|Publication number||US8055576 B2|
|Application number||US 12/939,484|
|Publication date||Nov 8, 2011|
|Filing date||Nov 4, 2010|
|Priority date||Oct 19, 2000|
|Also published as||US7136834, US7747515, US7831507, US8548898, US20100250429, US20110047068, US20120016788, US20140032389|
|Publication number||12939484, 939484, US 8055576 B2, US 8055576B2, US-B2-8055576, US8055576 B2, US8055576B2|
|Inventors||Seth I. Merrin, John Halloran, Demian Kosofsky, Kevin Lupowitz|
|Original Assignee||Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (120), Non-Patent Citations (45), Referenced by (6), Classifications (10), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This divisional application claims the benefit of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/834,171 filed Apr. 12, 2001 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,136,834 and U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/242,373, filed Oct. 19, 2000 each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates in general to securities trading and in particular to electronic commerce marketplaces and order management systems for supporting securities trading.
2. Background Art
Although computers are heavily used to facilitate trading of securities, manual intervention is still required at certain steps in the trading process. For example, most traders at institutional investment management firms record their orders to purchase or sell securities in computerized order management systems (OMS's). However, one or more traders at each firm must manually review the orders in the OMS and attempt to fill the orders by contacting one or more market intermediaries. Typically, the traders transmit the orders in the OMS by telephone or separate data entry links to registered broker-dealers for the securities, to electronic marketplaces that trade the securities, or to other market intermediaries. Accordingly, manual effort is required to actually execute the orders in the OMS.
One problem arising from this manual effort is that institutional traders cannot execute trades involving large quantities of securities without adversely affecting the market price of the securities. For example, institutional traders often need to trade large quantities of securities due to the continuing need of investment managers to respond to changes in market conditions by altering the contents of their investment portfolios. As these portfolios increase in size due to increased investor activity, the corresponding quantity of securities to be traded in order to achieve a similar portfolio balance also increases. Market impact costs, or adverse costs resulting from the institutional traders' activities, rise in such circumstances because locating parties with whom to trade such large quantities of securities becomes more difficult for the market intermediaries.
Moreover, if the market intermediaries become aware that an institutional firm wants to, say, sell a large block of a particular equity security, this awareness is likely to lower the sale price that the institutional firm can obtain due to the normal processes of supply and demand. The effect is also likely to be exacerbated by speculation from others with knowledge of the order as to why the particular investor wishes to sell such a large quantity of the security. Similarly, if market intermediaries become aware of the fact than an institutional firm wants to buy a large block of a particular equity security, this awareness will likely increase the purchase price that the institutional firm will have to pay. This adverse effect on price is further exacerbated by the fact that traditional market intermediaries trade for their own accounts.
One strategy commonly employed by institutional traders to offset market impact costs is to spread out trade orders for a large quantity of a security into small orders each handled by a different market intermediary, sometimes over several trading days. Of course, this strategy brings about its own problems in that the market price can change significantly during this extended trading period due to the unforeseeable activities of others.
Another strategy that may be employed is to spread the orders for the security among one or more electronic marketplaces. However, the traders must manually transmit each order to the electronic marketplaces using a telephone or a separate data entry link. The fact that the traders need to perform these extra steps, which include duplicate entry of basic order data already recorded in the OMS, causes many traders to use these electronic marketplaces infrequently, and to supply the marketplaces with only a small subset of the total orders. As a result, these electronic marketplaces often lack the liquidity required by a trader to timely execute orders.
The lack of integration between the OMS and the electronic marketplaces also poses problems when an institutional trader wishes to trade a particular security simultaneously within an electronic marketplace and, for example, over the telephone with a traditional broker. For example, some electronic marketplaces attempt to find matches at only specific time intervals. If a trader wishes to buy 100,000 shares of IBM, and has placed an order for half that amount in an electronic marketplace, the trader will not know how much, if any, IBM stock was purchased until after the next scheduled match attempt. In the meantime, the trader potentially could have purchased more than 50,000 shares from a broker over the phone at a better price.
Therefore, there is a need in the art for an electronic trading marketplace that does not require any manual intervention by traders or other parties, offers anonymity, and offers a high amount of liquidity.
