|Publication number||US7967879 B2|
|Application number||US 12/401,651|
|Publication date||Jun 28, 2011|
|Filing date||Mar 11, 2009|
|Priority date||Mar 11, 2009|
|Also published as||EP2406174A1, EP2406174A4, US20100233043, WO2010104807A1|
|Publication number||12401651, 401651, US 7967879 B2, US 7967879B2, US-B2-7967879, US7967879 B2, US7967879B2|
|Inventors||Peter James Lohr, SR.|
|Original Assignee||Advanced Hydrogen Technologies Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Classifications (17), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention relates generally to the generation of hydrogen and specifically to a cartridge for the generation of hydrogen.
Hydrogen can be used as a source of energy in many hydrogen-consuming systems such as fuel cells, internal combustion engines, and portable power equipment and tools. Devices that consume hydrogen for energy must be connected to a source for hydrogen such as those that directly utilize hydrogen in either liquid or gaseous form and those that utilize hydrogen in chemical compounds such as water. Some of the systems that store such chemically bonded hydrogen utilize a cartridge for containing the water along with other components. When hydrogen is stored in chemical compounds such as water, it must be converted to consumable hydrogen by a reaction prior to use as hydrogen.
One conventional process for releasing bonded hydrogen from water is electrolysis. During electrolysis, an electrical differential is applied to water at a cathode and an anode, and an advantage of this system is that a low voltage of electricity can be used. Another reaction to release hydrogen from water is that of aluminum and water to generate aluminum oxide and hydrogen gas. This reaction can be self sustaining, but it requires high temperatures to generate substantial hydrogen production. One way to do this is by heating aluminum and water that are in close proximity with thermite, but most conventional systems for igniting the thermite require a high voltage differential.
Therefore, one problem with such cartridges is that high voltages are required to initiate the reaction. Another problem with cartridges configured to generate hydrogen through the reaction of a metal with an oxidizing agent is that the reaction can proceed prematurely because of contact between the reactants. Another problem is that structure utilized to form the cartridge and to contain the reactants remains as waste after the cartridge is used. Another problem is that the cost of conventional cartridges is too high to allow for economical one-time use, i.e. conventional cartridges are not expendable.
The present invention provides a cartridge for the rapid generation of hydrogen very rapidly in response to demand, at high pressures, and at high temperatures. The cartridge includes consumable structural components such that solid waste remaining after discharge of a cartridge is minimized. In addition, the cartridge of the present invention is configured for use in a system that provides hydrogen at a generally constant pressure.
According to one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a cartridge for the generation of hydrogen. The cartridge includes a case, an igniter, and a structural component. The case defines an interior cavity and the igniter is positioned within the cavity. The structural component is also positioned within the cavity and is formed of a particulate embedded in a matrix and the particulate includes a metallic material. An oxidizing agent is positioned within the cavity. The structural component is configured such that the metallic material and the oxidizing agent react together to generate hydrogen after the igniter generates sufficient heat to remove the matrix from the structural component and to initiate the reaction between the metallic material and the oxidizing agent.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the structural component that is configured to generally maintain the position of the igniter relative to the case.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the structural component is also configured to define a plurality of chambers within the cavity and the oxidizing agent is positioned within the plurality of chambers.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the matrix includes nitrocellulose.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the case is also formed of the particulate embedded in the matrix.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the igniter includes thermite.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the oxidizing agent is water.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the water is gelatinized.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the metallic material includes aluminum.
According to one aspect of the present invention, an electrical element is positioned within the igniter and is electrically connected with an exterior surface of the case.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the igniter is configured to ignite when a voltage is applied to the electrical element and the igniter is configured to generate sufficient heat such that at a least a portion of the matrix is removed from the structural component thereby exposing sufficient metallic material to the oxidizing agent at a sufficiently high temperature to initiate a chemical reaction between the oxidizing agent and the metallic material thereby generating hydrogen.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the case includes a metallic cap that is electrically connected to the electrical element such that the cap forms part of an electrical circuit when the voltage is applied to the electrical element.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the cap is configured to rupture such that an opening is defined through the cap for the release of hydrogen therethrough and such that the ruptured cap is retained in contact with the case.
