|Publication number||US7983222 B2|
|Application number||US 11/899,761|
|Publication date||Jul 19, 2011|
|Priority date||Sep 7, 2007|
|Also published as||US20090067447, WO2009032883A2, WO2009032883A3|
|Publication number||11899761, 899761, US 7983222 B2, US 7983222B2, US-B2-7983222, US7983222 B2, US7983222B2|
|Inventors||Edward Giaimo, Matthew Jubelirer, Matthew Morris, Curtis McClive, Loren Reas, Wayne King, Mark Edward Smalley|
|Original Assignee||Microsoft Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (16), Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (5), Classifications (15), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Many personal media players use headphones, ear buds, or the like to provide media signals (for example, audio signals) to a single listener. In some situations, however, it is desirable to transmit the output of a personal media player over-the-air.
Devices and techniques exist that receive input from a personal media player and transmit media signals from the personal media player via a wireless channel to a receiver/over-the-air media player, such as an FM radio, in close proximity to the device. Generally, such devices and techniques transmit the media signals via unused wireless channels, on which there is a limited amount of measured interference. The devices and techniques often fail to recognize, however, that the unused wireless channels selected for transmitting media signals may be near other wireless channels that are used to transmit signals strong enough to interfere with media signals transmitted via the unused wireless channels.
Techniques for locating wireless channels usable for transmitting media signals from personal media players are discussed herein. Generally, the most desirable wireless channels for transmitting media signals are adequately separated from wireless channels used for other purposes.
In accordance with one technique, aspects of which may be performed within electronic devices such as personal media players, stand-alone wireless transmitter or receiver devices, in-vehicle or in-home media players, or any other devices now known or later developed, a range of wireless channels is automatically or manually searched to identify one or more usable wireless channels. A particular target wireless channel is identified, along with at least two additional wireless channels within a certain proximity of the target wireless channel. A channel usability algorithm is used to determine whether the target wireless channel is usable to transmit the media signal. The algorithm evaluates characteristics, such as received signal strengths or other characteristics, of signals received via the target wireless channel and each of the proximate channels.
In one implementation, the target wireless channel is deemed to be usable when its received signal strength is below a certain threshold, and when the received signal strengths of the proximate wireless channels are below another threshold (in practice, the thresholds may be the same or different). In another implementation, a score is calculated based on the received signal strengths of the target channel and the proximate wireless channels, and the target wireless channel is deemed to be usable when the score is below an established threshold. One possible score calculation is obtained by multiplying the received signal strength of the target channel by a weighting factor, then adding the result to the sum of the individual received signal strengths of the proximate wireless channels. It is further possible to locate the best available target channel from among a number of potentially usable target channels, and/or to rank or otherwise organize a number of potentially usable, or unusable, target channels.
This Summary is provided to introduce a selection of concepts in a simplified form. The concepts are further described in the Detailed Description section. Elements or steps other than those described in this Summary are possible, and no element or step is necessarily required. This Summary is not intended to identify key features or essential features of the claimed subject matter, nor is it intended for use as an aid in determining the scope of the claimed subject matter. The claimed subject matter is not limited to implementations that solve any or all disadvantages noted in any part of this disclosure.
Wireless channels that are usable for transmitting media signals from personal media players, such as FM radio stations and other radio frequency channels having relatively static frequency allocations, may not be adequately separated from wireless channels used for other purposes. Techniques discussed herein enable the identification of wireless channels that would be candidates for transmitting media signals from personal media players via the use of a channel usability algorithm that considers not only the characteristics (such as the received signal strength) of the wireless channel that would be used for transmitting the media signals, but also the characteristics (such as the received signal strengths) of at least two other proximate wireless channels.
Turning now to the drawings, where like numerals designate like components,
Receiver 26 is any type of device capable of receiving media signal 21 via a wireless channel 25 and causing media signal 21 to be played over-the-air. Wireless channel 25 is generally a radio frequency channel of a channelized frequency band, including but not limited to a frequency modulated radio station channel, a satellite radio channel, a cellular phone channel, a satellite television channel, a cable television channel, an over-the-air television channel, or a wireless local-area-network channel. Examples of receiver 26 include but are not limited to in-vehicle or in-home media players such as FM radios, satellite radios, televisions, stereos, set-top boxes, personal computers, media centers, and the like. For purposes of discussion and not limitation, wireless channel 25 may be referred to herein as an FM radio station, or simply a station, and the channelized frequency band may be referred to herein as all or a portion of the FM radio frequency band.
