced with equal ;accuracy and facility as the more simple ones; facsimilesof autographs, and signatures of individuals, fixing the seals or de- ;;vices of public companies and suchlike designs hitherto perfectly unattainable in paper manufactured by the ,olddescriptions 1; :of molds. Amongst the principal purposes [to which our invention is applicable may be named bank notes, treasury notes, exchequer bills, and other government papers, customs Lwarrants, postage stamps, post ofifice money 5 orders, forms of wills, ecclesiastical papers, law records, government securities, stock receipts, bonds, dividend warrants, checks, railway scrip, journals and books forimportant entries, transferbooks, promissory 1 "notes, bills of exchange, certificates ofmar- 1 riages, births and deaths, registration papers I, and other or any papers requiring security:

Such being the nature of 0ur1mprOVements in the manufacture of paperand card ;board we will now describe the method or ,methods of making or constructing the molds and designs to be employed Fig. 7,

Sheet A, represents a sheet of paper intended to be used as a. bank note or otherpurpose requiring a water mark of secure de sign. The size of the mold usually em:

;ployed in the manufacture of paper is of sufficient extent to allow four of these notes to be made at onetime, the full sheet being divided by the deckle across the center of the frame; the surface of the mold frame is divided into four equal parts, in each of which is placed a mold plate capable of producing the particular mark required.

These designs are perfectly identical and therefore the sheet of paper when made,

being cut or divided, into two portions presents 4: notes or pleces of paper, having 5 0 or intensity of water mark.

water marks identically the same. It will be perceived that the whole surface of the sheet represented in Fig. 7, is covered with the design and therefore the corresponding water marks occupy the whole surface of the sheet. The construction of these molds is as follows: The design having been decided upon as for example as shown in Fig. 7, it is cut and engraved upon the surface of a steel die in the ordinary manner, care being taken in cutting the die that the parts of the design which are to be darkest in the water mark are to be cut deepest upon the die; also that the parts of the design which are to be lightest in the water mark or nearest to the general substance of the paper are to be cut to the least depths upon the die. The face of the die is shown in Fig. 5. Fig. 6 represents the face of the mold produced from the die as hereinafter mentioned and Fig. 7, the appearance of the paper manufactured from a mold so pro duced; the darkest lines in Fig. 7, as for instance the outlines of the letters in the word patent being the thinest parts of the paper, and the water mark produced by the highest or most prominent part of the mold. The dark lines marked a, a, in the several figures denote the deepest parts of the die, the highest or most prominent parts of the mold and the strongest water mark or thinnest part of the paper; the fainter lines, 5, 5, represent the shallower cut in the die, the less prominent parts of which constitute the surface of the mold and the general character of the paper. The mold Fig. 6, presents two surfaces or planes the one a a, which corresponds with the water mark in the ordinary molds and I), b, which corresponds with the laid surfaces of the ordinary molds and which may for distinction be called the primary surface. Whatever form or design may be given to the parts of the mold raised above what has been termed the primary surface, whether it be composed of parallel lines, or of chequered, or crossed lines, so long as the whole has the same elevation the paper made thereon will present one unvarying shade The design to be produced by the water mark may be of any device or pattern however elaborate and with varying degrees of light and shade, according to the height to which the parts of the molds are raised above the primary surface.

of the metal plate.

and otherwise properly prepared, by cleaning, is then taken to a hammer or stamp Fig 8, which in front elevation resembles a steam hammer. the face of the die taken through the line threefour Fig. 8, these drawings show the situation of the die 0, upon the block of the hammer. The die is properly adjusted and retained in its position by the dog screws 6,, e.

g, in the ordinary manner and is thereby raised by the action of the steam upon the piston.

