|Publication number||US7991880 B2|
|Application number||US 12/060,046|
|Publication date||Aug 2, 2011|
|Priority date||Mar 31, 2008|
|Also published as||US20090245140, WO2009122008A1|
|Publication number||060046, 12060046, US 7991880 B2, US 7991880B2, US-B2-7991880, US7991880 B2, US7991880B2|
|Inventors||Sergey Balandin, Elena Balandina|
|Original Assignee||Nokia Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Non-Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (4), Classifications (9), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates generally to the field of service creation and service provision in global and local (or personalized) networks. More specifically, the present invention relates to flexible architectures for service creation, provision, and self-evolution of biologically inspired network and services (BIONETS).
This section is intended to provide a background or context to the invention that is recited in the claims. The description herein may include concepts that could be pursued, but are not necessarily ones that have been previously conceived or pursued. Therefore, unless otherwise indicated herein, what is described in this section is not prior art to the description and claims in this application and is not admitted to be prior art by inclusion in this section.
BIONETS refers to the framework of a European Union (EU) project that seeks to promulgate networks and services that are modeled after, e.g., bio-inspired, self-evolving, ecological, and/or socio-economic communities. It is desired that such types of networks and services further the trend towards pervasive communication environments, where distributed networks can replace “fully-connected” networks. For example, autonomic networks or systems can comprise mobile devices, referred to as user nodes (U-Nodes) and embedded sensing devices referred to as tiny nodes (T-Nodes), where the T-Nodes are capable of sensing environmental/contextual data that can be utilized by the U-Nodes to, e.g., enhance services.
One desired characteristic identified in BIONETS involves evolution, where autonomic networks, systems, services, protocols, etc. continuously undergo self-optimization to provide increasingly “better” service to the U-Nodes. It is foreseen that services may also die out from, e.g., obsolescence and failure to satisfy the needs of users. Evolution in BIONETS can comprise a variety of different and/or inter-related processes, such as transformation operations, fitness evaluations, competitive selection, and communication, where communication can be utilized to, e.g., exchange information for the transformation operations, fitness evaluation feedback, etc.
Additionally, evolution can be considered in terms of at least two perspectives, for example, micro/microscopic-evolution and macro/macroscopic-evolution. Micro-evolution refers to the evolution of smaller operations, such as individual programs or service blocks that may implement a particular service, and transformation operations related to such individual programs, for example, self-tuning parameters. Macro-evolution refers to the global impact or evolution that the smaller operations or service blocks have on a larger network or system, such as the interaction between the individual programs and how certain individual programs may replicate and/or propagate throughout a network, cooperation between individual programs, etc.
One issue in service development is that, while oftentimes it is possible to recognize a user's dissatisfaction with a service, it is difficult to formally crystallize the user's problem in a manner that would allow for the resolution of the problem. Moreover, a user may, for example, misinterpret the existing dissatisfaction. Hence, a developer seeking to address the user's dissatisfaction attempts to create a remedy by following a “false path” based upon the user's misinterpretation. As a result, the user's dissatisfaction can go unresolved or unaddressed.
Services deployed and used in conventional networks are strongly focused or oriented to completing a certain task, but do not provide enough flexibility for self-evolution, customization, and/or personalization to the specific needs of different users. Furthermore, even when generalized service development is properly focused to completing a task, a lack of self-evolution capability remains a limiting factor to the completion of that task. For example, scenarios can exist where a service can provide 95% of a user's needs and requirements, but the remaining 5% defines overall success of the service. In addition, service adjustment conventionally involves a plethora of human resources, which may result in inefficient service adjustment. Even when a problem is properly identified, oftentimes, too much time is spent in modifying the service to address the problem and in deploying a new version of the service throughout a network. This is turn can often result in the loss of one or more business opportunities.