The present invention addresses the above need by providing for the automated transmission of orders (i.e., without manual trader intervention) from the various order management systems (OMS's) used by investment management firms or other entities having trading systems to an electronic trading marketplace (ETM). A firm with a trading system stores information about orders in an OMS to manage its order flow, to monitor the initiation, placement, and execution of orders, and for related purposes. Software providing the functionality of an OMS is well known in the art.
OMS interfacing modules (OIMs) at the firms automatically transmit orders from the OMS's to the ETM and preferably update the OMS's in response to orders executed at the ETM. Traders can communicate with the ETM to anonymously negotiate trades of securities. As used herein, a “security” is an ownership or creditorship interest, such as a stock certificate, bond, or any other financial instrument, contract or transaction, such as a forward, futures, option, put, call, collar, swap, or currency contract on any security. This description uses the term “security” for convenience but it should be understood that the term covers financial instruments generally.
The ETM includes an OMS data integration module (ODIM) for receiving and processing data representative of orders received from the OIMs. In a preferred embodiment, the data from the OIMs are provided to the ETM in a standardized format that requires little processing by the ODIM. The orders processed by the ODIM are stored in an ETM database.
A negotiation module in the ETM supports negotiations between traders. In one embodiment, an indications module transmits orders received by the ETM among the traders based upon filtering criteria established by the traders and/or the ETM. These orders are transmitted among the traders in the form of non-binding indications. Based upon these indications, traders at one institution can enter into negotiations with traders at other institutions, through the negotiation module of the ETM. In one embodiment, at least parts of the negotiations are conducted anonymously.
A trader authentication module authorizes and authenticates traders who log into the ETM in order to perform trading negotiations and/or other functions. A transaction history module records transactions performed by the ETM in the ETM database. The transaction history module also preferably records other data processed by the ETM including, for example, the orders received from and sent to the trading systems and the conducted negotiations.
A typical trading system at an investment management firm or other entity at which trading is performed includes a number of workstations coupled to an OMS server via a network, with a trader at each workstation. Each workstation preferably executes a trader OMS interaction module (TOIM) for facilitating interactions between the trader's workstation and the OMS server. In one embodiment of the present invention, the TOIM allows a trader to add, delete, or modify open or contemplated orders stored in the OMS database. The OMS, which includes the OMS server, OMS database, and TOIM, is typically provided by an OMS vendor, though some firms have developed their own OMS's.
In connection with the present invention, each workstation also preferably executes an ETM interaction module (EIM) for facilitating interactions with the ETM. The EIM allows a trader to send information to the ETM and view and respond to information received from the ETM. Typically, this information includes information about the trader's indications, information about other traders' indications, and orders transmitted to and received by a trader during a negotiation.
The OMS database holds data representative of open, contemplated, or completed orders to buy and/or sell securities by traders using the trading system. The OIM is in communication with the OMS database and the ETM. An OMS database integration module in the OIM reads data records stored in the OMS database and, in a preferred embodiment, also creates and modifies data records stored in the OMS database upon execution of a trade through the ETM. In one embodiment, the OMS database interaction module directly accesses the OMS database and in another embodiment it sends commands to an application programming interface (API) in the OMS for accessing the database.
The OIM also includes an ETM communication module for communicating with the ETM. In one embodiment, the ETM communication module provides selected data records in the OMS database to the ETM and, in a preferred embodiment, receives data and/or instructions from the ETM regarding changes to make to the OMS database. In addition, the OIM preferably includes a data record conversion module for modifying the format of data records sent to the ETM and/or received from the ETM. The OIM also preferably includes a filtering module for filtering out specified orders by security type, security name, order type, order price, order quantity, or other category, so that those orders are not transmitted to the ETM.
Preferably, the OIM transmits to the ETM data records in the OMS database relating to a trader's orders when the trader logs on to the ETM. Once the OIM determines that the trader has logged on to the ETM, the DIM retrieves data records about that trader's orders suitable for transmission to the ETM from the OMS database. In one embodiment, the OIM converts the data records retrieved from the OMS database into a standardized format understood by the ETM. In another embodiment, this functionality is part of the ETM.
After a trader has logged on to the ETM, the OIM determines whether the contents of the OMS database have changed. If the OMS database has changed, the OIM determines whether the change should be transmitted to the ETM. In one embodiment, the OIM continues to determine whether the contents of the OMS database have changed between the time that a trader logs on to the ETM and the time that the ETM commences trading. In another embodiment, the OIM does not commence making this determination until the time that the ETM commences trading.
