|Publication number||US8004502 B2|
|Application number||US 11/868,466|
|Publication date||Aug 23, 2011|
|Filing date||Oct 5, 2007|
|Priority date||Oct 5, 2007|
|Also published as||CA2698623A1, CA2698623C, CN101815979A, CN101815979B, EP2206033A2, EP2206033A4, US20090091554, WO2009046154A2, WO2009046154A3|
|Publication number||11868466, 868466, US 8004502 B2, US 8004502B2, US-B2-8004502, US8004502 B2, US8004502B2|
|Original Assignee||Microsoft Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (18), Non-Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (8), Classifications (7), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Touch-sensitive devices may detect touch via several different mechanisms, including but not limited to optical, resistive, and capacitive mechanisms. Some optical touch-sensitive devices detect touch by capturing an image of a backside of a touch screen via an image sensor, and then processing the image to detect objects located on the screen. Such devices may include a light source within the device to illuminate the backside of the display screen such that objects on the screen reflect the incident light toward the image sensor, thereby allowing the object to be detected.
One difficulty that may be encountered with optical touch screen devices involves differentiating between external (ambient) light and light reflected from the light source within the device. Ambient light of sufficient brightness may be mistaken for an object touching the device, and therefore may degrade the performance of the device.
Accordingly, various methods for correcting for ambient light in an optical touch-sensitive device are disclosed below in the Detailed Description. For example, one disclosed embodiment comprises integrating a first field of pixels in an image data frame for a different duration of ambient light exposure than a second field of pixels in the image data frame. Intensity data is read from the first field of pixels and the second field of pixels, and an ambient light value is determined for one or more pixels in the image data frame from the intensity data. The ambient light value then is used to adjusting one or more pixels of the data frame for ambient light.
This Summary is provided to introduce a selection of concepts in a simplified form that are further described below in the Detailed Description. This Summary is not intended to identify key features or essential features of the claimed subject matter, nor is it intended to be used to limit the scope of the claimed subject matter. Furthermore, the claimed subject matter is not limited to implementations that solve any or all disadvantages noted in any part of this disclosure.
Prior to discussing the correction of an image in an optical touch-sensitive device for ambient light, an embodiment of one suitable use environment is described.
Image source 102 includes an optical or light source 108 such as a lamp (depicted), an LED array, or other suitable light source. Image source 102 also includes an image-producing element 110 such as the depicted LCD (liquid crystal display), an LCOS (liquid crystal on silicon) display, a DLP (digital light processing) display, or any other suitable image-producing element.
Display screen 106 includes a clear, transparent portion 112, such as sheet of glass, and a diffuser screen layer 114 disposed on top of the clear, transparent portion 112. In some embodiments, an additional transparent layer (not shown) may be disposed over diffuser screen layer 114 to provide a smooth look and feel to the display surface. Further, in embodiments that utilize a LCD panel rather than a projection image source to display images on display screen 106, the diffuser screen layer 114 may be omitted.
To sense objects placed on display screen 106, interactive display device 100 includes an image sensor 124 configured to capture an image of the entire backside of display screen 106, and to provide the image to electronic controller 116 for the detection of objects appearing in the image. Diffuser screen layer 114 helps to avoid the imaging of objects that are not in contact with or positioned within a few millimeters of display screen 106, and therefore helps to ensure that only objects that are touching or in close proximity to display screen 106 are detected by image sensor 124.
Image sensor 124 may include any suitable image sensing mechanism. Examples of suitable image sensing mechanisms include but are not limited to CCD and CMOS image sensors. Further, the image sensing mechanisms may capture images of display screen 106 at a sufficient frequency to detect motion of an object across display screen 106. While the embodiment of
Image sensor 124 may be configured to detect reflected or emitted energy of any suitable wavelength, including but not limited to infrared and visible wavelengths. To assist in detecting objects placed on display screen 106, image sensor 124 may further include an illuminant 126 such as one or more light emitting diodes (LEDs) 126 configured to produce infrared or visible light. Light from illuminant 126 may be reflected by objects placed on display screen 106 and then detected by image sensor 124. The use of infrared LEDs as opposed to visible LEDs may help to avoid washing out the appearance of images projected on display screen 106. Further, an infrared bandpass filter 127 may be utilized to pass light of the frequency emitted by the illuminant 126 but prevent light at frequencies outside of the bandpass frequencies from reaching image sensor 124.
In some use environments, ambient light sources may emit light in the band passed by bandpass filter 127. The term “ambient light” is used herein to describe light other than light from the illuminant 126. Examples of such ambient light sources include but are not limited to broad-spectrum light sources such as sunlight, incandescent lamp light, etc. Such light may have a sufficient intensity at the bandpass frequencies that the ambient light is difficult to distinguish from reflected light from the illuminant 126. Therefore, such ambient may cause the interactive display device 100 to mistakenly identify ambient light as an object on the display screen 106.