According to another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a cartridge that includes a case, an igniter, and an insert. The case defines an interior cavity. The igniter is configured to ignite when an electrical element embedded therein is exposed to an electrical voltage differential. The insert is configured to define a plurality of chambers within the cavity and the insert includes aluminum particles that are embedded in a nitrocellulose matrix. An oxidizing agent including chemically bonded hydrogen is positioned within each chamber. The igniter is configured to initiate a reaction between the aluminum particles and the oxidizing agent that generates hydrogen.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the pressure within the cavity increases such that a portion of the case ruptures and hydrogen is discharged from the cavity.
According to one aspect of the present invention, substantially all material created by the reaction other than hydrogen remain associated with the case.
According to another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a device for the generation of hydrogen. The device includes a case and a spacer. The case that defines a cavity, and the spacer is positioned within the cavity and defines multiple chambers within the cavity. The spacer includes a metal and a binding agent. An oxidizing agent is positioned within the chambers. The spacer is configured such that there is substantially no reaction between the metal and the oxidizing agent until an ignition composition is ignited and the binding agent is consumed such that the metal and the oxidizing agent are exposed to each other.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the metal is aluminum, the oxidizing agent is water, the ignition composition is thermite, and the binding agent is nitrocellulose.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the case is formed of the aluminum embedded in nitrocellulose.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the total amount of aluminum contained in the spacer and the case is roughly in stoichiometric proportions with the water.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the metallic insert is configured to position the first reactant and the second reactant such that they are sufficiently near the igniter such that the rapid reaction of the first reactant and the second reactant can be initiated by the igniter.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the binder forms a coating on a solid metal spacer.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the metallic insert includes aluminum powder in a nitrocellulose matrix.
For a fuller understanding of the nature and objects of the present invention, reference should be made to the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Embodiments of the present invention are directed to a cartridge for the rapid generation of hydrogen from a first reactant that contains hydrogen and a second reactant that contains metal. The reaction can be initiated by a low electrical voltage and consumes at least some of the structure required to position the reactants such that they are sufficiently close to each other and to an igniter for the rapid reaction to be initiated by the igniter.
As shown in
Case 20 includes a wall 24 that extends away from closed end 22 toward an open end 26 and defining an inner surface 34. Surface 34 and surface 23 define a cup-shaped cavity 66. A first passageway 32 is defined through the closed end 22 of case 20 such that it extends from recess 31 to inner surface 23 thereby connecting outer surface 29 with cup-shaped cavity 66. A shoulder 38 that extends from an outer surface 39 of wall 24 to a land area 42 is defined by wall 24. Additionally, a lip 43 is formed by wall 24 at open end 26 of case 20. When positioned in a firing chamber 250 as shown in
In the illustrated embodiment, case 20 is formed of a thermoplastic material. By way of example and not limitation, case 20 can be formed of one of the following: nitrocellulose, cellulose, metal, metallic material, thermoplastic, or a combination thereof. By way of example and not limitation, the thermoplastic can include polycarbonate (commercially known by various trade names including Lexan®), polyoxymethylene (commercially known by various trade names including Delrin®), polymethyl methacrylate (commercially known by various trade names including Plexiglas®), and a combination thereof.
Continuing to refer to
Grooves 64 of cap 50 are dimensioned to fail at a predetermined rupture pressure. The rupture pressure is less than a peak, i.e. maximum, pressure generated within cavity 66 by the reaction of the metallic first reactant and the oxidizing second reactant in cartridge 10 in firing chamber 250. Thus cap 50 is configured as a burst disk such that cap 50 is configured to preferentially rupture to form an opening 51 in wall 52 as shown in
Preferably, the rupture pressure is between about 500 psi and about 15,000 psi; more preferably, the rupture pressure is between about 3,000 psi and about 13,000 psi; and even more preferably, the rupture pressure is between about 9,000 psi and about 11,000 psi. As shown in
In the illustrated embodiment, cap 50 is formed of a metal. By way of example and not limitation, cap 50 can include at least one of the following: stainless steel, brass, nitrocellulose, a fiber reinforced resin, electrically conductive elements, and a combination thereof.