Because typical OMS's are complex and multi-featured, and because securities of types not handled by the ETM may be traded using the OMS, some changes to the OMS database do not necessitate a transmission of updated data to the ETM. The OIM preferably transmits changes to the database to the ETM if the changes represent new or modified orders.
The OIM preferably updates the database in response to information received from the ETM indicating executed trades or other information. In a preferred embodiment, if an execution occurred in the ETM involving an order in the OMS associated with the OIM, the OIM receives information from the ETM describing the execution. This information includes, for example, the type, amount, and price of securities traded, the time of execution, and/or information identifying the original order in the OMS database on which the execution was based. The OIM converts the received information about the execution into the format used by the OMS and updates the OMS database accordingly. As a result of these steps, the OMS is updated automatically and transparently to reflect executions performed at the ETM. The executions appear to the OMS as typical trades conducted at another broker, so no special functionality needs to be added to the OMS in order to interact with the ETM beyond that functionality described herein.
The trading systems are used by investment management firms or other entities that have established a relationship with the ETM 110. The trading systems 112 communicate with the ETM 110 to facilitate the trading of securities. As used herein, a “security” is any ownership or creditorship interest, such as a stock certificate or bond, or any other financial instrument, contract, or transaction, such as a forward, futures, option, put, call, collar, swap, or currency contract. This definition includes, for example, any note, stock, bond, debenture, certificate of interest or participation in any profit-sharing agreement or in any oil, gas, or other mineral royalty or lease, any collateral trust certificate, investment contract, voting-trust certificate, certificate of deposit, any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege on any of the foregoing, or group or index of securities (including any interest therein or based on the value thereof). This list is not all-inclusive. For purposes of clarity, this description will describe the trading of stock.
Within each trading system 112 is a database 114A, 114B, 114C associated with an order management system (OMS). Each OMS database 114 holds data representative of open, contemplated, or completed orders to buy and/or sell securities (collectively referred to herein as “orders for securities”) by traders using the trading system 112. For example, assume that the database 114A of trading system 112A contains orders to sell 50,000 shares of DELL and 75,000 shares of MSFT and orders to buy 25,000 shares of CPQ and 100,000 shares of IBM. Also assume that the database 114B of trading system 112B contains orders to sell 30,000 shares of CPQ and buy 62,000 shares of T.
The orders in the OMS databases 114 are automatically transmitted to the ETM 110. Likewise, any changes in the orders, such as modifications and/or withdrawals, are automatically transmitted to the ETM 110. As used herein, the term “automatically” means that the associated action is performed without any human or manual intervention. Thus, there is no need for traders to specifically request that individual orders in the OMS databases 114 are transmitted to the ETM 110; orders in the databases are sent to the ETM 110 without the traders' input (subject to filtering criteria).
Preferably, the ETM 110 anonymously transmits information about a trader's orders to other traders using the ETM, subject to filtering in accordance with filtering criteria established by the traders and/or the ETM. Moreover, the ETM 110 preferably manages anonymous negotiations between traders using the trading systems 112 for the purpose of executing the orders and sends data about the completed trades to the OMS's of the traders involved in the transaction.
Thus, one embodiment of the present invention selectively broadcasts information about the orders received by the ETM 110 from the database 114A of trading system 112A to the other trading systems 112B, 112C. Likewise, the ETM 110 selectively broadcasts information about the orders received from the database 114B of trading system 112B to the other trading systems 112A, 112C. If the traders desire such a trade, the ETM 110 will facilitate the anonymous negotiation and sale of 25,000 shares of CPQ from a trader using trading system 112B to a trader using trading system 112A.
Data is communicated between the trading systems 112 and the ETM 110 using interfacing links 116A, 116B, 116C. Any known interfacing technologies can be used to effectuate these links, including, but not limited to, transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP), satellite, cellular, and/or radio frequency (RF) links, or some combination thereof. The links may pass through one or more intermediate data processing systems, such as telephone switches or Internet servers, before reaching the ETM 110 or a trading system 112. In embodiments where data travels over shared links, such as embodiments where data travels over the public Internet, the data is preferably encrypted using a secure protocol, such as the secure sockets layer (SSL).
Data received by the ETM 110 from the trading systems 112 over the interfacing links 116 are received by a firewall 210. As is known in the art, the firewall 210 preferably prevents unauthorized users from gaining access to the rest of the ETM 110 and monitors transfers of data to and from the network.