Various embodiments provide a basis for implementing information technology (IT) and telecommunications services capable of self-creation, self-evolution and/or substantive personalization without direct intervention from a service provider. The resulting services are flexible and user-friendly, as a basic set of service primitives can be updated and extended at any point. Additionally, the updating and extension need not have an immediate impact to a service, thereby providing a new and/or improved functionality that is adapted to a user's behavior in smooth and “friendly” manner. Implementation of service families, meta-service and readdressing in accordance with various embodiments allows for the maximization of a community training effect, when some interesting service is found by of one community user can be easily shared and utilized by other users. Moreover, the systems and methods described herein for implementing/providing a basis for a flexible architecture minimizes resource consumption on the client side.
These and other advantages and features of various embodiments of the present invention, together with the organization and manner of operation thereof, will become apparent from the following detailed description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein like elements have like numerals throughout the several drawings described below.
Embodiments of the invention are described by referring to the attached drawings, in which:
Various embodiments described herein provide systems and methods of effectuating service creation/evolution and provisioning in global networks such as autonomic networks contemplated in the BIONETS environment. Furthermore, services created can be integrated with various data sources including, for example, basic Internet services and sensor (T-Nodes, and others.) data.
Additionally, various embodiments address the development of one or more flexible architectures that can support service creation/development and provisioning in addition to self-evolution. Therefore, various embodiments allow for continued self learning, customization and adjustment of BIONETS services to the needs and expectations of users in accordance with characteristics such as those exhibited by biological organisms, for example, the ability to continuously adopt itself to an ever-changing environment.
From a user-experience point-of-view, a BIONETS service architecture can be thought of as a mechanism for analyzing a chain of tasks executed by the user before a particular service is started, in parallel with execution of the particular service, and immediately after its execution. In other words, an analysis of obtained results can create a basis for automated service evolution and personalization, while at the same time utilizing certain characteristics of the BIONETS service architecture itself.
The client application 105 may be configured to remain active at all time so that it is available whenever a user desires access to BIONETS services. Hence, the role of the client application 105 may comprise, but is not limited to, providing a user interface (UI) for each individual BIONETS application, maintaining service personal preferences, and continuously monitoring a user's activities when the client module is active.
It should be noted that the monitoring of user activities may be targeted when constructing patterns of most-commonly-used-sequences of BIONETS services. Moreover, the parallel use of 3rd party applications may also be monitored by the client application 105. For example, monitoring by the client module 105 may include a number of measurements indicating how long each operation in a particular instance of user interaction with the BIONETS service 100 takes. That is, some phases or operations effectuated during a user's interaction with the BIONETS service 100 may, for example, be undesirably long. Hence, certain solutions should be found to decrease the user's waiting time. Alternatively, some additional user entertainment service primitive can be introduced to keep the user from becoming dissatisfied with the waiting time. As described above, the monitoring by the client application 105 can further comprise determining during which phases or operations of the BIONETS service 100 that the user switches to a parallel task, as well as determining the type of parallel task that was switched to. These monitoring scenarios are merely exemplary and other types of monitoring and the monitoring of various processes and/or operations can be effectuated in accordance with various embodiments.
The collected measurements may be processed on the client side at the client application 105 and once a pattern of behavior is identified, the corresponding BIONETS service 100 can be modified to match and/or address the observed behavior or personal preferences. Additionally, a behavior sequence can be defined as a candidate for a particular pattern of behavior after, for example, a second execution of the BIONETS service 100. Depending on the settings associated with the BIONETS service 100, the candidate pattern may then graduate to becoming an active pattern. A candidate pattern can become an active pattern when certain formal conditions are fulfilled or after a corresponding service change is presented to the user and approved. The resulting active pattern thus defines a script for executing a sequence of services as well as any new service primitives inherited from a 3rd party application when possible. Alternatively still, the client application 105 may request an alternative implementation of the BIONETS server 100 which is then forwarded to the Expert/Decision making manager 120.