As shown in
In the illustrated embodiment, spacer 100 includes a metallic particulate 101 that is embedded in a matrix 102 as can be seen in
In this regard, matrix 102 is configured to limit unintended reactions between water 107 and metallic particulate 101 such that no additional barrier between the metallic portion of spacer 100 and water 107 is required. Thus manufacture of cartridge 10 relative to conventional systems is simplified in that no separate container is required for water 107. The metallic particulate 101 of spacer 100 can include as the first metal reactant metals such as aluminum, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, titanium, and combinations thereof. In the illustrated embodiment, metallic particulate 101 includes aluminum and it is believed that aluminum having any purity is suitable for use as the reactive metal, and therefore, any alloy of aluminum is suitable for use as a metallic insert of the present invention. By way of example and not limitation, in alternative embodiments spacer 100 can include one of the following metallic materials: a woven metal mesh, a metal wool, discrete metal pellets, and a combination thereof. In these alternative embodiments, the metallic material is coated with the binding agent.
The matrix 102 is a material that can function to bind metallic particulate 101 together. Other desirable characteristics of the matrix are: it is soluble and when solvated can be mixed with particulate 101, it can be easily dried or cured to form the desired component of cartridge 10, and it is consumable during a rapid reaction between the metal first reactant and the oxidizing second reactant. In the illustrated embodiment, the matrix includes nitrocellulose. By way of example and not limitation, the matrix can include one of the following: nitrocellulose, dextrin, guar gum, gum Arabic, shellac, synthetic organic polymers, other organic materials, and a combination thereof. In the illustrated embodiment, the percentage of metallic particulate 101 relative to the combined weight of metal particulate 101 and matrix 102 in spacer 100 is preferably between about 80% and about 99.9%; more preferably between about 88% and 98%; and most preferably between about 92% and 96%. It should be appreciated that structures other than spacer 100 disclosed herein that are formed of metallic particulate 101 embedded in matrix 102 have substantially similar compositions to that of spacer 100.
It should be appreciated that the water can be pure or can contain various contaminates such as salts, metals, minerals, etc. The water can be a liquid or substantially solidified by combination with a gelatinizing agent. By way of example and not limitation, the oxidizing agent can include water, hydrogen peroxide or other oxidizing compound having hydrogen contained therein. The ratio of the metallic first reactant, for example, aluminum; and the oxidizing agent, for example, water 107; is generally equal to the stoichiometric ratio of the oxidizing reaction between the two components. Therefore, when the metallic first reactant is aluminum and the oxidizing second reactant is water, the stoichiometric ratio is about one to one, and aluminum and water are contained in cartridge 10 in a ratio of about one to one. Referring to metal particles 101, they are provided such that the reactive metal contained therein is in an appropriate ratio. For example, if metal particles 101 are essentially pure aluminum, the mass of metallic particles 101 contained within the cartridge 10 is generally equal to the mass of water 107 in cartridge 10. Likewise, if metallic particles 101 include fifty percent by weight of nonreactive contaminants, then the mass of metallic particles 101 contained within cartridge 10 is generally two times the mass of water 107 in cartridge 10.
Spacer 100 is configured to position ignition assembly 70 within cavity 66 such that assembly 70 is near cap 50 and in this regard, spacer 100 is a structural component. In alternative embodiments wall 24 of case 20 includes tabs or ribs that are configured to position ignition assembly 70 within cavity 66. Spacer 100 is configured to extend within cavity 66 from closed end 22 to assembly 70. Such that one end of spacer 100 is near surface 23 and another end of spacer 100 is near surface 73. It should be appreciated that while spacer 100 is configured to mechanically separate assembly 70 from closed end 22, in some embodiments spacer 100 is movable relatively one or both of assembly 70 and closed end 22, and in addition, might not be in direct contact with one or both of assembly 70 and closed end 22.