Various techniques may be used to cancel or otherwise correct for ambient light in an image captured by image sensor 124. For example, the illuminant 126, which may be referred to as “local” light, could be strobed such that alternate frames are exposed to “ambient-only” and “ambient+local” light. This allows the ambient light intensity to be determined by subtracting the “ambient-only” frame from the “ambient+local” frame to correct for ambient. However, because the local light is turned on only every other frame, this effectively cuts the frame rate of the device in half.
Another potential technique is to utilize a separate sensor (possibly with an optical filter) configured to integrate only ambient light. However, the use of an additional sensor may be expensive, and may be prone to errors due to the different positioning of the sensors in the device. Yet another potential technique may be to utilize an extremely bright local light source in combination with a band-pass filter to boost the intensity of reflected light relative to ambient light. However, this approach may be susceptible to failure where the ambient light exceeds some percentage of local light.
Next, method 200 comprises, at 204, reading intensity data from the first and second fields of pixels in the image sensor, and determining, at 206, a measure of ambient light from the difference between the intensity data from the first and second fields of pixels. Finally, method 200 comprises, at 208, adjusting the image data to correct for the ambient light based upon the determined measure of ambient light. In some embodiments, the image data may be adjusted only if it is first determined, at 210, if the ambient light measure is over a threshold value. Further, in some embodiments, it is first determined whether an object detected on the screen is in motion, as indicated at 212, and then an adjustment to make to the image data is selected at 214 based upon whether the object is determined to be in motion. Each of these decisions is discussed in more detail below.
Compared to other methods of correcting for ambient light, method 200 allows a correction for ambient light to be made to image data without the use of an additional image sensor or other additional parts, and also without any loss of frame rate. Each of the processes shown in method 200 is described in more detail below.
The integration of the first and second fields of pixels to different durations of ambient light but similar durations of local light in a single frame may be performed in any suitable manner.
Using the LED strobe pattern and image sensor integration pattern shown in
Referring to the readout pattern shown at 306 and the frame identifier indicator shown at 308, the data for a first image data frame n is read out first from the odd frames, and then from the even frames. At the time of read-out, the image sensor pixels are reset to an unexposed state. Therefore, at the time the odd field of pixels of frame n is read out, the odd field pixels has integrated light for a period of t1 (i.e. since the beginning of the last odd pixel readout shown in pattern 306). On the other hand, at the time the even field of pixels of frame n is read out, the even field of pixels has integrated light for a t2 period, then a t1 period, and then another t2 period, for a total of t1+2(t2). The cumulative integration times for each frame are shown in
The periods t1 and t2 may have any suitable lengths, and may be the same or different from one another. In some use environments, t2 may be shorter than t1 to reduce the chance that the image sensor will saturate before reading, as saturation of the image sensor may lead to inaccurate calculations of ambient intensities. Further, where saturated pixels are detected, the length of t1 and/or t2 may be modified to reduce the total integration time of a frame to avoid saturation in future pixels. Likewise, where intensities are low, t1 and/or t2 may be increased to increase the amount of light integrated in future frames. Alternately or additionally, the gain on the image sensor may be adjusted dynamically to avoid saturation and/or to increase the response of the sensor to an amount of light exposure. Correcting an image for saturation is discussed in more detail below.
In other situations, it may be advantageous for t1 and t2 to have similar lengths. For example, where ambient light is fluctuating in intensity (i.e. incandescent light fluctuating at twice a line frequency of 50 or 60 Hz), the average incident ambient light strength will be different during the t2 phases compared to the t1 phases for at least some image frames (depending upon the frame rate compared to the fluctuation frequency). Thus, t2 may be adjusted to have an approximately equal length to t1 when fluctuating ambient light is detected.
By following the timing diagram in
In order to illustrate various ambient correction methods, a representative group of intensity data from two image frames, labeled frames n−1 and n, are described with reference to
In frame n−1, the odd rows have a greater interval of ambient exposure than the even rows. The addition of this ambient pattern to the 3×3 scene yields the intensity data shown at 406. Likewise, in frame n, the even rows have a greater interval of ambient exposure than the odd rows. The addition of this ambient pattern to the 3×3 scene yields the intensity data shown at 408. Referring next to
First referring to
The temporal-spatial correction shown in
In some embodiments, it may be determined whether the global ambient light exceeds a predetermined threshold level before performing any of the above ambient correction methods. Where ambient light is of sufficiently low intensity or is absent, the touch-sensitive device may be able to detect objects without any problems caused by ambient. Therefore, before performing any of the above-described corrections (or any others), it may be determined whether there is any potentially problematic ambient by comparing the sum of the intensities in the first field in a frame to the sum of the intensities in the second field in the frame. Because the intensities in the two fields differ by the amount of ambient light integrated, if the sums are relatively close together, it can be determined that the ambient light levels are sufficiently low not to interfere with device operation, and correction for ambient may be omitted, as shown in
On the other hand, if the OR operation with adjacent motion flags result in a value of 1, this indicates that there has been some nearby motion in this frame. In this case, prior frames may be ignored for the ambient correction, and a spatial correction utilizing adjacent pixels in frame n is performed. Any suitable weighting factor scheme may be used to perform this spatial correction.