As a result of the above operations, future service primitives 130 can result that either effectuate an evolution of the back-end server 110 and/or the BIONETS service 100 itself. Furthermore, after each BIONETS session, such as the execution of a BIONETS service 100, the client application 105 may send, measurements and information about new active patterns to the Expert/Decision making manager 120 at the back-end server 110 for later use in the service families' building process for the future service primitives 130. The measurements and information generated during the BIONETS session is sent post-processed to ensure a user's privacy.
An exemplary scenario that can take advantage of the systems and methods of various embodiments described herein may include, for example, a public stock market monitoring service that provides a current value of a given stock. In this case, a user may utilize a “stock ticker” service that provides the user with periodic or constant updates which inform the user of a particular stock's value at a given time. In accordance with various embodiments, instead of simply continuing to provide stock values as is done with conventional services of this type, the stock ticker service may evolve by monitoring the user's interaction with the stock ticker service. For example, it may be noticed that the user oftentimes will execute a calculator application in parallel with the stock ticker service and utilize that calculator to multiply stock values by a certain number (e.g., the number of stocks held by the user).
After observing this behavior of executing the calculator application in parallel with the stock ticker service a pre-determined number of times, the stock ticker service can undergo self-evolution by deciding to improve the services it provides by embedding calculator functionality and a corresponding UI in its stock ticker service. Moreover, the stock ticker service may by default, automatically multiply a given stock's value by the earlier observed value representing the number of stocks held by the user, thus preempting the need for the user to manually perform the multiplication operation herself. It should be noted, however, that the user may always refuse any of the proposed service modifications/evolutions in certain embodiments using, for example, a configuration menu. Therefore, the user still maintains reasonable control over any service she utilizes while being able to take advantage of the self-creation, self-evolution, and self-provisioning of those services.
Referring again to
Therefore, when a service provider desires to replace an “old” functional block with a new functional block, it is done by adding a service primitive(s) corresponding to the new functionality into the existing set of service primitives. Then, a new service family may be defined and only when all users voluntarily move to the new service family branch are the old primitives removed from the existing set of service primitives. Thus various embodiments allow, e.g., service developers, to detect and address potential drawbacks of any new functions, primitives, etc., before a user has the opportunity to undergo a negative experience.
As described above, an Expert/Decision making manager 120 may be utilized to receive monitored information, and aid the BIONETS service 100 to evolve or cause the creation of a new service. The Expert/Decision making manager 120 may operate in either default or personalized modes, either of which may be selected based on a client application's service request parameters as shown in
As also described above, a self-evolving architecture may based at least in part upon the ability of the Expert/Decision making manager 120 to adapt a particular service to an individual user's needs. The Expert/Decision making manager 120 takes into account individual user preferences where corresponding data is provided by the client application 105, for combining available service primitives and data into a fully personalized service oriented to fulfilling that particular user's needs. Such an architecture may effectuate continued evolution of each BIONETS service 100 based on changes in the Expert/Decision making manager 120 and based on updates of the service primitives set. Therefore, in accordance with various embodiments, a simple and robust system and method for updating one or more sets of service primitives and Expert/Decision making manager 120 itself is provided. Moreover, the Expert/Decision making manager 120 provides the ability in various embodiments to create meta-services as a product of the cooperative use of a set of BIONETS services, as well as a method of offering readdressing to another BIONETS service if the that BIONETS service better suits a user request.
When a new user begins utilizing a BIONETS service 100, the user may either utilize the BIONETS service with a default scenario or as a BIONETS service that inherits personalization details of another user. When the BIONETS service 100 is utilized with a default scenario in a default mode, the BIONETS service 100 implements an initial view of the service provider. That is, the service provider's initial view or approach regarding how a user's current dissatisfaction may be addressed. This initial view or approach can be considered to be a base-family of the BIONETS service 100. When the BIONETS service 100 inherits the personalization details of another user, the Expert/Decision making manager 120 associates the new user with some other family of the BIONETS service 100. After an initial assignment to one of these other families, the new user continues to interact with the BIONETS service 100. Therefore, as described above, an identification of a new usage pattern that leads to the creation of a new service instance as a member of a given family group can result. Moreover, this process of development of service families creates a set of implementation (build) branches on top of the original base-family service, which creates targeted self-evolution of the service.
