|Publication number||US8024908 B2|
|Application number||US 11/803,977|
|Publication date||Sep 27, 2011|
|Filing date||May 16, 2007|
|Priority date||May 18, 2006|
|Also published as||US20070266670, WO2007136676A2, WO2007136676A3|
|Publication number||11803977, 803977, US 8024908 B2, US 8024908B2, US-B2-8024908, US8024908 B2, US8024908B2|
|Inventors||Donald S. Williams|
|Original Assignee||Williams Donald S|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (106), Non-Patent Citations (3), Classifications (12), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional application 60/801,856 filed May 18, 2006, the contents of which are incorporated by referenced.
This application relates to plutrued and extruded structures. More specifically, it relates to a pultrued and extruded utility structures.
Most utility poles used today made of wood. Utility poles are divided into ten classes, from 1 to 10. The classes' definition specifies a minimum circumference that depends on the species of tree and the length of the pole. This circumference is measured 6 feet from the butt of the pole. There is also a minimum top circumference that is the same for all species and lengths.
For example, a class 1 pole has a minimum top circumference of 27 inches. If it is 25 feet long and cedar (most utility poles are cedar), the circumference measured 6 feet from the bottom must be at least 43.5 inches.
The higher the class number, the skinnier the pole. Pole lengths start at 16 feet and increase by 2-foot steps to 22 feet, then by fives from 25 feet to 90 feet. A 90-foot class 1 western red cedar pole weighs about 6,600 pounds. A 16-foot pole weighs only about 700.
All utility poles used are pressure treated to preserve the wooden utility poles from the weather, insects and other types of attacks and decay. Utility poles are treated with a number of toxic chemicals including pentachlorphenol, chromated copper arsenate, creosote, copper azole and others.
Pentachlorophenol (Penta) is widely-used wood preservative that is normally dissolved in a petroleum carrier. It is the most commonly used preservative system utilized by North American utilities.
Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) is water-borne treatment that offers a wide range of advantages for treated lumber, timber and poles; clean; odorless; paintable. For poles, its use is limited to southern yellow pine, pinus sylvestris, and western red cedar.
Creosote is an oil-based wood preservative blended from the distillation of coal tar and comprised of more than 200 major constituents. Used in industrial applications, such as railroad ties, piling (both salt water and fresh water), and for utility poles.
Copper Azole (CA-B) is a water-borne copper based wood preservative with an organic co-biocide (Tebuconazol). Similar in color, to CCA-C, odorless, clean, paintable or stainable. Copper Azole is approved by the American Wood Preservers Association for use on Western Red Cedar and Southern Yellow Pine utility poles.
There are several problems associated with wooden utility poles. One problem is that utility poles are heavy and bulky and hard to move and install. Another problem is that wooden utility poles are treated with chemicals that are harmful to the environment, and poisonous (e.g. arsenic, etc.) to humans and animals and have been shown in some instance to cause cancers. Another problem is that even with pressure treating the wood, wooden utility poles have to be replaced about every ten years. Another problem is that wooden utility poles are not aesthetically pleasing to look and are typically all a brown or black color.
There have been attempts to solve some of these problems. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 7,159,370 that issued to Oliphant, et al. entitled “Modular fiberglass reinforced polymer structural pole system” teaches “This invention is a modular pole assembly comprised of corner pieces and panel members. Panel members are slidably engaged to the corner pieces and are retained in a direction normal to the engagement direction by a track in each slot that nests within a groove in each panel member. corner pieces may include multiple slots along each side, allowing for multiple layers of panel members along each side, thereby increasing strength and allowing an insulative and structural fill material to be added between panel member layers. The height of the modular pole may be increased by inserting splicing posts between consecutive, adjacent corner members and inserting splicing pieces between co-planar adjacent panel members. The modular nature of the pole assembly provides for simple packaging and shipment of the various components and easy assembly at or near the installation location.”
U.S. Pat. No. 6,453,635 that issued to Turner entitled “Composite utility poles and methods of manufacture” teaches “Composite utility pole structures and methods of manufacture using a pultrusion process. The poles may be N sided, with longitudinal pre-stressed rovings in each corner. The inner periphery of the poles may have flat regions centered between the outside corners, with the flat regions joined by circular arcs in the corner regions. Various pole structures and methods of manufacture are described, including curved poles and poles having walls that are tapered in thickness and structure.”