The determination of whether to utilize a 5×5 or a 3×3 pixel region for ambient correction may depend upon factors such as the resolution and stability of the image sensor. For example, a 3×3 region may yield a slightly noisier result, while a 5×5 region may blur the result slightly. Other region sizes may be used, including but not limited to a 1×3 region (which may be noisier than a 3×3 region).
Some ambient sources may fluctuate in a periodic manner. For example, electric lighting generally fluctuates at a frequency of twice the line frequency, which may be either 50 or 60 Hz depending upon location. This is illustrated graphically in
To prevent such problems caused by fluctuating ambient light levels, the frame rate of an optical touch-sensitive device may be set to equal the line frequency or 2× the line frequency. For example, this setting may be stored in the system, derived from a local power source, or detected optically. The fluctuation may be detected optically by observing a beat frequency in the overall levels of detected light, or by monitoring frame-to-frame variation in the amount of total ambient light measured. If the detected ambient light fluctuation frequency is not the same as the frame rate of the device, the frame rate can then be adjusted so that it matches the ambient light frequency, as shown in
If the global ambient is below a threshold value, then method 1300 ends without performing any correction. On the other hand, if the global ambient is not below a threshold value, then method 1300 comprises, at 1306, determining whether any motion is perceived in the intensity data. This may be performed, for example, by subtracting the intensity value for the pixel in the current frame (frame n) from the intensity value for the same pixel in frame n−2 (as the same pixel in n−1 has a different ambient exposure time). If the difference between these intensity values is sufficiently small, then it can be determined that the intensity data contains no motion information. In this case, a temporal local correction that utilizes no spatial information may be performed, as indicated at 1308. On the other hand, if the differences between the intensity values is sufficiently large, it can be assumed that the pixel contains motion data (as long as the frame rate has been corrected for any periodically fluctuating ambient light), and either a spatial or a temporal-spatial correction may be used, as indicated at 1310.
The decision whether to utilize a spatial or temporal-spatial correction may be made in any suitable manner. Generally, a spatial correction may be used where all spatial variation in a frame can be corrected with other information in the frame. One example of a method for making this determination is as follows. First, if any pixels in row (i−1) of the sample matrix differ significantly from the pixels in the same column in row (i+1), there is spatial information that may be corrected via a temporal-spatial correction. Likewise, if any of the pixels in row (i) of the sample matrix minus the mean for row (i) differs significantly from the corresponding pixels in row (i−1) minus the mean for the pixels in row (i−1) then there is spatial information that may be corrected via a temporal-spatial correction. In other cases where there is perceived motion but these conditions are not met, a spatial correction may be used. Alternatively, either a spatial or temporal-spatial may be used exclusive of the other where motion information is contained in a frame.
The correction calculations and calculation selection routine described above may be performed in any suitable manner. For example, in one embodiment, an FPGA (as shown at 122 in
As described above, where saturation of the image sensor is detected, the lengths of the integration periods t1 and/or t2 may be adjusted to prevent saturation in future frames. Further, a frame in which saturation is detected may also be processed in a manner to correct for the saturation. As an example, if saturated pixels are observed, it can be assumed that the saturated pixels are directly exposed to ambient light (as reflected light from the illuminant is generally not sufficiently intense to cause saturation). Therefore, in this situation, all light in the saturated region can be deemed to be ambient. Where saturation exists, a noise margin may exist around the saturated pixels. To avoid discontinuities in the corrected image in the noise margin region, a minimum ambient level may be determined for this region by setting one possible ambient using the near-saturation test, and another using a computed ambient as described above. The higher of these two values may then be used as the value to be subtracted from the image when correcting pixels in this region for ambient.
While disclosed herein in the context of an interactive display device, it will be appreciated that the disclosed embodiments may also be used in any other suitable optical touch-sensitive device, as well as in any other touch-sensitive device in which a background signal correction may be performed to improve device performance.
It will further be understood that the configurations and/or approaches described herein are exemplary in nature, and that these specific embodiments or examples are not to be considered in a limiting sense, because numerous variations are possible. The specific routines or methods described herein may represent one or more of any number of processing strategies. As such, various acts illustrated may be performed in the sequence illustrated, in other sequences, in parallel, or in some cases omitted. Likewise, the order of any of the above-described processes is not necessarily required to achieve the features and/or results of the embodiments described herein, but is provided for ease of illustration and description.
The subject matter of the present disclosure includes all novel and nonobvious combinations and subcombinations of the various processes, systems and configurations, and other features, functions, acts, and/or properties disclosed herein, as well as any and all equivalents thereof.
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|U.S. Classification||345/175, 178/18.09, 345/173, 345/176|
|Oct 5, 2007||AS||Assignment|
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