The architecture implemented in accordance with various embodiments also provides the ability to create a meta-service on top of individual BIONETS services. For example, one possible measured parameter in a service use scenario is a sequence of BIONETS services that were executed before and after executing a given service. Based on this information, the client application 105 may suggest the creation of a new meta-service consisting of a number of sequentially executed BIONETS services. This information may be communicated by the client application 105 and processed at the back-end server 110 using the same systems and/or methods as those utilized for defining the combination of service primitives within a BIONETS service 100. The association of services to a meta-service is performed using, e.g., direct links of meta-associations set between various BIONETS services and meta-associations defined separately for each service family. The direct links may determine and/or present those services that should be executed in a particular sequence. Additionally, a prior direct link in the sequence of BIONETS services may enable a corresponding service request to be sent directly to the proper subsequent service in the sequence of BIONETS services.
In light of the above-described creation of meta-services, a first BIONETS service can act as an agent working on behalf of the client application 105. As a result, any service or set of services comprising a user solution may decrease the number of communication transactions between the client application 105 and the back-end server 110, and thus reduce the processing power consumption at the client side. Power usage at a mobile device hosting the client application 105) would be reduced, for example. Furthermore, when BIONETS services operate as agents of the client application 105, the speed of service execution may be increased, thus improving upon a user's overall service experience. It should be noted that upon a new user subscribing to a service as a member of certain family, various embodiments may be configured so that the user will also automatically receive an offer to use any one or more BIONETS meta-services created by other users of the same family in addition to any given service that may have initially been subscribed to by the new user.
Another aspect of a BIONETS architecture that is implemented in accordance with various embodiments is the ability to allow for internal readdressing to another service. Such internal readdressing may be implemented, for example, by using a readdressing link that may be potentially defined for each service family.
When a user of a service family or an expert of the service provider that is providing the service family identifies a potential replacement service that the user may utilize, a readdressing link is set to point to that potential replacement service. The potential replacement service may comprise a service of a different type and/or may address a user's dissatisfaction in a substantially different manner. For example, in certain service scenarios, a user's dissatisfaction can be resolved using completely different technical solutions and in some cases even psychological solutions. It should be noted that although various embodiments described herein are directed to addressing a user's dissatisfaction with a particular BIONETS service, such embodiments are not limited to addressing dissatisfaction per se. For example, a user may simply desire a change in his/her service or may wish to test a new and/or different service. Hence, as described above, service families can be maintained, e.g., until no users remain so that potential drawbacks associated with a new module or service can be addressed. Service families may also be maintained in the event that a user determines that a previous service family is better suited to his/her needs.
When a replacement service is associated with a particular service family, a user maintains the ability to continue using the base-family service or switch to the replacement service. For example, a potential replacement service may be automatically offered for a first time and if a user does not accept the replacement service, the user may still request the replacement “manually” at a later time. Likewise, when a replacement service is selected, the base-family service may, e.g., continue to act as a “gate” for the client application 105 in the same manner as described above for meta-services. Referring back to
For exemplification, the system 10 shown in
The exemplary communication devices of the system 10 may include, but are not limited to, a electronic device 12 in the form of a mobile telephone, a combination personal digital assistant (PDA0 and mobile telephone 14, a PDA 16, an integrated messaging device (IMD) 18, a desktop computer 20, a notebook computer 22, etc. The communication devices may be stationary or mobile as when carried by an individual who is moving. The communication devices may also be located in a mode of transportation including, but not limited to, an automobile, a truck, a taxi, a bus, a train, a boat, an airplane, a bicycle, a motorcycle, etc. Some or all of the communication devices may send and receive calls and messages and communicate with service providers through a wireless connection 25 to a base station 24. The base station 24 may be connected to a network server 26 that allows communication between the mobile telephone network 11 and the Internet 28. The system 10 may include additional communication devices and communication devices of different types.