Transmitter 24 is in communication with source device 22 to receive media signal 21 and to transmit the media signal to receiver 26 via wireless channel 25. Transmitter 24 may be any type of device capable of receiving media signal 21 and transmitting media signal 21 via wireless channel 25. Examples of transmitter 24 include but are not limited to stand-alone FM transmitter devices, mobile phones, personal media players having integrated transmitters, PDAs, and the like.
It will be appreciated that functional components of system 20 may be implemented by one or more devices, which are co-located or remotely located, in a variety of ways.
Generally, wireless channel 25 that is used for transmitting media signal 21 from a particular transmitter to a particular receiver is selected (by the transmitter, the receiver, or some other device or component that implements or uses the components and/or wireless channel selection techniques discussed herein) by sampling a range of wireless channels, such as stations in the FM radio frequency band, and selecting a station having certain characteristics. One characteristic is that the station has an amount of signal energy from other sources less than a predetermined threshold or limit. Received signal strength indication (“RSSI”) measurements, or any other desired signal energy/strength measurements may be used to ascertain the amount of signal energy associated with a particular wireless channel. Devices and techniques configured to select wireless channels having low measured RSSI, however, often fail to recognize that such channels may be near other wireless channels that are used to transmit signals strong enough to interfere with media signals transmitted via the selected wireless channels.
With continuing reference to
The method begins at block 400, and continues at block 402, where an initial target wireless channel is identified. In one possible implementation, the initial target wireless channel is the last channel used by a user for transmitting media signals. Any desired criteria, however, may be used to identify the initial target wireless channel. Next, at block 402, the mode of operation selected by the user is ascertained. It will be appreciated that acts associated with ascertaining the mode of operation desired by a user may occur at various points, but that the initial operating mode selected by the user is discussed for exemplary purposes. For example, the user may indicate, via user-actuated controls such as buttons or other controls, or via pre-set preferences or other means, whether the user desires to: manually step through and tune to usable wireless channels or to automatically scan for and tune to usable wireless channels (randomly, sequentially, or based on other traversal rules); locate the best usable wireless channel or any usable wireless channel; locate the first best (or first usable) channel or multiple best (or multiple best/usable) channels; and/or whether the user desires to select or tune to wireless channels according to other criteria (such as frequency sub-band location, most-frequently-used channel(s), etc.)
At block 72, passcount and/or channel group variables are initialized (for example, to one or other values). One or more passcount variables and/or channel group variables are generally used to keep track of how many iterations through a particular group of wireless channels have been performed, and/or to keep track of whether a particular sub-group of wireless channels has been scanned. In one possible implementation, two or more passes over a particular group (or groups) of wireless channels is performed to attempt to find a usable wireless channel, with different (generally higher) threshold signal strength values or other characteristics being used for each subsequent pass. In another implementation, a single pass is used. In another possible implementation, incrementing a channel group variable causes the next sub-group of wireless channels to be scanned. In the context of groups of wireless channels within the FM radio frequency band, it is possible to divide the entire band into a number (for example, five) of sub-bands, and to traverse the sub-bands in a particular direction to track the current and next sub-bands to be evaluated. The channel group variable would be incremented or decremented after the wireless channels in each sub-band are evaluated, depending on the direction of traversal of the FM radio frequency band (which may be based on user preference or input).
At block 74, a channel pointer is set to the initial target channel identified at block 402. The channel wireless channel pointed-to by the channel pointer is generally the wireless channel currently being evaluated for usability for transmitting media signal 21. As described below, the channel pointer maybe used to iterate through a particular group of wireless channels (for example, a particular frequency band or sub-band(s)) to find one or more usable wireless channels for transmitting media signal 21. In one possible implementation, each incrementing (or decrementing) of the channel pointer (see block 86, discussed further below) selects another wireless channel at a higher (or lower) frequency. Other implementations are possible, however, and incrementing the channel pointer may select the next wireless channel in any desired manner or location.