Data that pass through the firewall 210 are received by one or more modules that perform the functionality of the ETM 110. As used herein, the term “module” refers to machine-executable code and/or data, but may also include associated circuitry, such as processing circuitry, as well as data storage areas, and/or any other software or hardware. Thus, it will be appreciated that one or a combination of hardware and software, such as a computer system executing software for performing the functionality of the modules, may implement each of the modules shown in
The ETM 110 preferably includes an OMS data integration module (ODIM) 212. The ODIM 212 receives and processes data representative of orders received from the OMS databases 114 in the trading systems 112. In a preferred embodiment, the data from the OMS databases 114 are provided to the ETM 110 in a standardized format that requires little processing by the ODIM 212. In an alternative embodiment, the data from the OMS databases 114 are provided to the ETM 110 in one or more different formats depending upon factors such as the type of OMS used by the trading systems 112, the types of interfacing links supplying the data to the ETM, the type of security or orders to which the data pertains, and the like. In this latter embodiment, the ODIM 212 preferably converts the data into a standardized format for use by other modules in the ETM 110.
The orders processed by the ODIM 212 are stored in an ETM database 214. Data in the database 214 are preferably accessible to the other modules in the ETM 110. In addition, the other modules in the ETM 110 can store other data in the illustrated database 214 or other databases as may be required during normal operation.
In a preferred embodiment, an indications module 216 transmits information about orders received by the ETM 110 among the various traders based upon filtering criteria established by the traders and/or the ETM. This information is transmitted among the traders in the form of non-binding indications.
Based upon these indications, traders can enter into negotiations with other traders through a negotiation module 218. The negotiation module 218 facilitates negotiations between traders using trading systems and having contra interests. In one embodiment, at least parts of the negotiations are conducted anonymously, in order to limit the spread of information about the traders' activities.
A market data module 220 receives real-time and other market data from an input 222. The market data module 220 provides the market data to the negotiation module 218 and to the traders. The traders preferably use the market data during the negotiations to determining market prices for the securities.
A transaction history module 224 records transactions performed by the ETM 110 in the database 214. The transaction history module 224 also preferably records other data processed by the ETM 110 including, for example, information about orders received from and sent to the trading systems 112 and the negotiations conducted (successful or not). This module 224 is preferably used to audit the transactions conducted on the ETM 110.
A trader authentication module 226 authorizes and authenticates traders who log into the ETM 110 in order to perform trading negotiations and/or other functions. In one embodiment, the trader authentication module 226 stores authentication information, such as a login ID/password pair in the database 214. The trader authentication module 226 also preferably stores profiles for the registered traders.
Other modules that may be present in the ETM 110 include load monitoring modules for monitoring the load on various servers comprising the ETM, fault tolerance modules for providing fault tolerance to the ETM, security modules for preventing and detecting security violations on the ETM, and back office modules for providing back office functionality. These modules are not shown in
In a typical trading system that interacts with the ETM 110, each workstation 310 executes a trader OMS interaction module 316 (TOIM) for facilitating interactions with the OMS server 312. In this typical trading system, the TOIM 316 allows a trader to add, delete, or modify open or contemplated orders stored in the OMS database 114. Contemplated orders may be stored in the OMS database 114, for example, because the trader intends to execute certain transactions in stages, or because the contemplated transactions are desirable only if the market prices of the securities to be traded are within a certain range (e.g., limit orders). Therefore, such orders serve as placeholders indicating the total quantity of a security that a trader wishes to transact and conditions for transacting other orders; other data in the database 114 indicate the quantity of the security that has been transacted to date.
Each workstation 310 executes an ETM interaction module 318 (EIM) for facilitating interactions with the ETM 110. In alternative embodiments of the present invention, the EIM 318 is incorporated into the TOIM 316 or other modules on the workstation 310. The EIM 318 allows a trader to send information to the ETM 110 and view and respond to information received from the ETM 110. Typically, the received information includes information about orders (through the indications module 216) and orders (through the negotiation module 218) that the ETM 110 receives from other traders or trading institutions. The trader uses the EIM 318 to enter into and transact negotiations to buy and/or sell securities through the ETM 110.
