|Publication number||US8047686 B2|
|Application number||US 11/849,147|
|Publication date||Nov 1, 2011|
|Filing date||Aug 31, 2007|
|Priority date||Sep 1, 2006|
|Also published as||US20080205062, WO2008025161A1|
|Publication number||11849147, 849147, US 8047686 B2, US 8047686B2, US-B2-8047686, US8047686 B2, US8047686B2|
|Inventors||Jonathan S. Dahm, Mark Paul Jongewaard|
|Original Assignee||Dahm Jonathan S, Mark Paul Jongewaard|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (297), Referenced by (10), Classifications (27), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention pertains to thermal management of light-emitting elements and more particularly to an assembly comprising one or more heat pipes for thermal management of multiple light-emitting elements.
Luminaires are employed in a number of lighting applications, such as ambient or space lighting, accent lighting, wall washing, signage, advertising, decorative and display lighting, façade lighting, and custom lighting. Luminaires typically include a number of high-brightness incandescent, fluorescent, neon, or light-emitting diode (LEDs) type light sources coupled to a power management system for supply of energy and control of the desired utility.
A general drawback of high-brightness light sources includes the release of excessive quantities of heat under operating conditions. While being relatively efficient certain LEDs offer high energy densities and generate large amounts of waste heat in small spaces. The use of high-brightness LEDs in illumination applications usually requires some form of temperature control to mitigate the risks of catastrophic failure modes of the LEDs and other components of the luminaire.
Temperature control of LEDs can entail maintaining sub-optimal operating conditions below nominal power ratings or, alternatively, improving the rate at which heat can dissipate from the LED or another heat source to a cooler environment. There are a number of solutions known in the art including active and passive cooling including heat sinks and heat pipes. Heat sinks comprise heat-conductive elements that can be thermally coupled to a heat source. The heat sink needs to be thermally coupled to the heat source and the environment; the coupling between the heat sink and the heat source is typically of a conductive nature and the coupling between the heat sink and the environment is typically convective in nature. Heat sinks provide large surfaces to improve cooling efficiency via thermal convection in a proximate space of the environment. Heat sinks typically include a large number of structural cooling elements such as fins, pins or posts to increase the surface area between the heat sink and the environment. Forced convection via fans, for example, can be employed to improve convection and increase the efficiency of the heat sink.
Heat sinks are widely employed for the thermal management of luminaries but their form and use have limited applicability for the direct cooling of LEDs as interferences with the light emission of the LEDs are usually undesired. Heat sinks provide limited heat dispersion capabilities and occupy relatively large spaces in order to work effectively. Heat sinks can only be employed where they can be adequately thermally coupled to LEDs or other heat sources and may therefore be excluded from use in systems with high device integration densities.
A heat pipe is another type of thermal management device. Heat pipes comprise a thermally conductive body in which a certain amount of a heat transfer medium such as a gas, liquid or other fluid is hermetically contained. Heat pipes are intended to rapidly transfer heat from one end to another end of the heat pipe while being relatively small. One end of the heat pipe is thermally coupled to a heat source and the other end can be thermally coupled to a device of lower temperature. One end of the heat pipe typically absorbs thermal energy generated by the heat source, initiating the temperature inside the heat pipe to rise which can cause the heat transfer medium inside the heat pipe to undergo a phase transition, for example the heat transfer medium may evaporate. As a result, the absorbed heat from the heat source provides the energy to overcome the latent heat of the phase transition of the heat transfer medium which in return provides an effective cooling mechanism. Typically the heat transfer medium evaporates and diffuses or buoys away from the heat source, through one or more cavities within the heat pipe to reach a cooler end of the heat pipe where it condenses. Transport of the condensate back to the hot end of the heat pipe is usually either gravitational or aided by capillary effects. Enhanced capillary effects can originate from additional elements which can be disposed inside certain types the heat pipes for example a wicking structure. The condenser end of the heat pipe can be cooled via coupling to a heat sink, for example.
