|Publication number||US7988732 B2|
|Application number||US 12/776,506|
|Publication date||Aug 2, 2011|
|Filing date||May 10, 2010|
|Priority date||Mar 16, 2000|
|Also published as||CA2400630A1, DE60125916D1, DE60125916T2, EP1263329A2, EP1263329B1, EP1263329B9, EP1752102A1, EP1752102B1, EP2298182A1, US6746483, US7407512, US7731750, US7740657, US7758642, US8696748, US20040225359, US20080027445, US20080109079, US20080319546, US20100222826, US20110282362, US20140194938, WO2001070135A2, WO2001070135A3|
|Publication number||12776506, 776506, US 7988732 B2, US 7988732B2, US-B2-7988732, US7988732 B2, US7988732B2|
|Inventors||Raymond C. Bojarski, Paul Alexander Torrie, Fraser Harvie, Steven W. Ek|
|Original Assignee||Smith & Nephew, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (52), Non-Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (7), Classifications (37), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/970,196, filed Jan. 7, 2008, which is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/862,573, filed Jun. 8, 2004, which is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/526,960, filed Mar. 16, 2000, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,746,483, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.
The invention relates to devices that fix soft tissue to support structures, particularly devices that fix soft tissue grafts within bone tunnels.
In certain types of surgical procedures, soft tissue grafts must be fixed within a bone tunnel. For example, in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) replacement surgery, a ligament graft is harvested from the patient or from a donor, and implanted within the knee by securing one end within a bone tunnel drilled through the tibia, and the other end within a bone tunnel drilled through the femur. Several ACL reconstructive techniques are described in Rosenberg, U.S. Pat. No. 5,139,520, which is incorporated herein by reference.
In attaching soft tissue within a bone tunnel using a bone screw, it is important that the tissue be rigidly fixed within the tunnel to prevent slippage. When the bone involved is relatively soft (less calcified), a common problem in elderly patients, screws may not adequately fix the graft to the bone.
In one aspect, the invention relates to a sheath for an implantable fixation device, the sheath comprising a flexible body having a relieved wall, the body defining an interior sized and shaped to receive the fixation device and including an open end and a closed end. In an embodiment, the body defines a tube, the tube being sized and shaped to receive the fixation device. In another embodiment, the tube is sized and shaped to snugly receive a shaft of a bone screw fixation device. In another embodiment, the relieved wall comprises a mesh wall. In yet another embodiment, the flexible body comprises a tube that defines at least one perforation in a circumferential side wall of the tube. In a further embodiment, the flexible body includes an interior that is flexible such that, when the fixation device is inserted into the body, the body flexibly expands to allow the fixation device to fit snugly within the body.
In another aspect, the invention relates to a combination comprising a sheath including a flexible body having a relieved wall, the body defining an interior sized and shaped to receive a fixation device and including an open end and a closed end; and the fixation device, wherein the fixation device is a bone screw, the bone screw having a shaft sized and shaped to fit within the interior of the sheath. In an embodiment, the shaft of the bone screw fits snugly within the interior of the sheath. In another embodiment, the shaft includes generally rounded screw threads. In yet another embodiment, the body defines a tube, the tube being sized and shaped to receive the fixation device. In a further embodiment, the relieved wall comprises a mesh wall. In yet a further embodiment, the flexible body comprises a tube that defines at least one perforation in a circumferential side wall of the tube. In an embodiment, the flexible body includes an interior that is flexible such that, when the fixation device is inserted into the body, the body flexibly expands to allow the fixation device to fit snugly within the body.
In yet another aspect, the invention relates to a combination comprising a sheath including a flexible body defining a tube having an open end and a closed end, the tube defining an interior sized and shaped to receive a fixation device and a soft tissue graft; and the fixation device, the fixation device configured to be received within the sheath such that the fixation device extends over a majority of the length of the tube. In an embodiment, the body includes a relieved wall. In another embodiment, the relieved wall comprises a mesh wall. In yet another embodiment, the tube defines at least one perforation in a circumferential side wall of the tube. In a further embodiment, the interior of the tube is flexible such that, when the fixation device and the soft tissue graft are inserted into the tube, the tube flexibly expands to allow the fixation device and the soft tissue graft to fit snugly within the tube.
In a further aspect, the invention relates to a sheath for an implantable fixation device, the sheath comprising a flexible body having a relieved wall, the body defining an interior sized and shaped to receive the fixation device and including an open and closed end, wherein the body defines a tube, the tube being sized and shaped to snugly receive a shaft of a bone screw fixation device.
