US 8023582 B2 Abstract A closed-loop MIMO system includes a receiver for forming a new predefined set by using elements of a previous predefined set, selecting a certain matrix of the new predefined set, and feeding back an index of the matrix, if the number of transmit antennas increases, and a transmitter for performing signal transmission by multiplying the matrix of the feedback index to a transmission signal. Although the number of transmit antennas increases, candidate matrices can be simply obtained by using candidate matrices of a previous set. Moreover, to by proposing a reference for selecting an optimal solution with a small amount of calculation, burden on a system can be considerably reduced.
Claims(8) 1. An apparatus compatible with a closed-loop loop multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system, the apparatus comprising:
a plurality of antennas used to send and receive signals; and
a transmitter configured to utilize a first group of matrices for processing signals when a total number of the plurality of antennas is two and to utilize a second group of matrices for processing the signals when the total number of the plurality of antennas is four or more,
wherein the transmitter processes the first group of matrices and the second group of matrices, and
wherein matrices of the second group are selected from at least one of the matrices of the first group,
wherein a form of the first group of matrices comprises at least one of:
where i denotes a variable,
wherein a form of the second group of matrices comprises at least one of:
where A and B are matrices selected from the first group of matrices,
wherein the transmitter is further configured to receive feedback information containing a corresponding index of one or more matrices of the second group selected from the matrices of the first group, and
wherein selection of matrices from the first group is based upon an orthogonalization of a radio channel for the closed-loop MIMO system.
2. The apparatus of
3. A method of processing signals for a closed-loop multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system having a transmitter and a receiver, the method comprising:
obtaining one or more seed matrices of the closed-loop MIMO system that uses a particular number of transmit antennas, at least one of the one or more seed matrices having a two-by-two format;
obtaining one or more candidate matrices based on the one or more seed matrices in order to accommodate a greater number of transmit antennas than the particular number of transmit antennas;
selecting at least one matrix among the one or more candidate matrices; and
providing, to a transmitter, feedback information containing a corresponding index of the selected at least one matrix,
wherein selecting the at least one matrix is based upon an orthogonalization of a radio channel for the closed-loop MIMO system.
4. The method of
5. The method of
6. The method of
7. The method of
8. The method of
Description Pursuant to 35 U.S.C. §119(a), this application claims the benefit of earlier filing date and right of priority to Korean Patent Application No. 10-2004-0008777, filed on Feb. 10, 2004, the content of which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. Pursuant to 35 U.S.C. §119(e)(1), this application claims the benefit of earlier filing date and right of Provisional Application No. 60/537,491, filed on Jan. 20, 2004, the content of which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) system of mobile communication and, more particularly to a method for constructing and transmitting feedback information in a closed-loop MIMO system. 2. Description of the Related Art The MIMO system is a technique for increasing capacity and high data rate transmission. A closed-loop MIMO system feeding back channel information to a transmitter can acquire larger capacity and a lower bit error rate. In spite of the advantages of the closed-loop scheme, system designers are reluctant to apply the closed-loop scheme for a physical system because the closed-loop scheme requires the very large feedback data and thus encroaches on one capacity of uplink and downlink. The reason why the capacity of the feedback data is so large is because the feedback data is a matrix including complex numbers as elements and a dimension of the matrix is the product of the number of transmit antennas and the number of receive antennas. In order to solve such a problem, a receiver of a related art closed-loop MIMO system feeds back only an index of an optimum solution. As shown in Equation (1) shown below is an equation of an SVD (Singular Value Decomposition), one of methods used for obtaining C After the optimal solution is obtained, the receiver In However, the afore-mentioned related art has the following problems. That is, first, in order to form the predefined set only with two guides, numerous orthogonal matrices are to be randomly selected as many as an arbitrary number and matrices whose minimum distance is the maximum are to be picked up, for which, thus, the arbitrary number must be considerably large. Namely, the related art method for forming the predefined set is ineffective because it lacks a structure and regularities. Second, the processes are to be repeatedly performed whenever the number of transmit antennas is changed, making it difficult to immediately cope with a change in the system. Third, elements of the predefined set are determined by searching every matrix one by one, which is very ineffective. Therefore, one