The network 314 connects the workstations 310 to the OMS 312 and to external networks such as the network in communication with the ETM 110. The network 314 can utilize any networking technology that supports bi-directional transfer of data among the OMS 312, workstations 310, and external networks. In a typical embodiment, the network 314 is a private local area network (LAN) installed at a financial institution and interfacing with one or more external gateways. In alternate embodiments, the network may be wireless, connect devices over a wide area, and/or at least partially carry data over a public network (such as the Internet). Other network components, such as a firewall, may also be present. Those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that many different types of networks can perform the functionality described herein.
The OMS 312 is preferably comprised of one or more computer systems for executing and maintaining an order management system. The OMS 312 receives instructions from the workstations to create, modify, and/or delete orders and updates the database 114 accordingly. Software providing the functionality of the OMS 312 is well known in the art. Commercial OMS software packages are available from The MacGregor Group, Eze Castle Software, Advent Software, and Decalog, to name but a few. In addition, some trading institutions utilize custom OMS software.
As described above, the database 114 holds data representative of open, contemplated, or completed orders to buy and/or sell securities.
The order data record 400 has multiple fields, each field holding different information about an order. The Order ID field 410 preferably holds a value uniquely identifying the order associated with the data record 400. Similarly, the Trader ID field 412 preferably holds a value uniquely identifying the trader or other person who placed the order. The Order Status field 414 identifies whether the order is open, contemplated, completed, canceled, or any other possible status. The next field, Order Last Update Time 416, preferably holds a timestamp that identifies the last time that the data record 400 was modified in any way. This field 416 is useful for determining whether the most recent version of the data record 400 has been considered.
The Transaction Type field 418 preferably indicates whether the data record 400 corresponds to an order to buy or sell a security. The Security Symbol field 420 preferably uniquely identifies the security to be transacted. The Security Symbol field 420 can hold, for example, a Committee on Uniform Securities Identification Procedures (CUSIP) number, a ticker symbol, or any other identifier of the security. The Security Type field 422 is preferably used to interpret the other data in the data record 400 according to the given security type. For example, treasury bills are priced in terms of a discount to face value; inherent in the pricing formula is the yield that would be obtained if the bill were held to maturity. In contrast, equity securities are priced in actual per-share values. The information in the Security Type field 422 can also be used to filter out certain types of securities.
The Order Type field 424 preferably indicates whether the order is a market or a limit order, although the field can also indicate other order types. If the order is a limit order, the Limit Price Field 426 preferably identifies the price set by the trader.
The Total Order Size field 428 preferably identifies the actual number of shares that the trader desires to transact. The Quantity Placed Elsewhere field 430 is a value either equal to or less than the value in the Total Order Size field 428. In an embodiment of the present invention, the ETM 110 uses the values of these two fields 428, 430 determine a quantity of a security, if any, that are available to be transacted by the ETM.
Preferably, the OMS 312 allows for the possibility that trading a large quantity of a given security may occur over several days at several different venues. For example, to fill an order to buy 1,000,000 shares of IBM, a trader may need to place an order for 300,000 shares with one broker, and record numerous executions of portions thereof until the full 300,000 shares placed with that broker are purchased. If the broker cannot provide additional shares at a suitable price, the trader may then place an additional quantity, up to the 700,000 shares remaining to be purchased, via another broker, electronic marketplace, or other venue. Preferably, the broker enters a placement record into the OMS database 114 to indicate that the trader anticipates executing a portion of the order through the second venue. This second venue may also fill the quantity it was asked to provide in several executions. Thus, an order can have one or more placements and each placement can have one or more executions associated with it.
When a transaction is executed in a specified venue, such as the ETM 110, a corresponding execution record is preferably stored in the OMS database 114.
The OMS interfacing module (OIM) 320 is in communication with the OMS database 114 via the network 314 or a direct connection. In alternative embodiments, the OIM 320 is in communication with the OMS 312 and/or the workstations 310. The OIM 320 is also in communication with the ETM 110 via an external gateway or some other form of network connection. In another alternative embodiment, the OIM 320 is integrated into the ETM 110 and is remote from the OMS 312, although some functionality is present at the OMS in order to provide OMS data to the OIM.
In a preferred embodiment, the OIM 320 includes a computer system storing and executing software for performing the functionality described herein. In an alternative embodiment, the OIM 320 executes on the same computer system as the OMS 312. In one embodiment, the OIM 320 includes an OMS database interaction module 322 for interacting with the OMS database 114. The OMS database interaction module 322 reads records stored in the OMS database 114 and, in a preferred embodiment, creates and modifies data records stored in the OMS database 114. In one embodiment, the OMS database interaction module 322 directly accesses the OMS database 114 and in another embodiment it sends commands to an applications programming interface (API) in the OMS 312 for accessing the database.