In yet a further aspect, the invention relates to a sheath for an implantable fixation device, the sheath comprising a flexible body having a relieved wall, the body defining an interior sized and shaped to receive the fixation device, wherein the body defines a tube, the tube being sized and shaped to receive the fixation device and including an open end and a closed end.
In an aspect, the invention relates to a combination comprising a sheath including a flexible body having a relieved wall, the body defining an interior sized and shaped to receive a fixation device and an open end and a closed end; and the fixation device.
In another aspect, the invention relates to a combination comprising a sheath including: a flexible body having a relieved wall, the body defining an interior sized and shaped to receive a fixation device and including an open end and a closed end, and the fixation device, wherein the relieved wall comprises a mesh wall.
In yet another aspect, the invention relates to s sheath for an implantable fixation device, the sheath comprising a flexible body having a relieved wall, the body defining an interior sized and shaped to receive the fixation device and including an open end and a closed end, wherein the relieved wall comprises a mesh wall.
The invention may include one or more of the following advantages.
The flexibility and thinness of certain embodiments of the sheath allows the sheath to conform, e.g., to the shape of the fixation device, or to the shape of a bone tunnel.
In certain embodiments, the sheath protects the soft tissue graft from laceration or cutting by threads of a fixation screw, and reduces twisting of the graft upon insertion of a screw.
The relief in the sheath, e.g., perforations in a wall of the sheath, allows in situ contact between a soft tissue graft and the wall of a bone tunnel, promoting development of Sharpy-like fibers and permanent attachment of the soft tissue to the bone.
Therapeutic agents, such as osteoinductors or growth factors, can be disposed on or embedded into the material of the sheath, allowing delivery of the agent directly to the site of fixation.
Other embodiments and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description and from the claims.
Embodiments of the invention feature sheaths that surround bone screws and soft tissue grafts to improve fixation of the grafts. In its simplest form, the sheath is a flexible, mesh tube that surrounds only the bone screw, both the bone screw and the graft, or only the graft. In other embodiments, the sheath includes multiple tubes.
Interior 54 of sheath 50 is sized and shaped to receive bone screw 12. Sheath 50 has an internal diameter D1 greater than the diameter DS of bone screw 12, so that both screw 12 and segments 19 a and 19 b of graft 10 can fit snugly within the sheath. The sheath has a length L1 slightly larger than the length LS of screw 12. The mesh body 52 is thin and flexible, allowing the sheath to adjust to snugly surround the screw; body 52 can be compressed to reduce the volume of interior 54, twisted, or stretched. Since sheath 50 is thin and flexible rather than rigid, it cannot on its own shore up soft bone, or fix a graft within a bone tunnel. (i.e., sheath 50 is not designed to be used alone as a fixation device or as a solid, rigid reinforcement of soft bone.)
In some embodiments, the threads forming the mesh body 52 are larger in the radial direction than in the axial direction. This difference in thread size results in sheath 50 being less flexible radially than axially. In these embodiments, the diameter D1 is more resistant to expansion or contraction than length L1. In other embodiments, the thread size is equal throughout body 52.
Diameter D1 is, e.g., between about 8 and 10 mm, and L1 is, between about 25 and 40 mm. If sheath 50 is designed for a 7×25 bone screw (7 mm diameter, 25 mm length), then L1 is, e.g., about 30 mm, and D1 is, e.g., about 9 mm. Most of exterior surface 53 is open. For example, about 40% of the area exterior surface 53 is mesh strands, and about 60% is holes 56. The thickness T1 the mesh wall of sheath 50 is, for example, less than about 0.3 mm, e.g., about 0.1-0.2 mm.
Body 52 can be made from a variety of bioabsorbable materials, including polylactic acid, or polylactic glycolic acid. Alternatively, body 52 can be made from a blend of absorbable materials, or from a non-absorbable material, such as a polyester. The material forming the body preferably has a higher coefficient of friction than graft 10, so that exterior surface 53 of the sheath grips internal wall 24 of bone tunnel 14 more firmly than graft 10 alone, improving fixation.
Body 52 can be formed, e.g., by weaving, braiding, knitting, or crocheting strands of the material to form the cylindrical shape, or by extrusion, using techniques known in the art. The strands forming body 52 have diameters of about 0.1-1.0 mm, e.g., 0.4-0.6 mm, or 0.51 mm.