object of the present invention is to provide a signal transmission method of a closed-loop MIMO system designed for obtaining elements of a predetermined set systematically. Another object of the present invention is to provide a signal transmission method of a closed-loop MIMO system designed for proposing a reference in selecting an optimal solution. To achieve at least the above objects in whole or in parts, there is provided a closed-loop MIMO system including a receiver for forming a new predefined set by using elements of a previous predefined set, selecting a certain matrix of the new predefined set, and feeding back an index of the matrix, if the number of transmit antennas increases; and a transmitter for performing signal transmission by multiplying the matrix of the feedback index to a transmission signal. Preferably, if there are two transmit antennas, elements of the predefined set are obtained according to an equation shown below: Preferably, the certain matrix is selected by an equation shown below: To achieve at least these advantages in whole or in parts, there is further provided a signal transmission method in a closed-loop MIMO system including: selecting a certain matrix from a new predefined set formed by using elements of a previous predefined set when the number of transmit antennas increases, and feeding back an index of the selected matrix to a transmitter; and multiplying the matrix of the feedback index to a transmission signal and transmitting the multiplied signal. To achieve at least these advantages in whole or in parts, there is further provided a channel information transmission method of a receiver of a closed-loop MIMO system including: selecting a certain matrix from a new predefined set formed by using elements of a previous predefined set, if the number of transmit antennas increases; and feeding back an index of the selected matrix to a transmitter. Additional advantages, objects, and features of the invention will be set forth in part in the description which follows and in part will become apparent to those having ordinary skill in the art upon examination of the following or may be learned from practice of the invention. The objects and advantages of the invention may be realized and attained as particularly pointed out in the appended claims. The invention will be described in detail with reference to the following drawings in which like reference numerals refer to like elements wherein: When there are two transmit antennas in a closed-loop MIMO system, seed matrices can be obtained by equation (2) shown below: Below equation (3) shows seed matrices of the closed-loop MIMO system when there are two transmit antennas and K=4 (which means a unit circle is divided into 4 parts). The seed matrices have a long distance with each other, among matrices obtained by equation (2), namely, which are not similar to each other.
When the number of transmit antennas is increased to 4 in the closed-loop MIMO system, matrices can be increased as expressed in equation (4) shown below. ‘A’ and ‘B’ of equation (4) are matrices of a previous step (or dimension). That is, ‘A’ and ‘B’ are seed matrices when there are two transmit antennas. Equation (4) is based on Hadamard matrix, by which candidate matrices (elements of the predefined set) can be formed simply when the number of transmit antennas is doubled (increased). The Hadamard matrix is essential for processing a signal of wireless communication. The reason of using the Hadamard matrix is because a matrix element is simple as ±1 and as an orthogonal matrix it does not require a multiplier and thus signals can be processed at a high speed and implementation of hardware is easy.
In the above matrices, a normalization constant of each matrix is omitted for the sake of convenience. When transmit antennas are increased to 8, matrices can be extended to the form of equation (4) and the matrices become candidate matrices forming a predefined set. After the candidate matrices are determined, the receiver In the present invention, as a reference for obtaining the optimal solution, equation (5) shown below is proposed:
The equation (5) is based on orthogonalization of a radio channel (H), and in the present invention, an optimal solution is determined by substituting the predefined set to equation (5). A step of obtaining C As so far described, the closed-loop MIMO system of the present invention has the following advantages. That is, for example, candidate matrices forming a predefined set can be easily obtained. In addition, although the number of transmit antennas increases, candidate matrices can be simply obtained by using candidate matrices of a previous set. Moreover, by proposing a reference for selecting an optimal solution with a small amount of calculation, burden on a system can be considerably reduced. The foregoing embodiments and advantages are merely exemplary and are not to be construed as limiting the present invention. The present teaching can be readily applied to other types of apparatuses. The description of the present invention is intended to be illustrative, and not to limit the scope of the claims. Many alternatives, modifications, and variations will be apparent to those skilled in the art. In the claims, means-plus-function clauses are intended to cover the structure described herein as performing the recited function and not only structural equivalents but also equivalent structures. Patent Citations
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