At block 76, a characteristic of a signal received via the wireless channel pointed-to by the channel pointer is determined. Then, at block 450, at least two additional wireless channels within a predetermined proximity of the wireless channel pointed-to by the channel pointer are identified, along with characteristics of signals received via the proximate wireless channels. The number of additional wireless channels identified is a matter of design choice, which may be influenced by the channelization scheme associated with the wireless channels, receiver characteristics, and/or environmental conditions. For in-vehicle FM radio receivers, for example, two additional wireless channels may be sufficient, while for in-home FM radio receivers or receivers in geographic areas with tight channel spacing, four additional wireless channels may be desirable. In one possible implementation, proximity is defined to be a number of spaced frequencies of channels above and below the currently pointed-to wireless channel. It will be appreciated, however, that proximity may be defined in any desired manner.
Any one of a number of different signal strength determinations, calculations, or measurements may constitute the characteristics measured at blocks 76 and 450. For example, an RSSI measurement of the ambient signal strength of the wireless channels may be taken. One technique for measuring RSSI involves tuning to the wireless channel, reading the RSSI one or more times, and keeping the maximum or minimum RSSI value. Alternatively, the amplitude of a measured signal strength may be squared, or an RMS calculation may be performed. In some instances, the characteristic may not be a measurement of the signal energy at all—one such exemplary characteristic is a measurement or estimation of signal peaks or valleys.
Next, as indicated at block 451, a channel usability algorithm is evaluated, and at diamond 452, it is determined whether the evaluation of the algorithm resulted in the pointed-to wireless channel being deemed to be usable or unusable. The channel usability algorithm evaluates characteristics, such received signal strengths or other characteristics, of signals received via the target wireless channel and each of the identified proximate channels. Generally, a usable channel does not have too much undesirable interference to a user listening to media signal 21 (for example, the usable channel and proximate channels have appropriately low ambient signal strengths). Channel usability criteria may be set by empirically determining signal characteristics that provide desirable performance, and may be predetermined or dynamically determined (for example, based on current or historical operating conditions). For example, when ambient signal strength criteria are used at block 451, the usability criteria used at diamond 452 may be one or more threshold values. Such thresholds may be adaptable, based on the lowest or lowest average ambient RSSI in a particular sub-band of the radio frequency band.
In one exemplary implementation, the channel usability algorithm compares the received signal strength measured on the pointed-to wireless channel to a predetermined or dynamically determined threshold, and compares the received signal strengths measured on the additional channels proximate to the pointed-to wireless channel to another predetermined or dynamically determined threshold. In practice, the thresholds may be the same or different, and as the number of proximate channels increases, additional thresholds may be used. One exemplary manner of setting the threshold against which the received signal strengths measured on the additional channels proximate to the pointed-to wireless channel are compared is to set the threshold to a value that compensates for variability of radio receiver sensitivity and geographic locality by scaling the maximum, average, or root-mean-square average values of previously measured received signal strengths on neighboring channels (for example, measurements taken in a test or initial scan). In the exemplary implementation, the pointed-to wireless channel is deemed to be usable when its received signal strength measurement is below the first established threshold, and when the received signal strengths of each of the proximate wireless channels are below the second established threshold. The algorithm may make use of various weighting or scaling factors to further refine its application.
In another exemplary implementation, the channel usability algorithm is used to calculate a score based on the received signal strengths of the pointed-to wireless channel and the proximate wireless channels, and the pointed-to wireless channel is deemed to be usable when the score is below an established threshold (which may be predetermined or determined with reference to dynamic parameters, such as the score of the previously pointed-to wireless channel or other parameters). One possible score calculation is obtained by multiplying the received signal strength of the pointed-to wireless channel by a weighting factor, then adding the result to the sum of the individual received signal strengths of the proximate wireless channels.