Ignition assembly 70 is configured as an igniter and includes a primary ignition block 72 having a recess 74 formed therein. As used herein, the term “igniter” refers to a structure configured to generate sufficient temperature to initiate, i.e. ignite, a reaction between reactants. A passageway 78 is defined from recess 74 through a base portion of primary ignition block 72 to a base surface 73 defined by the base portion of primary ignition block 72. Recess 74 is dimensioned to receive a pre-ignition block 76. In the illustrated embodiment, both primary ignition block 72 and pre-ignition block 76 are generally cylindrical.
Primary ignition block 72 includes thermite. As used herein, the term “thermite” refers to a composition that includes a metal oxide that acts as an oxidizing agent and a metal to be oxidized by the oxidizing agent. By way of example and not limitation, the metal oxide can be black or blue iron oxide (Fe3O4), red iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3),manganese oxide (MnO2), Chromium (III) oxide Cr2O3, cuprous oxide (Cu2O), cupric oxide, (copper (II) oxide, CuO), other metal oxide, or a combination thereof. The metal to be oxidized can be aluminum or other reactive metal.
In one embodiment, the metal oxide is iron oxide (Fe3O4). Preferably, the thermite is formed together with a binding agent into a desired shape and the binding agent is a nitrocellulose lacquer. In this regard, the particles of thermite are retained within a matrix of nitrocellulose. It should be appreciated that in another embodiment, the primary ignition block 72 is formed of thermite that is configured to retain its shape without a binder, i.e. compressed or solid thermite. In a further alternate embodiment, the thermite can be in the form of particles that are retained in a container or wrapping (not shown) that is configured to support and shape primary ignition block 72.
Pre-ignition block 76 is formed of a pre-ignition compound that includes potassium perchlorate, magnesium, and aluminum. Pre-ignition block 76 includes an element 82. Element 82 is configured to electrically connect cap 50 with a region adjacent one end of passageway 78 of primary ignition block 72. It should be appreciated that element 82 can be any electrical element configured to generate heat when exposed to an electrical differential. In one embodiment element 82 is a bridge wire. As used herein, the term “bridge wire” refers to a relatively thin resistance wire used to ignite a pyrotechnic composition.
Pre-ignition block 76 is formed by a molding process in which the pre-ignition compound is formed of particles that are mixed with a binding agent and molded to a desired shape. The binding agent can be a lacquer such as nitrocellulose lacquer and in such an embodiment, pre-ignition block 76 is formed of particles of the pre-ignition compound embedded in a matrix of nitrocellulose. In the illustrated embodiment, the mixture of binding agent and pre-ignition compound is molded around element 82 such that element 82 is also embedded in the matrix of nitrocellulose. It should be appreciated that in other embodiments, pre-ignition block 76 can include solid or particulate components and can be positioned within a container or wrapping (not shown) that is configured to support and shape pre-ignition block 76. Further, element 82 can be positioned around pre-ignition block 76 or through a passageway formed therein after initial shaping of the pre-ignition block is complete.
Pre-ignition block 76 is configured to ignite when element 82 is exposed to an electrical voltage differential that is preferably between about 1 volts and about 100 volts, more preferably between about 5 volts and about 30 volts, and even more preferably between about 10 volts and about 15 volts, and most preferably about 12 volts.