Many known heat pipe designs suffer from a number of deficiencies. Effective heat pipes cannot be built arbitrarily small and often require additional elements such as heat transfer plates when used for cooling relatively small devices in highly integrated systems. Generally, the integration of heat pipe cooling technology in tightly-packaged luminaries can be difficult. Additionally, the charging of heat pipes with cooling media may require controlled pressure conditions during manufacturing. It is difficult in standard heat pipe integration designs to mold heat pipes along with injection molded parts of the luminaire such as optical elements, for example.
Furthermore, every additional component included in the thermal management system increases the complexity of the system design, decreases cost effectiveness and also introduces additional interfaces which can act as a heat flow barrier which can significantly reduce the overall cooling efficiency. For example, LED dies can be mounted on a substrate which can be thermally coupled to a heat spreader plate which itself in return can be thermally coupled to a heat pipe and so forth. Each of these elements needs to be in intimate thermal contact with its adjacent element for the cooling system to work effectively.
There is therefore a need for a thermal management system that offers improved heat transfer efficiency and which can be integrated with optical elements and suitable for use in LED-based luminaries.
This background information is provided to reveal information believed by the applicant to be of possible relevance to the present invention. No admission is necessarily intended, nor should be construed, that any of the preceding information constitutes prior art against the present invention.
An object of the present invention is to provide a multiple light-emitting element heat pipe assembly. In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, there is provided an optical device comprising: a heat pipe having an evaporator end portion having a perimeter; one or more light-emitting elements for generating light, the one or more light-emitting elements operatively and thermally coupled to the heat pipe at the perimeter of the evaporator end portion.
In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, there is provided an optical device comprising: a plurality of heat pipes each having a evaporator end portion having a perimeter and each of the heat pipes having a condenser end portion, wherein each evaporator end portion of the heat pipes has a cross sectional shape configured to enable compact proximate positioning of the evaporator end portion of each of the heat pipes and wherein each of the plurality of heat pipes are configured to provide spatial separation of each condenser end portion of the heat pipes; one or more light-emitting elements for generating light, wherein one or more light-emitting elements are operatively and thermally coupled to each of the heat pipes at the perimeter of the evaporator end portion.
The term “light-emitting diode” (LED) is used to include a general or specific type of LED or laser diode such as resonant cavity LED (RCLED), superluminescent LED (SLLED), organic LED (OLED), flexible OLED (FOLED), Flip Chip LED (FCLED), high-brightness LED or other LED as would be readily understood by a worker skilled in the art.
The term “light-emitting element” (LEE) is used to define a device that emits radiation in a region or combination of regions of the electromagnetic spectrum for example, the visible region, infrared and/or ultraviolet region, when activated by applying a potential difference across it or passing a current through it, for example. Therefore a light-emitting element can have monochromatic, quasi-monochromatic, polychromatic or broadband spectral emission characteristics. Examples of light-emitting elements include semiconductor, organic, or polymer/polymeric light-emitting diodes, optically pumped phosphor coated light-emitting diodes, optically pumped nano-crystal light-emitting diodes or other similar devices as would be readily understood by a worker skilled in the art. Furthermore, the term light-emitting element is used to define the specific device that emits the radiation, for example a LED die, and can equally be used to define a combination of the specific device that emits the radiation together with a housing or package within which the specific device or devices are placed.
The term “optical element” is used to refer to lenses, filters, reflectors, prisms etc that affect the propagation or composition of light as would be readily understood by a worker skilled in the art.
As used herein, the term “about” refers to a +/−10% variation from the nominal value. It is to be understood that such a variation is always included in any given value provided herein, whether or not it is specifically referred to.
Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs.