When the pointed-to wireless channel is deemed to be usable at diamond 452, then the wireless channel is identified at block 82. Computer-readable media 604, discussed further below in connection with
When, as indicated at diamond 442, the user desires only to locate a single wireless channel (for example, the first, nth, or first-/one-per-subgroup, etc.)—such as when the user is stepping through potential channels or groups of channels—the wireless channel is identified at block 84. Identification may include, but is not limited to, displaying information about the channel to a user for manual tuning of a receiver/over-the-air player, automatically passing information about the channel to the receiver/over-the-air player, and/or otherwise selecting or storing information about the wireless channel. Computer-readable media 604 may be used to store information about the wireless channel. As indicated at diamond 480, the user has an option to reject an identified channel. A user-rejected channel is placed on a “blacklist,” as indicated at block 416. A blacklist is a list or other data structure for storing information about wireless channels deemed to be unusable for any reason. Conditions may be established using temporal parameters, geographic parameters, and the like, to ensure that wireless channels on the blacklist are not automatically re-evaluated and/or presented to a user within a predetermined time period, frequency band pass, or within a predetermined geographic location, and the like. In one exemplary implementation, if the same channel band is subsequently scanned under certain temporal conditions, channels in the blacklist are not presented to the user, resulting in a new set of channel choices for the user. Channels may be removed from the blacklist after a period of time, or based on other information or techniques, such as removal of channels within a finite last-in-first-out buffer—when the buffer is full the next blacklisted channel forces the last-in channel out of the buffer. After the user makes a decision regarding whether to blacklist an identified channel, then the process returns to block 84 if there are more channels to identify as indicated at diamond 482, and is complete when there are no more channels to identify, as indicated at block 484.
If, however, at diamond 442 it is desired to locate more wireless channels (for example, all of the usable channels, or a best wireless channel from among a number of usable channels (the best wireless channel overall or within a particular group of wireless channels), or if it is determined at diamond 452 that the pointed-to wireless channel is unusable, then the method proceeds to block 86, where the channel pointer is incremented to the next potential wireless channel to be evaluated. An optional step of placing a wireless channel on the, as shown at block 416, may be performed when at diamond 452 the wireless channel was deemed to be unusable. It will be appreciated, however, that channels deemed to be unusable based on the channel usability algorithm may not be placed on the same blacklist as channels rejected by the user. It is also possible to present information about unusable wireless channels (such as measured channel characteristics) to a user.
Assuming the next wireless channel to be evaluated identified at block 86 is within the range of the group of wireless channels being tested on the current pass, the method repeats from step 76. It may be unnecessary to evaluate the next potential wireless channel, however, if it is currently on the blacklist, and the next potential wireless channel not on the blacklist may be identified. If the next potential wireless channel identified at block 86 happens to be outside the range of the group of wireless channels being evaluated, and if an additional pass through the group of wireless channels is desired, or if there is another group of wireless channels to be evaluated, then the channel pointer is returned to the initial channel (or the first (optionally, non-blacklisted) channel of the next group of wireless channels) at block 74. The acceptability criteria for channel usability characteristics may be adjusted, if desired, at block 96, to increase the chances that usable wireless channel(s) will be located. If an additional pass through of the group of wireless channels is not desired, and/or if the last group of wireless channels has been evaluated, then the method proceeds to block 84, where wireless channel(s) is/are identified at block 84. Identification may include, but is not limited to, displaying information about acceptable channel(s) (or the lack thereof) to the user, displaying to the user information about channels or characteristics measured, and/or automatically passing information about acceptable channel(s) to the receiver/over-the-air player. As indicated at diamond 480, the user has an option to reject an identified channel. A user-rejected channel is placed on a “blacklist,” as indicated at block 416. A blacklist is a list or other data structure for storing information about wireless channels deemed to be unusable for any reason. Conditions may be established using temporal parameters, geographic parameters, and the like, to ensure that wireless channels on the blacklist are not automatically re-evaluated and/or presented to a user within a predetermined time period, frequency band pass, or within a predetermined geographic location, and the like. In one exemplary implementation, if the same channel band is subsequently scanned under certain temporal conditions, channels in the blacklist are not presented to the user, resulting in a new set of channel choices for the user. Channels may be removed from the blacklist after a period of time, or based on other information or techniques, such as removal of channels within a finite last-in-first-out buffer—when the buffer is full the next blacklisted channel forces the last-in channel out of the buffer. After the user makes a decision regarding whether to blacklist an identified channel, then the process returns to block 84 if there are more channels to identify as indicated at diamond 482, and is complete when there are no more channels to identify, as indicated at block 484.