Pre-ignition block 76 is configured to generate a temperature upon ignition that is sufficient to ignite primary ignition block 72. Primary ignition block 72 is configured to generate a temperature after ignition that is sufficient to initiate an oxidation reaction between the metal first reactant, and the oxidizing second reactant. In other embodiments, the ignition of composition 72 is sufficient to initiate a similar oxidation reaction that generates hydrogen. Primary ignition block 72 is configured to generate a temperature that is preferably between about 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit and about 6,000 degrees Fahrenheit, more preferably between about 3,250 degrees Fahrenheit and about 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit, and even more preferably between about 3,500 degrees Fahrenheit and about 4,500 degrees Fahrenheit. Ignition assembly 70 is configured to initiate a reaction between spacer 100 and water as will be discussed further below.
As shown in
In this manner, an electrically conductive path P is formed that extends from outer surface 29 of closed end 22 to outer surface 56 of cap 50. Path P is configured to conduct an electric current such that the pre-ignition block 76 can be ignited as will be discussed below with regard to the operation of the present invention.
Referring now to
A discharge tube 214 defines a passageway that fluidly connects cavity 206 with a device or region outside of reaction assembly 200. A control valve 212 positioned in discharge tube 214 and is configured to control the flow of fluid through discharge tube 214. In one embodiment, control valve 212 is a pressure regulator valve that is configured to maintain a predetermined pressure within cavity 206. A valve 216 is positioned on wall 205 and is configured to vent cavity 206 to the region outside of vessel 204 at a predetermined pressure, i.e., valve 216 is configured as a pressure relief valve.
A flow control mechanism 251 is positioned between firing chamber 250 and vessel 204. Mechanism 251 is configured to provide for the discharge of gas from firing chamber 250 into cavity 206. Mechanism 251 is also configured to prevent flow of gas from cavity 206 into firing chamber 250. Flow control mechanism 251 is electrically connected to controller 290 and is configured to be actuated by controller 290.
Continuing to refer to
Firing chamber 250 is best seen in
Breech block 253 of firing chamber 250 is generally cup-shaped and includes a back wall 254. Generally tubular sidewall 252 that extends away from breech block 253 toward an open end 255. Sidewall 252 and breech block 253 define a bore 257 that is configured to receive a cartridge 10. Wall 252 defines a shoulder 259 that separates a throat 261 from bore 257. Throat 261 has a diameter near shoulder 259 that is smaller than the diameter of bore 257. In one embodiment, throat 261 is generally cylindrical. Firing chamber 250 is positioned such that open end 255 is adjacent flow control mechanism 251 such that gases can be directed through throat 261 into flow control mechanism 251.
Breech block 253 is configured to provide for the conveyance of cartridge 10 from loading device 241 into bore 257 of firing chamber 250. When cartridge 10 has been loaded into bore 257, tabs 256 engage circumferential groove 28 of cartridge 10 such that cartridge 10 is securely positioned within firing chamber 250. As can be seen in
In the illustrated embodiment, breech block 253 includes a contact 258 that is positioned centrally relative to back wall 254 and is electrically isolated from firing chamber 250. Contact 258 is configured to electrically engage button 114 of cartridge 10 when cartridge 10 is positioned within bore 257. Contact 258 is electrically connected to controller 290 such that contact 258 can form part of an electrical circuit that includes electrical path P of cartridge 10.
In this regard, breech block 253 and tubular sidewalls 252 are formed of an electrically conductive material. When a cartridge 10 is positioned within bore 257 and breech block 253 is in the closed position, electrically conductive button 114 of cartridge 10 is electrically connected to contact 258 and cap 50 of cartridge 10 is in electrical contact with tubular sidewalls 252 of firing chamber 250. In this manner, an electrical circuit is formed that electrically connects tubular side wall 252 and breech block 252 via electrical path P described above.
Continuing to refer to
In the illustrated embodiment, controller 290 is configured to control the electrical connection between contact 258 and a voltage source (not shown). In this manner, controller 290 is configured to control the discharge of cartridge 10. As used herein, the term “discharge” refers to the reaction of the contents of cartridge 10 to form hydrogen such that hydrogen passes through opening 51. Further, loading device 241, contact 258 of firing chamber 250, pressure sensor 208 and valve 212 are electrically connected to a controller 290. Controller 290 is configured to activate loading device 241, firing chamber 250, and valve 212 based upon predetermined parameters or instructions input by an operator. In one embodiment, controller 290 is an electronic computer that includes a storage device and a data input device.
