|Publication number||US7977705 B2|
|Application number||US 12/470,152|
|Publication date||Jul 12, 2011|
|Priority date||Jun 30, 2008|
|Also published as||CN102017075A, CN102017075B, DE112009001477B4, DE112009001477T5, US20090321873, WO2010002515A2, WO2010002515A3|
|Publication number||12470152, 470152, US 7977705 B2, US 7977705B2, US-B2-7977705, US7977705 B2, US7977705B2|
|Inventors||Bich-Yen Nguyen, Carlos Mazure|
|Original Assignee||S.O.I.Tec Silicon On Insulator Technologies|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (60), Non-Patent Citations (19), Referenced by (6), Classifications (11), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims the benefit of application No. 61/093,887 filed Sep. 3, 2008, the entire content of which is expressly incorporated herein by reference thereto.
The present invention relates to substrates structured so that devices fabricated in a top layer thereof have properties similar to the same devices fabricated in a standard high resistivity substrate, and to methods of manufacturing such substrates.
Examples of known substrates with high electrical resistivity “HR” substrates are disclosed in documents US 2006/0166451 and US 2007/0032040. Such known substrates generally comprise a top layer in which or on which high frequency devices will be formed, an insulating layer below the top layer and a high-resistivity support. In some instances, additional layers could be inserted between the insulating layer and the support to further improve the high electrical resistivity properties of the substrate.
Although known HR substrates are suitable for devices with improved performance because they provide reduced signal loss in the support or improved signal to noise ratio due to reduced crosstalk, they suffer from a major drawback: their cost can be high. This is partly due to the fact that known HR substrates incorporate high-resistivity supports that are priced at an elevated cost compared to traditional, non HR, supports. High cost is a particular concern when substrates will be used for fabrication of devices to be integrated into price sensitive products, such as consumer products telecom markets
The higher cost of HR supports often arises because their manufacture requires additional steps. In case of mono-crystalline silicon, such additional steps often involve multi-step and lengthy annealing to precipitate residual oxygen present in the support. Such additional steps can also include, e.g., forming an additional layer in-between the insulating layer and the support, or removing a surface layer of the support to further increase or preserve the high-resistivity of the substrate, or so forth.
The present invention provides high-resistivity “HR” substrates—that is substrates structured so that devices fabricated in a top layer thereof have properties similar to the same devices fabricated in a standard high resistivity substrate—that are simpler to manufacture and of lower cost than known HR substrates. HR substrates of this invention have applications in microelectronics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, micro-electro mechanical devices, and particularly in devices that operate at high frequency typically over 100 Mhz, such as radio frequency devices that can be found in telecommunication or radio detection applications.
In general, the invention replaces known, higher-cost HR substrates with lower-cost, HR substrates comprising a top layer and a support. Instead of relying on high-resistivity of the support to provide high-resistivity of the final substrate, the invention provides high-resistivity of the final substrate by means of a support with a surface layer of a lower-cost, high-resistivity semiconductor material. Accordingly, the support can have standard resistivity, and optionally lower quality, and thus can be of lower cost. The invention also provides low-cost methods for manufacturing HR substrates.
In more detail, the invention provides substrates having high-resistivity properties that include a support having a standard resistivity, a high-resistivity semiconductor layer on the support substrate, an insulating layer on the high-resistivity layer, and a top layer on the insulating layer. The high-resistivity semiconductor layer can have a resistivity greater than 1000 Ohm/cm. Optionally, the provided substrates further include a diffusion barrier layer arranged between the support and the semiconductor layer.
The invention also provides methods for manufacturing a substrate having high-resistivity properties. The methods include providing a support presenting a standard resistivity, forming a high-resistivity semiconductor layer on the support substrate to form a first intermediate structure, providing an insulating layer on the first intermediate structure, assembling the intermediate structure with a donor substrate to form a second intermediate structure, and finally reducing the thickness of the donor substrate of the second intermediate structure to form the substrate. Optionally, methods of the invention further include providing a diffusion barrier layer on the support before the step of forming the high-resistivity semiconductor layer.
Other features and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following descriptions that refer to the appended drawings, which illustrate exemplary but non-limiting embodiments of the invention, and in which:
The preferred embodiments and particular examples described herein should be seen as examples of the scope of the invention, but not as limiting the present invention. The scope of the present invention should be determined with reference to the claims.
Substrate 1 comprises top layer 5, in which or on which devices are ultimately formed. In some cases, devices, e.g., known CMOS devices, can be formed according to known techniques directly on and in top layer 5. In other cases, e.g., gallium nitride HEMT devices, further layers (not illustrated in
HR substrate 1 also comprises insulating layer 4 on which top layer 5 is arranged. Insulating layer 4 commonly comprises silicon dioxide, since this material can be easily formed either by deposition or by oxidation of a silicon substrate. The insulating layer can also comprise silicon nitride, high k dielectric materials, low k dielectric materials, or a combination of layers such materials. The thickness of the insulating layer can be from a few nm, to 10 nm, to 100 nm, up to 200 nm, or other thicknesses.