When it is desirable to identify a most desirable, or best, wireless channel from among a number of usable channels, the wireless channel may be identified from among the wireless channels identified at block 84 (it will be understood that the user may still have the option to reject any identified channel, as discussed above). In one exemplary implementation, a most desirable wireless channel within a particular group of channels can be identified by calculating a weighted average of the signal strength values of each of the pointed-to wireless channels deemed to be usable at diamond 452, and their additional proximate wireless channels, and selecting the wireless channel having the smallest weighted average. One exemplary weighted average calculation can be expressed as 10*RSSI[pointed-to wireless channel]+MAX(RSSI[proximate wireless channel(s) below pointed-to wireless channel], RSSI[proximate wireless channel(s) above pointed-to wireless channel]). In another exemplary implementation, the scores described in connection with block 451 may be used to identify the best wireless channel—for example, the channel with the lowest score. The selection of a best wireless channel may be performed after an entire scan has been performed, or incrementally, with reference to each previously identified best wireless channel.
If it is desired to rank the usable wireless channels identified in a particular scan (for example, a scan of a particular sub-band, or the results of scans of multiple sub-bands), one manner of ranking the identified wireless channels is to locate a particular characteristic (for example, the RSSI value, weighted average of RSSI values, or score) associated with the best wireless channel overall, as described above, and same characteristic(s) associated with the “worst” usable wireless channel overall and use those values to locate the next-best wireless channel, etc., until the identified channels have been organized in ascending or descending order, by sub-band location, or any combination of desired criteria.
Generally, a wireless channel that is currently in use for transmitting media signals 21 is maintained unless and until the user affirmatively indicates a desire to change the wireless channel. It may be desirable, however, to automatically monitor characteristics of the currently used wireless channel to determine if adjustment to a new channel would be appropriate, and either performing or suggesting the adjustment.
With continued reference to
As shown, electronic device 600 includes a computing unit 601, which further includes a processor 602, computer-readable media 604, and computer-executable instructions 606. One or more internal buses 620, which are widely available elements, may be used to carry data, addresses, control signals and other information within, to, or from electronic device 600 or elements thereof.
Processor 602, which may be a real or a virtual processor, controls functions of electronic device 600 by executing computer-executable instructions 606. Processor 602 may execute instructions 606 at the assembly, compiled, or machine-level to perform a particular process.
Computer-readable media 604 represent any number and combination of local or remote devices capable of recording, storing, or transmitting computer-readable data. In particular, computer-readable media 604 may be, or may include, a semiconductor memory (such as a read only memory (“ROM”), any type of programmable ROM (“PROM”), a random access memory (“RAM”), or a flash memory, for example); a magnetic storage device (such as a floppy disk drive, a hard disk drive, a magnetic drum, a magnetic tape, or a magneto-optical disk); an optical storage device (such as any type of compact disk or digital versatile disk); a bubble memory; a cache memory; a core memory; a holographic memory; a memory stick; or any combination thereof.
Computer-readable media 604 may also include transmission media and data associated therewith. Examples of transmission media/data include, but are not limited to, data embodied in any form of wireline or wireless transmission, such as packetized or non-packetized data carried by a modulated carrier signal.
Computer-executable instructions 606 represent any signal processing methods or stored instructions. Generally, computer-executable instructions 606 are implemented as software components according to well-known practices for component-based software development, and encoded in computer-readable media (such as computer-readable media 604). Computer programs may be combined or distributed in various ways. Computer-executable instructions 606, however, are not limited to implementation by any specific embodiments of computer programs, and in other instances may be implemented by, or executed in, hardware, software, firmware, or any combination thereof.