U.S. Pat. No. 6,357,196 that issued to McCombs entitled “Pultruded utility pole” teaches “A hollow fiberglass utility pole includes a pair of segments that are a fiberglass sheet that has a semicircular cross-section. The segments have first and second longitudinal edges with male and female couplers respective shapes that have a complimentary relationship to each other for mechanical engagement thereof. The fiberglass pole is assembled by engaging the first longitudinal edge of one segment with the second longitudinal edge of the other segment at an installation site. The fiberglass pole may be used as a sheath to encase an existing wooden pole.”
U.S. Pat. No. 5,311,713 that issued to Goodrich entitled Electric and telephone pole ground protector teaches “A device and method for protecting the end of a wooden utility pole set in the ground. A split cylindrical casing is provided which can be placed around the lower end of a wooden utility pole just before it is installed in the ground. The casing comprises an elongate, relatively thin cylindrical member having one closed end and being split into two sections connected together along the side thereof. The connection acts as a hinge. The edges of the casing where it is split are provided with a fastener, one part of the fastener being disposed along the edge of one part of the casing and another part of the fastener being disposed along the edge of the other part of the casing. When the cylindrical casing is closed, the edge of one part overlaps the edge of the other part so that the respective parts of the fasteners fit matingly together. Preferably, the fastener extends the entire length of the casing and entirely across the bottom end thereof. Preferably, the casing is made of high grade plastic.”
U.S. Pat. No. 5,175,971 that issued to Maccomb entitled ‘Utility power pole system” teaches “A utility power pole system comprises a pultruded hollow primary pole having an external hexogonal cross section and a number of longitudinal exterior grooves along its length. The hollow primary pole also has an internal hexogonal cross section rotated 30.degree. relative to the external hexagonal cross section. One or more pultruded hollow liners are provided which are also hexagonal in cross section and which may be internally or externally concentric with the primary pole. These liners vary in length to achieve an effective structural taper to the power pole system. The insertion of a tapered liner in the lower portion of the utility pole results in a utility pole having the effective load bearing capability of a tapered utility pole. By using a plurality of overlapping liners of varying lengths, an effective taper can be provided to the utility pole. The longitudinal grooves in the outer surface of the primary pole provide a means for climbing for a utility lineman and a means for attaching accessory attachment devices such as cross arms, stiffening members, conductor supports and for interconnection with other structural elements in a more extensive system. The rounded edges of each longitudinal groove are directed inwardly so as to retain devices in the groove which conform to the cross section of the groove. Cross arms attached to the utility pole may also employ similar longitudinal grooves to facilitate interconnection with existing utility hardware or other components.”
U.S. Pat. No. 4,803,819 that issued to Kelsey entitled “Utility pole and attachments formed by pultrusion of dielectric insulating plastic, such as glass fiber reinforced resin” teaches “a utility pole and attachments formed by pultrusion of dielectric insulating plastic, such as glass fiber reinforced resin.”
However, none of these solutions overcome all of the problems with utility poles and utility structures. Thus, it would be desirable to solve some of the problems associated with utility poles and utility structures.
In accordance with preferred embodiments of the invention, some of the problems associated with utility poles are overcome.
A pultruded utility structure is presented. The pultruded utility structure are pultruded or extruded in a pre-determined shape, plural colors, is environmentally safe, aesthetic pleasing and resistant to damage from weather, animals, insects and resistant to corrosion. The pultruded utility structure includes utility pole, a lighting pole, a structural support, an architectural design element (interior or exterior), a marine dock element or a fencing element, etc.
The foregoing and other features and advantages of preferred embodiments of the present invention will be more readily apparent from the following detailed description. The detailed description proceeds with references to the accompanying drawings.
Preferred embodiments of the present invention are described with reference to the following drawings, wherein:
“Extrusion” is a manufacturing process where a material is pushed and/or drawn through a die to create long objects of a fixed cross-section. Hollow sections are usually extruded by placing a pin or mandrel in the die. Extrusion may be continuous (e.g., producing indefinitely long material) or semi-continuous (e.g., repeatedly producing many shorter pieces). Some extruded materials are hot drawn and others may be cold drawn.
The feedstock may be forced through the die by various methods: by an auger, which can be single or twin screw, powered by an electric motor; by a ram, driven by hydraulic pressure, oil pressure or in other specialized processes such as rollers inside a perforated drum for the production of many simultaneous streams of material.