The present invention arises from the realization that existing optical devices having a heat pipe for cooling light-emitting diodes suffer from the disadvantage that the heat pipe is typically not in intimate thermal contact with the LEDs and cannot be easily integrated with the LEDs, the optical elements and the drive circuitry of a luminaire because they would either obstruct or otherwise undesirably affect the desired light emission or the desired placement of a driving circuit therefor. The present invention provides an optical device comprising one or more heat pipes with a desired level of thermal coupling with the light-emitting elements, wherein the light-emitting elements are positioned along a periphery of the evaporator end portion of the heat pipe in such a way that they are thermally coupled to the heat pipe. In one embodiment, the heat pipe of the present invention can be readily integrated with optical elements such as reflectors or collimators.
The present invention further provides an optical device comprising a plurality of heat pipes configured for substantially intimate placement therebetween of the evaporator surface end portions of the heat pipes. One or more light emitting elements for generating light are thermally coupled to each of the plurality of heat pipes. The one or more light-emitting elements are positioned substantially proximate to the periphery of the evaporator end portion of the heat pipe. The relative positioning and configuration of the heat pipes can enable the reduction of the cross sectional size of the region required for the light-emitting elements, while reducing impediments to the desired light emission for the optical device. In one embodiment, the heat pipe of the present invention can be readily integrated with optical elements such as reflectors or collimators.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the optical device is configured to minimize the etendue thereof. As is known the etendue of an optical device is a constant and is calculated as the product of the opening size of the optical device and the solid angle from which the optical device emits light. The optical device according to the present invention is configured such that the light-emitting elements are mounted in relation to the heat pipe in a configuration that is substantially an optimal balance between opening size and the thermal path length between the light-emitting elements and the sidewall wicking structure of the heat pipe. The circumferential configuration of the light-emitting elements according to one embodiment of the invention has an area that is about 10-20% larger than the area that would result from mounting the light-emitting elements in a square configuration which included the area defined by a circular reflector around the light-emitting elements. A square configuration of light-emitting elements, however, would likely be impractical for electrical interconnections such as wire bonds. Additionally, in a square configuration, the concentration of thermal energy in the central region of the tip of the heat pipe may result in the wicking structure of the heat pipe in this central region drying out, thus resulting in a longer thermal path length to the wicking structure positioned along the interior of the walls of the heat pipe. In addition, this circumferential configuration of the light-emitting elements may reduce thermal cross talk between the light-emitting elements and may provide a more equal distance between the light-emitting elements and a centrally located optical sensor. Finally, color mixing can be increased by arranging the circumferentially positioned light-emitting elements in such a way as to essentially ensure that light-emitting elements of similar emission wavelengths are separated sufficiently.
The bulk portion of a heat pipe defines a tubular hollow body which is partially filled with a certain amount of cooling medium, for example ammonia, water or the like. Whenever cooling medium proximate to the evaporator surface evaporates, it migrates inside the heat pipe towards the condenser surface where the cooling medium condenses if the inside of the heat pipe proximate to the condenser surface is of adequate temperature.
The condenser surface can be left exposed to the environment or it can be thermally coupled to a heat sink for cooling of the condenser surface. Under operating conditions the heat pipe comprising the intermediate bulk portion, condenser surface and evaporator surface can form a thermally conductive path for dissipating heat removed away from heat sources such as light-emitting elements which are thermally coupled to the contact surface.
In one embodiment of the present invention the heat pipe can optionally comprise traces or electrical circuitry to provide pathways for providing electrical power or control signals to the light-emitting elements. For example, the bulk portion can be surface patterned with electrically conductive traces. The heat pipe can additionally have layers of dielectric material attached to it which can be used to insulate electrical traces, for example.