Although sheath 50 can be used with a variety of fixation screws, screw 12 preferably has blunt or rounded screw threads, as opposed to sharp threads, so that the threads do not cut the sheath or the soft tissue graft. A typical rounded-thread screw is shown in Roger et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,383,878, which is incorporated herein by reference.
After attaching graft 10 within (or adjacent to) femur tunnel 18, the surgeon passes ends 20 a, 20 b of graft 10 through interior 54 of sheath 50 (via open ends 58 a and 58 b), and then slides sheath 50 into tibial tunnel 14. The diameter of tunnel 14 is only slightly larger than the outer diameter of sheath 50, such that sheath 50 fits snugly within tunnel 14. Alternatively, sheath 50 can be inserted into tunnel 14 prior to passing the graft through the sheath. To insert sheath 50 into tibial tunnel 14, the surgeon can use a delivery tool, such as a rigid tube detachably fixed to the distal end of the sheath. Alternatively, a suture can be threaded through the distal end of sheath 50, and the sheath can be pulled into place within tunnel 14 using the suture.
The surgeon then inserts bone screw 12 into interior 54 of sheath 50, between segments 19 a and 19 b of the graft. The screw may be inserted using an insertion tool known in the art, such as a screw driver. When screw 12 is in place as shown in
As shown in
The presence of sheath 50 within bone tunnel 14 improves fixation of graft 10. Since exterior surface 53 of sheath 50 has a higher coefficient of friction than graft 10, sheath 50 is less likely than graft 10 (which is made of tissue) to slide along wall 24 of the tunnel, or to twist when screw 12 is inserted into the tunnel. In addition, since body 52 of sheath 50 has a mesh structure, portions of graft 10 protrude through holes 56 of the mesh, resisting sliding of graft 10 relative to sheath 50. The flexibility of sheath 50 allows the sheath to conform to the shape of wall 24, maximizing the surface area contact between the exterior surface of the sheath and wall 24, thereby increasing frictional forces between the sheath and the wall.
After screw 12 has been inserted into tunnel 14, the surgeon may trim the portions of segments 19 a and 19 b that extrude proximally from tunnel 14, completing the surgical procedure. Over time, graft 10 permanently affixes to wall 24 by growth of Sharpy-like fibers between the soft tissue of graft 10 and the bone tissue of wall 24. (“Sharpy-like fibers” are collagenous fibers that grow from bone into a soft tissue graft. The presence of Sharpy-like fibers indicate good bony growth to the graft, and therefore good fixation. See Pinczewski et al., “Integration of Hamstring Tendon Graft With Bone in Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament,” Arthroscopy, 13: 641-43 (1997). The open holes 56 in body 52 of the sheath facilitate permanent fixation by increasing the direct contact between the graft and the bone tunnel wall. Sheath 50 eventually dissolves, and new bone grows to fill its position.
To accelerate bone growth and permanent attachment of graft 10 to wall 24, sheath 50 can include an osteoinductive agent, such as hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, calcium sulphate, or a “ceramic” (a calcium and potassium crystalline). The osteoinductive agent can be applied to sheath 50 prior to surgery by, e.g., spraying the sheath with the agent, by dipping the sheath into a bath that includes the agent, by dusting or spraying the agent onto the sheath, or by filling the sheath with a gel that includes the agent. In addition, the strands of material forming the mesh body 52 can be hollow, and the agent can be within the hollow interiors of the strands. Alternatively, the agent can be incorporated into the material that forms body 52. For example, the agent can be blended into the material used to make the threads that form mesh body 52, or can be added to the fibers as an osteoinductive felt.
Other therapeutic agent, such as growth factors (e.g., tissue growth fact or platelet derived growth factor), bone morphogenic proteins, stem cells, osteoblasts, and cytokines, can also be included in the sheath. These bioactive agents can be added using the techniques described above, or can be blended into the material that forms body 52 using micro-encapsulation or nanoparticles. For example, body 52 can be formed from a material comprising microspheres of the agent and a polymer, such as polylactic glycolic acid. The microspheres of the agent and polymer can be prepared using known techniques. See, e.g., Cohen et al., “Controlled Delivery Systems for Proteins Based on Poly(Lactic/Glycolic Acid) Microspheres,” Pharm. Research, 8:713-20 (1991); DeLuca et al., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,160,745 and 4,741,872. Rather than forming microspheres, the agent and polymer can also be mixed together using, e.g., sintering techniques. See, Cohen et al., “Sintering Techniques for the Preparation of Polymer Matrices for the Controlled Release of Macromolecules,” J. Pharm. Sciences, 73:1034-37 (1984). The bioactive agents can also be attached to body 52 using adhesives or electrical charge, or can be directly loaded onto the sheath by a delivery mechanism after implantation of the sheath.