Plastic extrusion commonly uses plastic chips, which are heated and extruded in the liquid state, then cooled and solidified as it passes through the die. In some cases (such as fiber reinforced tubes) the extrudate is pulled through a very long die, in a process called “pultrusion.”
In one embodiment, the extruded structure 12 comprises extruded plastic materials including, but not limited to, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), High Impact Polypropylene (HIP), Polypropylene, High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Polycarbonate, Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol (PETG), Nylon, Fiber reinforced Polypropylene, Fiber Reinforced Plystyrene and other types of plastics. In another embodiment, the extruded structure 12 comprises composite materials. In another embodiment, the extruded structure 12 comprises recycled plastic materials.
The extruded structure 12 is extruded in plural different colors (e.g., red, green, yellow, blue, brown, etc.) and is aesthetically pleasing. The plural different colors may blend in with a natural environmental setting or a pre-determined design scheme. For example, a new subdivision may include only blue extruded utility poles.
In one exemplary embodiment, the extruded structure 12 is an extruded plastic utility pole 12 of extruded to a length of at least 36′ in length. The exemplary extruded structure 12 has an outside at least 12.125″ and a 36.5″ circumference. However, the present invention is not limited to the dimensions described and other extruded utility poles 12 of other lengths and dimensions can also be used to practice the invention.
In one embodiment, the extruded structure 12 includes a pre-determined length (e.g., 8 feet, 16 feet, 24 feet, 36 feet, 40 feet, 65 feet etc.). However, the present invention is not limited to these lengths and other lengths can be used to practice the invention.
In one embodiment, a 36′ length of the extruded structure 12 weighs about 100 pounds. It is estimated that a 36′ length of the extruded structure 12 has a tensile strength of about 8,500 pounds per square inch (PSI).
It is estimated that an extruded structure 12 would have a lifetime of over 100 years and be safe to the environment, humans and animals. The extruded structure 12 is resistance to damage from the weather, animals, insects and is corrosion resistant.
In one embodiment the plural intrusions 20 are used a channel to hold plural different sets of wires such as communications wires or antenna wires.
In such an embodiment, exemplary extruded structure 12 includes plural flat rib faces 16. In one embodiment, the plural flat rib faces include a width of about 2.75″. The plural flat rib faces 16 comprise a rib of about 1″ from the outer surface of the extruded structure 12. The plural flat rib faces 16 are connected with plural angular faces 18. In one embodiment, the plural angular faces 18 include an angle of about 30 degrees and a flat surface of about 3″ in width. The extruded utility pole includes a circumference of about 36.5″ and an outside diameter of about 12.125″. An inner surface of the plural flat rib faces 16 includes plural flat intrusions 20. The plural flat intrusions 20 can be used a channel to hold plural different sets of wires such as communications wires or antenna wires.
However, the present invention is not limited to the shapes and dimensions described and other extruded structures 12 of other shapes and dimensions can also be used to practice the invention.
In one embodiment, the extruded structure 12 includes one or more receptacles 13 (
In another embodiment, the plural flat rib faces 16 include plastic, nylon, composite materials or other types of filaments to add additional strength to the extruded structure 12.
In another embodiment, the plural flat rib faces 16 include integral copper wires 17 (two of which are illustrated in
In one embodiment, the extruded structure 12 includes a fiber or webbing re-enforced cylindrical structure comprising a utility pole, a lighting pole, a structural support, an architectural design element (interior or exterior), a marine dock element or a fencing element.
In one embodiment, the extruded structure 12 includes additional fiberglass, plastic, ester, polyester, nylon, composite materials or other types of filaments or webbing to add additional strength to the extruded structure 12. The filaments or webbing are applied internally or externally to the extruded structure 12.
The structure of the external and internal surfaces in an alternating and repeating pattern of the extruded structure 12 provides additional tensile strength to the structure. In addition, the angular lines of the structure are aesthetically pleasing.
In addition, the shape of the extruded structure 12 provides an optimal resistance, or near optimal resistance to wind shear forces.
Pultruded Utility Structures
As is known in the art, “pultrusion” is a manufacturing process for producing continuous lengths of materials. Pultrusion raw materials include a liquid resin mixture (e.g., containing resin, fillers and specialized additives) and reinforcing fibers (e.g., fiberglass, composite materials, etc.). The process involves pulling these raw materials (rather than pushing as is the case in extrusion) through a heated steel forming die using a continuous pulling device. The reinforcement materials are in continuous forms such as rolls of fiberglass mat or doffs of fiberglass roving. As the reinforcements are saturated with the resin mixture in the resin impregnator and pulled through the die, the gelation (or hardening) of the resin is initiated by the heat from the die and a rigid, cured profile is formed that corresponds to the shape of the die.