In another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided dielectric submounts coupled to the heat pipe, wherein the submounts can be used to support circuit traces, devices etc.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the heat pipe is used as a thermally conductive and electrically passive element. In this embodiment, an electrically passive element can carry effectively no current, but may comprise either or both electrically non-conductive and electrically conductive materials.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the heat pipe is made from a thermally and electrically conducting material, such as aluminum, silver or copper or the like. The heat pipe may be used to provide electricity or act as an electrical contact for anodes or cathodes of the light-emitting elements. Accordingly, an electrically active heat pipe can provide an electrically conductive path for supply of electrical power or control signals to the light-emitting elements.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the evaporator surface comprises a recess area to frictionally fit with the bottom portion of the optical element, thereby providing a means for securing the optical element to the heat pipe. Alternately, the optical element can be secured to the heat pipe directly or indirectly using an adhesive, epoxy or other securing mechanism as would be readily understood.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the heat pipes are strategically shaped in order to provide for the relatively close positioning of the evaporator end portions of heat pipes within an optical device. Furthermore the heat pipes are shaped such that the condenser end portions of the heat pipes are sufficiently spaced apart in order to enable a desired level of heat dissipation from the condenser end portion of the heat pipes.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the evaporator end portions of the heat pipes are positioned in order that a desired separation distance therebetween is provided. In another embodiment of the present invention, the evaporator end portions of the heat pipes are in physical contact. In one embodiment, the relative positioning of the evaporator end portions of the heat pipes is determined based on a desired level of thermal cross talk between the heat pipes.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the cross section shape of a heat pipe at the evaporator end portion of the heat pipe is shaped in order to allow for relative close positioning of adjacent heat pipes. The cross sectional shape of the evaporator end portion of the heat pipe can be tear drop shaped, triangular, hexagonal or other shape as would be readily understood that can enable the relative positioning of a plurality of heat pipes in a reduced area. The shaping of the evaporator end portion of the heat pipes can be formed by pressing or other shaping method as would be readily understood by a worker skilled in the art.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the heat pipes comprise one or more bends which are formed along their length. The one or more bends formed in the heat pipes can enable the desired relative separation of the condenser ends of the heat pipes in order to enable a desired level of heat dissipation thereby. In one embodiment of the present invention, the length of the heat pipes are bent in order that a desired configuration of a heat sink can be thermally coupled thereto in order to provide a desired level of heat transfer from the heat pipes to the heat sink.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the tip of a heat pipe can be fabricated in a two-piece fashion containing the hollow tubular structure lined with the wick, and a separate cap structure that contains the patterning with the light-emitting elements and one or more optical sensors bonded thereto. In one embodiment, the material forming the cap structure is stamped or machined or laser diced copper that has a dielectric, for example atomic layer deposition (ALD) deposited alumina, layer on top, which is then patterned with circuit traces and bond pads. The cap structure can be joined to the tubular body of the heat pipe by laser welding, soldering, or brazing. The tubular body can be evacuated, charged with water or ammonia, and then sealed at the opposite end from the cap structure. This assembly method of the heat pipe can allow for the integration of a relatively simple light-emitting element mounting and electrical inter-connect or wire bonding process.
Light-Emitting Elements and Substrate
For good heat transfer light-emitting elements are positioned proximate to the evaporator surface of the heat pipe.
In one embodiment, for example as illustrated in
In one embodiment, the substrate is made from thin, for example fifty to one hundred microns thick, material such as silicon to give the substrate the required mechanical stability as well as a desired flexibility or elasticity, thermal resistance, and ability for good thermal coupling with the light-emitting elements as well as the heat pipe.
In one embodiment for example as illustrated in
In one embodiment, the substrate provides adequately sized and shaped optically reflective wells or ridges between adjacent pads or in other locations to optically separate and obstruct the optical paths between light-emitting elements. The wells can help suppress the degree to which light-emitting elements absorb light emanating from other light-emitting elements and help improve the light-extraction efficiency of the optical device by redirecting laterally or shallow emitted light from the light-emitting elements in a forward direction.
In one embodiment of the present invention light-emitting elements can be bonded to corresponding pads by a solder or an adhesive such as indium or tin, lead-tin or gold-tin, for example. In another embodiment, the light-emitting elements can be disposed or directly grown by crystallization on the pads. The light-emitting elements can be manufactured, for example, by standard thin or thick film technologies as well as by lithography, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metal-organic CVD (MOCVD), sputtering or the like in combination with desired structuring methods, for example.