The communication devices may communicate using various transmission technologies including, but not limited to, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), Short Messaging Service (SMS), Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), e-mail, Instant Messaging Service (IMS), Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.16, etc. A communication device involved in implementing various embodiments of the present invention may communicate using various media including, but not limited to, radio, infrared, laser, cable connection, and the like.
Various embodiments described herein provide a basis for implementing, e.g., information technology (IT) and telecommunications services capable of self-creation, self-evolution and/or substantive personalization without direct intervention from, e.g., a service provider. The resulting services are flexible and user-friendly, as a basic set of service primitives can be updated and extended at any point. Additionally, the updating and extension need not have an immediate impact to a service, thereby providing a new and/or improved functionality that is adapted to a user's behavior in smooth and “friendly” manner. Additionally, implementation of service families, meta-service and readdressing as described above in accordance with various embodiments allows for the maximization of, e.g., a community training effect, when some interesting service finding of one community user can be easily shared and utilized by other users. Moreover, the systems and methods described herein for implementing/providing a basis for a flexible architecture minimizes resource consumption on the client side.
Various embodiments described herein are described in the general context of method steps or processes, which may be implemented in one embodiment by a computer program product, embodied in a computer-readable medium, including computer-executable instructions, such as program code, executed by computers in networked environments. Generally, program modules may include routines, programs, objects, components, data structures, etc. that perform particular tasks or implement particular abstract data types. Computer-executable instructions, associated data structures, and program modules represent examples of program code for executing steps of the methods disclosed herein. The particular sequence of such executable instructions or associated data structures represents examples of corresponding acts for implementing the functions described in such steps or processes.
Various embodiments described herein are described in the general context of method steps or processes, which may be implemented in one embodiment by a computer program product, embodied in a computer-readable medium, including computer-executable instructions, such as program code, executed by computers in networked environments. A computer-readable medium may include removable and non-removable storage devices including, but not limited to, Read Only Memory (ROM), Random Access Memory (RAM), compact discs (CDs), digital versatile discs (DVD), etc. Generally, program modules may include routines, programs, objects, components, data structures, etc. that perform particular tasks or implement particular abstract data types. Computer-executable instructions, associated data structures, and program modules represent examples of program code for executing steps of the methods disclosed herein. The particular sequence of such executable instructions or associated data structures represents examples of corresponding acts for implementing the functions described in such steps or processes.
Various embodiments may be implemented in software, hardware, application logic or a combination of software, hardware and application logic. The software, application logic and/or hardware may reside, for example, on a chipset, a mobile device, a desktop, a laptop or a server. Software and web implementations of various embodiments can be accomplished with standard programming techniques with rule-based logic and other logic to accomplish various database searching steps or processes, correlation steps or processes, comparison steps or processes and decision steps or processes. Various embodiments may also be fully or partially implemented within network elements or modules. It should be noted that the words “component” and “module,” as used herein and in the following claims, is intended to encompass implementations using one or more lines of software code, and/or hardware implementations, and/or equipment for receiving manual inputs.
The foregoing description of embodiments has been presented for purposes of illustration and description. The foregoing description is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit embodiments of the present invention to the precise form disclosed, and modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teachings or may be acquired from practice of various embodiments. The embodiments discussed herein were chosen and described in order to explain the principles and the nature of various embodiments and its practical application to enable one skilled in the art to utilize the present invention in various embodiments and with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated. The features of the embodiments described herein may be combined in all possible combinations of methods, apparatus, modules, systems, and computer program products.
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|U.S. Classification||709/224, 709/223|
|Cooperative Classification||H04L41/16, H04Q3/0054, H04L41/5045, H04L41/082|
|European Classification||H04Q3/00D3S, H04L41/50G1|
|Aug 21, 2008||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: NOKIA CORPORATION, FINLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:BALANDIN, SERGEY;BALANDINA, ELENA;REEL/FRAME:021422/0467
Effective date: 20080814
|Jan 14, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4