HR substrate 1 also comprises support 2 which, in contrast to what is known in the prior art, has a standard resistivity. A standard resistivity support is one that has not been designed to provide HR properties and therefore has a resistivity that is standard or normal for that particular type of support and doping level. For example, standard or normal resistivity can be between about 8 Ohm-cm and about 30 Ohm-cm. Such standard-resistivity supports cost less than HR supports, and further, can be selected to have economical crystalline properties or other features. For example, supports can comprise quartz, poly-crystalline silicon, poly-crystalline silicon carbide, poly-crystalline aluminium nitride, and the like. It can also be a reclaimed silicon wafer that has been used in preceding manufacturing steps.
HR substrate 1 also comprises high-resistivity semiconductor layer 3 arranged on top of the support substrate but below insulating layer 4. As the high-resistivity of substrate 1 arises primarily from the high-resistivity of semiconductor layer 3, it is preferred that the HR semiconductor layer has sufficient resistivity and sufficient thickness so that the resistivity of substrate 1 is suitable to its intended application. In preferred embodiments, HR semiconductor layer 3 has a resistivity greater than about 103 Ohms-cm, or more preferably greater than about 104 Ohm-cm, and a thickness between about 20 nm and 5000 nm.
HR semiconductor layer 3 preferably comprises amorphous silicon having high-resistivity by virtue of a lack of doping (or lack of intentional doping), e.g., having concentrations of either p-type or n-type dopants that are preferably less than about 5×1012/cm3. Optionally, the resistivity of this layer can be enhanced by doping with nitrogen species at a density of, e.g., between 1013/cm3 to 1015/cm3. Amorphous silicon layers are preferred since they can be provided at low-cost and on many types of supports. HR semiconductor layer 3 can also comprise poly-crystalline silicon, or less preferably, mono-crystalline silicon.
In contrast to the prior embodiments, HR substrate 11 also comprises diffusion barrier layer 6 on top of support 2 but below high-resistivity semiconductor layer 3.
The diffusion barrier avoids or limits the diffusion of contaminants or dopants from the support into the HR semiconductor layer that would be likely to reduce its high-resistivity. Such a contaminants. Diffusion barrier layer 6 can comprise single or multiple layers of silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, combinations of these materials, or other materials, and can have a thickness of at least 20 nm. In preferred embodiments, diffusion barrier layer 6 comprises nitride rich silicon nitride, e.g., SiXNY that incorporates more nitrogen atoms than stochiometric, e.g., Si3N4, silicon nitride. Nitride rich silicon nitride, for instance formed by chemical vapour deposition that can be plasma assisted, is known to be both a diffusion barrier and a high-resistivity dielectric.
It should be understood that diffusion of dopants and contaminants from the top layer 5 into the high-resistivity semiconductor layer 3 is similarly limited or prevented by insulating layer 4, and can be even further reduced by selecting appropriate materials for this layer. For instance, insulating layer 4 can comprise a nitride-rich silicon nitride layer that can act as an efficient diffusion barrier layer.
Diffusion barrier layer 6 of this preferred embodiment has advantages beyond simply acting to effectively prevent diffusion of dopants or contaminants into high-resistivity semiconductor layer 3. This diffusion barrier layer is also a high-resistivity dielectric that can contribute to the high-resistivity of the substrate, and can form a source of N species that can migrate into the high-resistivity semiconductor layer 3 and further increase its resistivity.
The alternative illustrated in
In a final step not illustrated, the thickness of donor substrate 8 of second intermediate structure 9 is reduced to form final substrate 1 by known thickness reducing techniques, e.g., grind and etch back techniques, Smart Cut® techniques (that perform ion implantation and fracture), or other techniques.
During the steps of assembling and/or reducing the thickness, it can be advantageous to apply thermal treatments. Although such treatments can transform the nature of high-resistivity semiconductor layer 3, e.g., from an amorphous layer as initially deposited into a poly-crystalline layer 3 after thermal treatment, the high-resistivity is this layer is not expected to be substantially changed.
In a final step (not illustrated), the thickness of donor substrate 8 of second intermediate structure 9 is reduced to form final substrate 11 by known thickness reducing techniques.
Optionally, the resistivity of HR semiconductor layer 3 can be further increased by introducing nitrogen species into that layer by, e.g., forming diffusion barrier layer 6 that is nitrogen rich so nitrogen species can migrate into high-resistivity layer 3 during processing, or by implanting nitrogen species, e.g., nitrogen ions, through top layer 5 and insulating layer 4. A preferred concentration of nitrogen species is between 1013/cm3 to 1015/cm3.
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|U.S. Classification||257/169, 257/523, 257/364, 438/478, 438/354, 257/E29.152, 257/218, 438/141|
|Jun 11, 2009||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: S.O.I.TEC SILICON ON INSULATOR TECHNOLOGIES, FRANC
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Owner name: S.O.I.TEC SILICON ON INSULATOR TECHNOLOGIES, FRANC
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