Other embodiments are within the scope of the claims. For example, the sheath can be used to assist fixation of a bone screw within the femur tunnel 18, in addition to the tibial tunnel 14.
When screw 12 is inserted, it compresses graft 10 within the sheath, and presses exterior surface 53 of the sheath against wall 24, fixing graft 10 within tunnel 14.
The structure of the bone screw sheath can be modified as well. The diameter D1, length L1, and thickness T of the sheath can be varied to accommodate different sized bone tunnels, different sized screws, and different deployment methods. For example, in the deployment method of
In the deployment methods shown in
If the bone is particularly soft, sheath 50 can be woven tighter, so that the sheath is less flexible, thereby providing a more firm substrate for screw 12 to engage.
The sheath need not have a mesh structure. For example, the sheath can have a solid body with holes cut through the body, allowing communication between the exterior and interior of the sheath. In addition, the sheath's body need not be integrally formed. For example, the body can be formed by winding a strip of material around an implantable device to form a relieved body that defines an interior.
The sheath can have relief structures other than holes to allow communication between the exterior and interior. For example, other types of perforations, such as slits, can be used, instead of holes. In addition, the device can have a solid wall with thinned sections. When implanted, the thinned sections biodegrade more quickly than other sections of the wall, such that in situ, the device develops perforations.
To increase the coefficient of friction of exterior surface 53 to improve fixation of the sheath within the bone tunnel, exterior surface 53 can have a roughened finish. Referring to
In operation, a soft tissue graft is passed through one of the tubes (e.g., tube 352 a), and the fixation screw is inserted into the second tube (e.g., tube 352 b). When the sheath, graft, and fixation screw are positioned within the bone tunnel, tube 352 a is compressed between the screw and a wall of the bone tunnel. The graft, therefore, is compressed within tube 352 a, fixing the graft within the bone tunnel.
Each tube 452 a, 452 b, 452 c, and 452 d has a diameter D4 and a length L4 similar to diameter D3 and length L3 of sheath 350 (
In operation, segments of a soft tissue graft are passed through each of tubes 452 a-452 d. The surgeon can either use multiple, independent tissue grafts separately attached to the femur tunnel, or can split the proximal end of a single graft into four separate segments. The sheath is then inserted into the tibial bone tunnel, and a fixation screw is inserted into central cavity 456. When the sheath, soft tissue, and screw are in place within the bone tunnel, the tubes are compressed between the screw and the bone tunnel wall, and the soft tissue segments are compressed within each tube, thereby fixing the soft tissue within the bone tunnel.
In the embodiment shown
Instead of being integrally woven, the tubes of sheath 450 can be woven, braided, or knitted separately, and attached together using, e.g., stitching, spot welding, or an adhesive. The tubes can also be solid rather than mesh, and need not all have the same diameter. In addition, unlike the single tube sheaths of
The sheaths need not be used exclusively with bone screws or bone tunnels. Rather, the invention includes sheaths that improve fixation of other types of implantable fixation devices, such as soft tissue tacks, plugs, and suture anchors. The size and shapes of the sheaths can be varied to accommodate the different types of fixation devices. For example, in one embodiment, soft tissue can be positioned inside of a sheath, and the sheath can be attached to the side of a bone with a fixation device such as a tack.
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|International Classification||A61B17/68, A61B17/00, A61F2/02, A61B17/34, A61F2/30, A61B17/56, A61F2/08, A61F2/00|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S623/908, A61F2002/30062, A61B2017/0046, A61B2017/00004, A61F2230/0069, A61F2210/0004, A61F2002/30919, A61F2220/0008, A61F2/08, A61F2002/30235, A61B17/3431, A61F2250/0067, A61B17/8861, A61B17/8869, A61F2002/30914, A61F2002/30677, A61F2/30749, A61F2002/0835, A61F2002/0864, A61F2002/0882, A61B17/0401, A61B17/686, A61F2/0811|
|European Classification||A61B17/68P, A61F2/08, A61B17/34G4C, A61B17/04A, A61F2/08F|
|May 19, 2010||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SMITH & NEPHEW, INC., TENNESSEE
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:BOJARSKI, RAY;TORRIE, PAUL ALEXANDER;HARVIE, FRASER;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20000229 TO 20000310;REEL/FRAME:024409/0245
|Jan 21, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4