In another alternate embodiment, a mechanical firing device such as a percussion cap (not shown) is utilized to ignite the pre-ignition block 76 instead of element 82.
In an alternative embodiment, case 20 is formed of a metallic particulate 101 embedded in a matrix 102 as described with regard to spacer 100 above. In this embodiment, the total amount of a reactive metal in the cartridge 10 is in stoichiometric proportions to the total amount of water 107 as it is in the illustrated embodiment. Therefore spacer 100 would contain less aluminum in this embodiment than in the illustrated embodiment wherein the mass of aluminum contained in spacer 100 is generally equal to the mass of water 107.
It should be appreciated that nitrocellulose is consumed by the reaction. Therefore structures formed from nitrocellulose and the metal first reactant in various embodiments, such as spacer 100 or case 20, are consumed by the reaction between aluminum and water to generate hydrogen. It is believed that consumption of the matrix generates a relative small amount of waste in either a solid or a gas.
The present invention can be better understood in light of the following description of the operation thereof. In the illustrated embodiment, cartridge 10 is configured to generate hydrogen by the reaction of spacer 100 with water contained within cavity 106. According to a method provided by the present invention, a cartridge 10 is positioned within firing chamber 250. A voltage is applied by controller 290 to contact 258 such that an electrical current flows from button 114, along conductor 112, through element 82, through cap 50, through sidewalls 252, and to the electrical ground. The current is sufficient to ignite pre-ignition block 76 and thus assembly 70 such that spacer 100 and the water in the cavities 106 are raised to a temperature sufficient to initiate an oxidation reaction between the spacer 100 and water 107.
The principle products of this reaction are hydrogen gas and a metallic oxide. Pressures generated within cavity 66 are sufficient to rupture cap 50 and form opening 51. It is believed that a substantial portion of solid reaction products such as metal oxide and other solids generated by the discharge of cartridge 10 remain within cavity 66 or attached to case 20. Hydrogen gas passes from cavity 66 through opening 51 and flow control mechanism 251 into cavity 206 of containment vessel 204. The quantity of hydrogen gas and temperature of the hydrogen gas discharged from cartridge 10 determines the pressure within cavity 206. Valve 212, shown in
In all embodiments, spacer 10 is configured such that sufficient quantities of metallic particulate 101 and oxidizing agent, such as water 107, are positioned such a rapid reaction between metallic particulate 101 and the oxidizing agent can be initiated by assembly 70. Once the rapid hydrogen generating reaction has begun, it is believed that it will continue until one or both reactants are consumed. In this regard, it is believed that the reaction will continue until substantially all of the metallic particulate 101 and that all components of cartridge 10 that were formed of the reactive metal will be consumed during the rapid generation of hydrogen.
The present invention applies generally to cartridges for the formation of hydrogen. More specifically, a reusable or expendable cartridge is provided for the on-demand and nearly instantaneous generation of hydrogen at high temperatures and at high pressures. While the present invention has been illustrated and described with reference to preferred embodiments thereof, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that modifications can be made and the Invention can be practiced in_other environments without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, set forth in the accompanying claims.
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|U.S. Classification||48/61, 422/165, 422/162, 422/242, 423/657, 422/166, 422/236|
|International Classification||C01B3/08, B01J7/00, C01B6/00, B01J19/00|
|Cooperative Classification||Y02E60/36, C01B3/08, C01B3/10, Y02E60/324|
|European Classification||C01B3/08, C01B3/10|
|Mar 11, 2009||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ADVANCED HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGIES, NORTH CAROLINA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:LOHR, SR., MR. PETER JAMES;REEL/FRAME:022461/0932
Effective date: 20090310
|Feb 6, 2015||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Apr 15, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Apr 15, 2015||SULP||Surcharge for late payment|