In one embodiment, any required electrically insulating material can be deposited on the substrate using oxides such as aluminum oxide, for example, or any other materials known in the art. Electrically conductive or insulating layers can be deposited and structured into traces employing a number of techniques including thin and thick film technologies as well as sputtering, CVD, MOCVD, MBE or ALD or the like as well as lithography. Any electrically conductive as well as electrically insulating layers provide a desired level of thermal conductivity.
In one embodiment, the substrate can be made of material with an adequate degree of electrical conductivity that yet still provides high thermal conductivity. The substrate can be made of foil or cut from bulk and polished to a desired thickness and surface quality. The substrate can comprise a layer of carbon in a diamond configuration, for example. The substrate surfaces may need to meet certain surface requirements concerning roughness or texture, for example. Depending on its composition, for example copper, silicon or aluminum nitride, the layer of the substrate can be coated with a layer of electrically insulating material of different types, such as aluminum oxide, for example. The circuit traces and bond pads can be formed by lithography on an adequate layer on the substrate. The substrate preferably provides a high quality surface finish, and any optional layer are generally desirably thin.
In an embodiment of the present invention the layer of the substrate that is patterned includes a silver ink. The patterned layer can be stenciled and between approximately one and ten micros thick. For example, it can be printed by a Gravure method. The patterned layer may be less than one micron thick if the ink is only desired to provide a catalyst for subsequent material deposition processes, for example. Generally, substrates and circuits can be manufactured on top of ALD processed copper foil are cost effective and can provide good thermal conductivity and insulate sufficiently well. Adequate deposition technologies are well known in the art. In embodiments of the present invention, thick or thin film patterning may be employed.
Disposing light-emitting elements proximate to the outer edge of the evaporator surface of the heat pipe, for example as illustrated by the configuration in
As illustrated in
In one embodiment of the present invention, drive circuitry for the light-emitting elements can be disposed on the heat pipe at desired locations or may be operatively coupled to the optical device in order to provide operational control signals to the plurality of light-emitting elements of the optical device.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the assembly comprises one or more optical elements. The optical element affects the mixing and propagation of the light emitted by the light-emitting elements. The optical element can be an optical lens, an optical diffuser, optical reflector or any other optical element which can be used for beam shaping as is well known in the art. The optical element is disposed proximate to the light-emitting elements. An additional substance such as an optical coupling gel or adhesive of suitable consistency, mechanical properties, color and refractive index can be disposed between the optical element and the light-emitting elements in order to improve the light-extraction efficiency. The optical element can be mechanically secured to the substrate or alternatively relative to the substrate by a housing or other suitable structural element.
An optical element according to one embodiment of the present invention is illustrated in
In one embodiment of the present invention, the optical element includes a reflective sidewall coating which can be fabricated from any one or more materials including thermally conductive materials such as thermoplastic polymer compositions or metals such as aluminum, copper, silver, magnesium, for example. In one embodiment of the present invention, the reflective side wall of the optical element can be fabricated from a dielectric thin-film stack applied by a sputtering, CVD or ALD means.
Further, in one embodiment, the surfaces of the sidewall of the optical element may be coated with a metalized highly reflective coating or a dielectric multilayer thin-film stack or any combination known in the art. The dielectric stack can be manufactured using ALD so as to deposit accurately thick layers across all surface locations, angles of inclination and curvatures for improved light reflection.
In one embodiment of the present invention, as illustrated in
As illustrated, in one embodiment of the present invention, the centre portion 32 of the optical element can have a rotational symmetric shape around the optical axis of the optical element and define a parabolic or elliptical cross section, for example. An adequately shaped centre portion 32 can improve beam shaping and improve the light-extraction efficiency of the optical device. It is noted that any other shape and cross-section can be used which can aid, for example, in beam shaping and/or extraction of utility light as well as redirecting a portion of light towards optional optical sensors.