h, is the steam pipe; 2', the eduction pipe and 7a, the slide valve, the handle p, is for the purpose of enabling the attendant to work the slide valve is, by hand it is also self acting, the slide valve being worked by the actionof the adjusting tappets Z, Z, upon the tappet rod m, which is attached to the hammer or block f, the adjustment of these tappets upon their rod adjusting the extent of fall of the hammer the handle a, and the rods 0, 0, are for governing the throttle valve (placed at p) to regulate the supply of steam to the cylinder. The hammer or block f, can be removed from the machine, and its place supplied by others of a shape and size suited to the shape and size of the face of the die. The die 0 being properly adjusted under the hammer f, so that the surfaces of these may coincide, a thick plate or block of metal is placed upon the die, or melted metal is poured upon the die. The metal which we ordinarily employ for this purpose is copper at a red heat, or tin in a liquid state. The copper or tin being upon the die the hammer is now put into action and allowed to descend. If a heated metal plate be on the die the hammer is allowed to descend with its full force, the effect of which is to force the metal of the block or plate into the design cut in the face of the die, so as completely to fill the design cut therein and produce a reversed impression of the die upon the under side The hammer in its as cent takes up the metal plate from the die, and if the impression of the die on the under side of the plate should not be perfect, the hammer may be allowed to descend with a succession of blows until the impression is completed. When tin or other metal in a liquid state is applied to the face of the die the hammer is brought down slowly, so as allow the metal to set in the die and hammer, and on the ascent of the hammer the metal is withdrawn from the die by the hammer. Should the cast im pression not be perfect it may be perfected by a repetition of blows as already described. By these means a force is produced which should be an exact counterpart, of a Fig. 9, is a' plan showing The block or hammer f, is secured to the piston of the steam cylinder part or of the hen of the die. There are recessesmade upon the face of the hammer f, into which portions of the metal force enter', for the purpose of retaining and holding the force upon the hammer as is well face of the die." The thickness of this sheet will in a great measure depend upon the elevation towhich the design upon the mold is to be raisedabove the laying. Silver, bra ato per' or other metals may be em ployed as bestsuited to the purposes re quired; The plate to form the mold being placed upon the die the machine is again.

set in action. Thelmetal force before spoken of being still retained under the hammer f, the result of the blows will be that the. mold plate takes the impression of the die throughout the whole of the design, andthat the metal ofthe mold plate is forced to the bottom of the sunken, portion of thedieLi At this stage ofthe manufacture of the; mold, the plate presents the designybut un- Q broken by any apertures or perforations which are now required to be produced It may be necessary during the progress of stamping with a some description of metal plates, to anneal them, in order to prevent} their fracture and to facilitate the opera-; tion. The diewith the model plate init'} is then taken and placed in the machinef represented Sheet C,Fig. 10, being a1 front elevationnof the machine Fig. ll a sideelevation 12 a plan View, and 13, a sectional plan through the line 5- 6 showing the mold plate and the holding. 40 plates. or; a; is the framework of the machine upon the plate or table I), of which is secured the two sandards' c"c the upperi ends of these are provided with screws 03, d, and thejnuts d, d, the purpose of which is to screw down the frame or upper platee. To the extreme upper ends of the '1 standards or screws, is permanently secured,

by nuts, the cross head f. To the middle of.

the upper. plate 6, is secured the vertical screw g, which passes loosely through a hole in the boss of the cross head 7, and has the wheel nut 71,- upon" it*ahove the cross head. This screw is for the=purpose of raising the upper plate 6 when required. To the under side of the upperplate 6,6, is secured a block of wood 2', having a; number of grooves or notches in it, for the reception of the vertical metal plates Z Z--'-Z, m, is the steel die with the mold plate secured in its proper position upon the table I), b, by} means of the dog screwso, 0, 0, 0. The mold plate is secured in the machine by means of the vertical plates Z, Z, Z. This apparatus is for the purpose of securely holding the mold plate,

and preventing any. injury to or dama e. ment in the design during the process of cutting and filing the surface of the mold plate, so as to produce the requisite interstices. This, filing is done by. the employment of a large file which takes off the back of the mold plate, that is that portion of it which projects above the face of the die, leaving untouched that portion, of the mold plate below the surface or within the designupon the die. Only one ortwo of the vertical plates are removed at a time just sufficient to allow width for the file. to

pass and file away that portion, the other plates being securely held to prevent shifting; lVhen this portion of the back of the mold .plateris abraded off by the actionof the file, one or more of the plates are to be iremoved and replaced over the recently abraded parts. This process is repeated the plates being removed and then replaced after the abrasion has been eflected, until the whole of the backsurface above the face of the die shall have been removed." j