There are also protruded laminates. Most pultruded laminates are formed using rovings aligned down the major axis of the part. Various continuous strand mats, fabrics (e.g., braided, woven and knitted), and texturized or bulked rovings are used to obtain strength in the cross axis or transverse direction.
The pultriusion process is normally continuous and highly automated. Reinforcement materials, such as roving, mat or fabrics, are positioned in a specific location using preforming shapers or guides to form a pultruson. The reinforcements are drawn through a resin bath where the material is thoroughly coated or impregnated with a liquid thermosetting resin. The resin-saturated reinforcements enter a heated metal pultrusion die. The dimensions and shape of the die define the finished part being fabricated. Inside the metal die, heat is transferred initiated by precise temperature control to the reinforcements and liquid resin. The heat energy activates the curing or polymerization of the thermoset resin changing it from a liquid to a solid. The solid laminate emerges from the pultrusion die to the exact shape of the die cavity. The laminate solidifies when cooled and it is continuously pulled through the pultrusion machine and cut to the desired length. The process is driven by a system of caterpillar or tandem pullers located between the die exit and the cut-off mechanism.
In one embodiment the pultrusion resins include bisphenol-a epichlorohydrin-based vinyl esters. In another embodiment, the resins include polyesters including isophthalic, orthophthalic, propylene-maleate, fire resistant, and high cross-link density. However, the present invention is not limited to these resins and other resins can be used to practice the invention.
In one embodiment, the pultrusions include re-enforcing fibers comprising, fiberglass fibers, composite fibers, etc. However, the present invention is not limited to these resins and other resins can be used to practice the invention.
One resin used in fiberglass pultrusions is a thermoset resin. The resin used in Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pultrusions are typical thermoplastic resins. In the pultrusion process, under heat and pressure, the thermoset resins and re-enforcing fibers form a new inert material that is impervious to temperature. Pultruded fiberglass physical properties do not change through the full temperature cycle up to temperatures of about 200 degrees Fahrenheit (° F.). In direct contrast, PVC resins typically become unstable at temperatures greater than 155° F.
Pultrusions, include but are not limited to, structures comprising: (1) HIGH STRENGTH—typically stronger than structural steel on a pound-for-pound basis; (2) LIGHTWEIGHT—Pultrusions are 20-25% the weight of steel and 70% the weight of aluminum. Pultruded products are easily transported, handled and lifted into place; (3) CORROSION/ROT RESISTANT—Pultruded products will not rot and are impervious to a broad range of corrosive elements; (4) NON-CONDUCTIVE—fiberglass reinforced pultrusions have low thermal conductivity and are electrically non-conductive; (5) ELECTRO-MAGNETIC TRANSPARENT—Pultruded products are transparent to radio waves, microwaves and other electromagnetic frequencies; (6) DIMENSIONAL STABILE—The coefficient of thermal expansion of pultruded products is slightly less than steel and significantly less than aluminum; (7) LOW TEMPERATURE CAPABLE—FiberGlass fiber reinforced pultrusions exhibit excellent mechanical properties at very low temperatures, even −70° F. Tensile strength and impact strengths are greater at −70° F. than at +80° F.; and (8) AESTHETICLY PLEASING—Pultruded profiles are pigmented throughout the thickness of the part and can be made to virtually any desired custom color. Special surfacing veils are also available to create special surface appearances such as wood grain, marble, granite, etc.
In another embodiment the extruded utility structures described above and illustrated in
The pultruded hollow cylindrical structure 24 further includes an internal surface 36 including plural intruding components 30 connected to the plural protruding components 28. An intruding component 30′ includes two curved components 38, 40, to connect the intruding component 30′ to two other protruding components 28′ and 28″
The curved components 32, 34, 38, 40 include a pre-determined radius with two outer radius portions on an protruding component 28′ and two inner radius portions on an intruding component 30′.
The pultruded hollow cylindrical structure includes a pre-determined inner radius 42 from a center point 44 to an inner portion of the internal surface 36 and includes a pre-determined outer radius 46 from the center point 44 to an outer portion of the external surface 26. The difference between the pre-determined inner radius and pre-determined outer radius determines a thickness 48 of the pultruded hollow cylindrical structure 24.