In one embodiment of the present invention, an optical sensor is positioned in the central region of the assembly and can be enclosed by the centre portion optical element. In this embodiment, for the transmission of a sample of the light emitted by the light-emitting elements, the centre portion optical element can be configured to capture this portion of light and guide it towards the optical sensor. Optionally, the centre portion optical element can be configured with a transparent window which allows for the passage of a sample of the emitted light to reach the optical sensor. Other configurations of the centre portion optical element for the capturing of a sample of the emitted light, would be readily understood by a worker skilled in the art.
In one embodiment, the inner surface sidewall portion of the optical element and the surface of the centre portion are characterized by having a desired surface texture and smoothness. Down to micrometer or sub-micrometer scales, the surface can be practically considered free of discontinuities, pits, jagged points, or other surface defects. The inner surface can be coated with a metallized reflective coating, which can provide enhanced reflectivity of the optical element and the centre portion.
In another embodiment of the present invention, the optical element may be configured as a reflector such as a compound parabolic concentrator (CFC), an elliptical concentrator (EC), a compound elliptical concentrator (CEC), a color-mixing totally internally reflecting reflector, or a compound hyperbolic concentrator (CHC). Regardless of its type, the optical element may include flat or curved entrance and exit apertures (not illustrated). The apertures can be configured with diffractive surfaces. Curved apertures can have spherical or aspherical surfaces. Optionally, the surfaces of the apertures can be coated with anti-reflective coatings. Anti-reflective coatings can be applied using ion beam sputtering or other techniques as would be known to a worker skilled in the art. In one embodiment of the present invention, the surfaces of the apertures may have diffractive, refractive or sub-wavelength structures which may provide antireflection or wavelength mixing.
As illustrated in
In one embodiment of the present invention, the heat pipes have a 6 mm outer diameter, and based on the tear drop shaped evaporator end portion of the heat pipes, six 2 mm light-emitting elements each positioned proximate to the perimeter of the evaporator end portion of a separate heat pipe, can be positioned within a circle which has an outer diameter of about 8.8 mm. In one embodiment, the substrate is a flex circuit comprising cut outs for wire free flip-chip light-emitting elements on laser diced AlN or diamond patterned submounts.
As illustrated in
As illustrated in
As illustrated in
It is obvious that the foregoing embodiments of the invention are examples and can be varied in many ways. Such present or future variations are not to be regarded as a departure from the spirit and scope of the invention, and all such modifications as would be obvious to one skilled in the art are intended to be included within the scope of the following claims.
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|US9388372||Nov 6, 2015||Jul 12, 2016||Tristan Victor Wilson||Bioreactor using macroalgae|
|US9695389||Jun 10, 2016||Jul 4, 2017||Tristan Victor Wilson||Bioreactor using a macroalgae|
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|US20140218931 *||Mar 11, 2013||Aug 7, 2014||Cree, Inc.||Led lamp with omnidirectional light distribution|
|US20150285482 *||Apr 3, 2014||Oct 8, 2015||Pie-Jung Wang||Sleeve-type heat dissipater for lamp|
|U.S. Classification||362/294, 362/580, 362/373, 362/345|
|International Classification||F21V5/00, F21V29/00, F21V7/20, B60Q1/06|
|Cooperative Classification||F21K9/68, F21K9/00, F21V29/006, F21V29/004, F21V29/51, F21V29/83, F21V29/773, F21V29/74, F28D15/0233, F28D15/0266, H01L33/648, H01L23/427, H01L2924/0002|
|European Classification||F21V29/00C2, F28D15/02E, F28D15/02M, F21V29/00C10, F21K9/00, F21V29/22B|
|Nov 14, 2009||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: TIR TECHNOLOGY LP, CANADA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:LIGHTSTREAM PHOTONICS, INC.;DAHM, JONATHAN S.;REEL/FRAME:023518/0287
Effective date: 20091112
Owner name: TIR TECHNOLOGY LP,CANADA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:LIGHTSTREAM PHOTONICS, INC.;DAHM, JONATHAN S.;REEL/FRAME:023518/0287
Effective date: 20091112
|Jun 12, 2015||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Nov 1, 2015||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Dec 22, 2015||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20151101