The mold plate on being removed from the die, is found to present the appearance of the intended design, or the more prominentl parts only which were given to; the

mold plate by the action of the die'and the forces. The plate has now the appearance represented in Fig. ,6, the darker parts marked a, a, being the more prominent or projecting parts of-qthe design, and the lighter parts marked 6, I), being the less prominent or projecting parts of the design,

whilst the portions remaining white in the figure correspond with the portions of the mold plate left at its original surface and which have been abraded away as described, producingthe apertures or interstices required. The mold plate may now be said to. haveentirely changed its character, and when placed in a frame upon the backing becomes a mold for .the manufacture of paper, which mold will present the appearance shown in Fig; 6. We sometimes cut or abrade away the portions require'd'uof the mold plate, by a difierent method. We dispense with the employment of: the vertical plates for holding down themold plate upon the die, and in lieu, thereof employthe per forated plate shown in Fig. 14. This plate isplaced upo'nthe mold plate in the die and screwed down byethe nuts and bolts 11,15, which securelywhold and prevent the mold plate-from shiftingu A, revolving drill or cutter is employed which entering, the perforations of the plate cut-s or removes the parts required of the mold plate. Whenthe whole surface under the perforations shall have been cut away or abraded, the die and consequently the. mold plate with it, or if required the perforated plate may beshiftedand other portionsiof the? mold plate cut used in conjunction with our improved molds, although we prefer to form the backing as follows.

Our improved backing is formed in a precisely similar manner to the mold plates. The wires that coincide with the position of the laid wires are represented by a series of parallel angular grooves in the forming die, while the seams are represented by a serles OfSlIIllltlI' grooves, 1n a posltion transverse to the other grooves and disposed at similar stituting our improved backing. terstices being of the size and "form pretions of the plate.

distances as the seams or at such distances as will give the necessary strength to the plate; in order to add to the strength the, transverse grooves are sunk to a greater depth than the others; this also forms raised projections on which the mold rests when placed in the backing. A metal plate is indented in this die in a similar manner to that described with reference to our improved mold plates. .The whole of the upper surface of this plate or the metal remaining in the plane of the original plate is removed by abrasion or perforation as also before described with respect to our improved mold,

this operation leaving only the indented portions which forms an interstitial plate con- The inscribed by the cross bars or indented porwhich the superfluous metal has been abraded and the reverse side of the backing; Sim-.

being the surfaces placed in contact. ilar backings'are also applicable to wove wire molds. produced in the manner herein described may be applied to the ordinary molds of; wire' whether laid or wove, and attached to such surfaces by solder or other means or stitching by wire as in the ordinary method. 3 Fig. 15 shows the adaptation of a design; formed and constructed according to the old method as shown in Fig. 3, the design is supposed to be the same and the section is through the line 1, 2.

Thedesign (Z, it Wlll be seen presents the same semi-circular appearances upon its upper surface as the wire designs of the old method, but the lower portion of it is seen The.

designs and molds when made according to to be square instead 1 of semi-circular.

This is then connected by screws or other suitable means to our improved molds. The side of the mold from A design for the water mark.

6, Z), being formed at one operation, and of one piece of metal, as previously described. There is no joining necessary in this mold, and the seams or connections 2), I), being wholly below the underside of the pulp upon the mold, do not interfere with the drainage of the water from the pulp, and are not productive of any marks in the paper. However, if it is required to produce in the paper thefaint marks, usually produced by the laid surface and theseams, then these connections are placed at the dotted line gg, Fig. "18, shows the same mold the design d, being made of gradually varying height, for producing in the paper a gradually "arying tint of water mark. When it is required to produce a design or laying of an equal number in each lineal inch a seam is absolutely necessary at the points of junction, if made by the old method, which seam will leave a corresponding mark in the paper I produced, but if made according to our im provement the seams or connectlons being below, no such mark wlll be shownin the paper.

It Wlll be obvious that other machinery and apparatus for stamping the plates into the molds and for holding the plate during the production of the interstices may be employed, but the machinery or apparatus shown in the drawings is the best with which we are acquainted for the purpose. It will also be obvious that the electrotype process may be employed for the production of the mold plates and designs or theymay be cast in the well known process of stereotype or bined with'suchapparatus and machinery instead of the molds and ,designs at present employed. r

Having now described the nature of our said invention and in what manner the same is to be performed we wish it to be understood that we do not claim as of our own invention nor do we claim the exclusive use of the apparatus and machineryherein described and referred to for stamping and filling except When employed in and for the specified, that is to say, by stamping or forming such molds partly or Wholly in and by dies, and afterwards removing the back of such molds by filing or other process analogous thereto. a

In Witness whereof the said WILLIAM BREWER and JOHN SMITH have hereunto set their hands this twenty-fifth day of April in theyear of our Lord one thousand eight 15 hundred and fifty.



Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US8221586May 3, 2007Jul 17, 2012De La Rue International LimitedSecurity substrate comprising watermark
Cooperative ClassificationB31F1/07