The pultruded hollow cylindrical structure 24 includes a pre-determined length and a pre-determined color.
In one embodiment, a pultrusion die is created with the design shape and dimensions illustrated in
The structure of the external and internal surfaces in an alternating and repeating pattern of the pultruded hollow cylindrical structure 24, 50 provide additional tensile strength to the structure. In addition, the curved lines of the pultruded hollow cylindrical structure 24, 50 are aesthetically pleasing. In addition, the shape of the pultruded hollow cylindrical structure 24, 50 provide an optimal resistance, or near optimal resistance to wind shear forces.
The pultruded hollow cylindrical structure 50 is illustrated with an exemplary embodiment as is illustrated in
In one embodiment, the pultruded hollow cylindrical structure 24 includes a cylindrical structure comprising a utility pole, a lighting pole, a structural support, an architectural design element (interior or exterior), a marine dock element or a fencing element, etc.
The pultruded hollow cylindrical structures 24, 50 include a pre-determined length (e.g., 8 feet, 16 feet, 24 feet, 36 feet, 40 feet, 65 feet etc.). However, the present invention is not limited to these lengths and other lengths can be used to practice the invention.
The pultruded hollow cylindrical structures 24, 50 includes plural different colors (e.g., red, green, yellow, blue, brown, etc.) and is aesthetically pleasing. The plural different colors may blend in with a natural environmental setting or a pre-determined design scheme. For example, a new subdivision may include only blue utility poles, while a boat dock may include only high visibility orange decking comprising the pultruded hollow cylindrical structures 24, 50. However, the present invention is not limited to these colors and other colors can be used to practice the invention.
The pultruded hollow cylindrical structure 24 includes a repeating pattern of alternating protruding and intruding components.
In one embodiment, the pultruded hollow cylindrical structure 24 includes one or more receptacles 13 (
In one embodiment, the plural protruding components and plural intruding components include additional fiberglass, plastic, ester, polyester, nylon, composite materials or other types of filaments or webbing to add additional strength to the pultruded hollow cylindrical structure 24. The filaments or webbing are applied internally or externally to the pultruded hollow cylindrical structure 24.
In another embodiment, the pultruded hollow cylindrical structure 24 includes integral copper wires 17 in one or more surfaces (plural ones of which are illustrated in
Various exemplary and specific measurements are described herein. However, the present invention is not limited to these exemplary and specific measurements. In addition, the extruded and pultruded structures described herein can be made with specific measurements for actual products such as 2×4's, structural beams, fencing, wooden telephone poles, etc. In such embodiments, the extruded or pultruded structures may be thicker then necessary and may include the shapes of the actual products instead of the shapes describe herein.
It should be understood that the processes, methods and system described herein are not related or limited to any particular type of component unless indicated otherwise. Various combinations of general purpose, specialized or equivalent components combinations thereof may be used with or perform operations in accordance with the teachings described herein.
In view of the wide variety of embodiments to which the principles of the present invention can be applied, it should be understood that the illustrated embodiments are exemplary only, and should not be taken as limiting the scope of the present invention. For example, the steps of the flow diagrams may be taken in sequences other than those described, and more or fewer or equivalent elements may be used in the block diagrams.
The claims should not be read as limited to the elements described unless stated to that effect. In addition, use of the term “means” in any claim is intended to invoke 35 U.S.C. §112, paragraph 6, and any claim without the word “means” is not so intended.
Therefore, all embodiments that come within the scope and spirit of the following claims and equivalents thereto are claimed as the invention.
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|2||*||Pultrusion Industry Council; Glossary of Terms; Copyright © 2007-Pultrusion Industry Council http://www.cfa-hq.org/pic/products/glossary.htm.|
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|U.S. Classification||52/843, D25/123, D25/125, 52/651.02, 52/852, 52/651.07|
|International Classification||E04H12/02, E04C3/34|
|Cooperative Classification||E04H12/02, E04C3/28|
|European Classification||E04C3/28, E04H12/02|
|Oct 28, 2010||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: DURATEL, LLC, ILLINOIS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:WILLAMS, DONALD S.;REEL/FRAME:025210/0082
Effective date: 20101015
|May 8, 2015||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Jun 25, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Jun 25, 2015||SULP||Surcharge for late payment|