Electronic device 600 further includes user interface(s) 640, which are physical or logical elements that facilitate receipt of user-actuated input to electronic device 600, and presentation of output to users. Input may be received using any type of now known or later-developed physical or logical elements, such as remote controls, buttons, displays, mice, pens, styluses, trackballs, keyboards, microphones, scanning devices, and all types of devices that are used input data. User interface(s) 640 may also include output interface(s), which are physical or logical elements that facilitate provisioning of output from electronic device 600. Output may be provided using any type of now known or later-developed physical or logical elements, such displays, printers, speakers, disk drives, and the like. In practical examples, user-actuated inputs may be used to make selections with respect to automatic or manual wireless channel selection, transmission, or reception. Outputs such as displays may be used to identify to a user the currently selected (or best usable, etc.) wireless channel, and/or to identify the personal media player from which media signal 21 originated. In the latter case, techniques such as RDS or other techniques may be used to communicate in-band or out-of-band information that is displayed to a user via a device such as receiver/over-the-air player 26.
Communication interface(s) 670 are one or more physical or logical elements that enable external communication by electronic device 600 via one or more protocols or techniques. Examples of communication interface(s) 670 include but are not limited to connectivity devices or computer-executable instructions. Information received at a given communication interface may traverse one or more of the several layers of a communication protocol stack or abstract networking model. One exemplary abstract networking model is the OSI Internetworking Model, which has seven layers: layer 1, the physical layer; layer 2, the data link layer; layer 3, the network layer; layer 4, the transport layer; layer 5, the session layer; layer 6, the presentation layer; and layer 7, the application layer.
Specialized hardware/firmware 650 represents any hardware or firmware that implements functions of electronic device 600. Examples of specialized communication hardware include transceivers (and/or individual transmitters or receivers), encoder/decoders (“CODECs”), decrypters, application-specific integrated circuits, clocks, and the like.
It will be appreciated that particular configurations of electronic device 600 may include fewer, more, or different components or functions than those described. In addition, functional components of electronic device 600 may be implemented by one or more devices, which are co-located or remotely located, in a variety of ways.
Although the subject matter herein has been described in language specific to structural features and/or methodological acts, it is also to be understood that the subject matter defined in the claims is not necessarily limited to the specific features or acts described above. Rather, the specific features and acts described above are disclosed as example forms of implementing the claims.
It will further be understood that when one element is indicated as being responsive to another element, the elements may be directly or indirectly coupled. Connections depicted herein may be logical or physical in practice to achieve a coupling or communicative interface between elements. Connections may be implemented, among other ways, as inter-process communications among software processes, or inter-machine communications among networked computers.
The word “exemplary” is used herein to mean serving as an example, instance, or illustration. Any implementation or aspect thereof described herein as “exemplary” is not necessarily to be constructed as preferred or advantageous over other implementations or aspects thereof.
As it is understood that embodiments other than the specific embodiments described above may be devised without departing from the spirit and scope of the appended claims, it is intended that the scope of the subject matter herein will be governed by the following claims.
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|U.S. Classification||370/332, 455/115.1, 455/161.3|
|International Classification||H04B1/18, H04B17/00, H04W4/00, H03C1/62|
|Cooperative Classification||H04L69/24, H04L67/04, H04L69/14, H04W72/02|
|European Classification||H04L29/08N3, H04L29/06H, H04L29/06P, H04W72/02|
|Dec 9, 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MICROSOFT CORPORATION, WASHINGTON
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GIAIMO, EDWARD;JUBELIRER, MATTHEW;MORRIS, MATTHEW;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:020219/0415;SIGNING DATES FROM 20071021 TO 20071102
Owner name: MICROSOFT CORPORATION, WASHINGTON
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GIAIMO, EDWARD;JUBELIRER, MATTHEW;MORRIS, MATTHEW;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20071021 TO 20071102;REEL/FRAME:020219/0415
|Dec 9, 2014||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MICROSOFT TECHNOLOGY LICENSING, LLC, WASHINGTON
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MICROSOFT CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:034542/0001
Effective date: 20141014
|Dec 29, 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4