The OIM 320 also preferably includes an ETM communication module 324 for communicating with the ETM 110. In one embodiment, the ETM communication module 324 automatically provides selected data records in the OMS database 114 to the ETM 110 and, in a preferred embodiment, receives data and/or instructions from the ETM. In addition, the OIM 320 also preferably includes a data record conversion module 326 for modifying the format of the data records sent to and/or received from the ETM 110 and a filtering module 238 for filtering out specified orders by security type, security name, order type, order quantity, order price, or some other factor or category, so that filtered orders are not transmitted to the ETM.
Preferably, the OIM 320 waits 710 until a trader logs on to the OMS 312 before transmitting data records for that trader to the ETM 110. In one embodiment, the ETM 110 sends a message to the OIM 320 when a trader at the institution in which the OIM 320 resides logs into the ETM. The OIM 320 interprets this message as a sign to commence receiving orders. In other embodiments of the present invention, the OIM 320 uses other techniques, such as querying the OMS database 114 for specific entries, listening for an inter-process message sent by the OMS 312, polling individual trader workstations 310, or implementing a timer-based algorithm, to determine that a trader has logged on to the OMS 312.
Once a determination 710 is made that a trader has logged on to the OMS 312 the OIM 320 retrieves 712 data records about orders suitable for transmission to the ETM from the OMS database 114. In one embodiment of the present invention, all open orders are suitable for transmission to the ETM 110. In other embodiments of the present invention, the OIM 320, through the filtering module 328, makes the determination of suitable orders based on other criteria, such as the security type (e.g., stock or bond), security name (e.g., IBM or T), order type (e.g., market or limit order), order quantity, and/or order price.
If necessary, the data record conversion module 326 within the OIM 320 preferably converts 714 the data records retrieved from the OMS database 114 into a standardized format understood by the ETM 110. As described above, the functionality of the data record conversion module 326 can also be performed by the ODIM 212 in the ETM 110. Alternative embodiments of the present invention may send the data records individually or in multiple batches. The data transmitted to the ETM 110 depend on factors such as the types of securities being traded, and/or the fields required in order to accurately trade such securities.
If the database has changed, the OIM 320 preferably determines whether the change should be transmitted to the ETM 110. Because typical OMS's are complex and multi-featured, and because securities of types not handled by the ETM 110 may be traded using the OMS 312, some changes to the OMS database 114 do not necessitate a transmission of updated data to the ETM 110. Thus, the OIM 320 determines 812 whether the change to the database 114 reflects a new order of a type that is traded in the ETM 110. If so, then the OIM 320 retrieves 816 the pertinent data for the order from the database 114. If the change does not reflect a new order, then the OIM 320 preferably determines 814 whether the database change pertains to a modification of an existing order that has already been sent to the ETM 110. If so, the OIM 320 retrieves 818 the data records corresponding to the modified order from the database 114. Once the appropriate data records, if any, are retrieved from the database, the OIM 320 preferably converts 820 the data records into the appropriate format and transmits the records to the ETM 110 as described above with respect to
The OIM 320 initially determines 910 whether an execution occurred in the ETM 110 involving an order in the OMS 312 associated with the OIM. The step may be performed, for example, by receiving a message from the ETM 110 identifying a particular execution that occurred at the ETM, by filtering a list of all executions or other data from the ETM for executions listed in the OMS 312, or by periodically polling the ETM for performed executions.
If an execution occurred in the ETM 110 involving an order in the OMS 312 associated with the OIM 320, the OIM receives 912 information from the ETM describing the execution. This information includes, for example, the type, amount, and price of securities traded, the time of execution, and/or information identifying the original order in the OMS database 114 on which the execution was based. The OIM 320 converts 914 the received information about the execution into the format used by the OMS 312. Then, the OIM 320 updates 916 the OMS database 114 with the converted execution data. As a result of these steps, the OMS 312 is updated automatically and transparently to reflect executions performed at the ETM 110. The executions appear to the OMS 312 as typical trades conducted at another broker.
In summary, the present invention includes an electronic trading marketplace that generates liquidity, at least in part, by receiving order information directly from the databases of OMS systems at trading institutions. Since orders are extracted from the OMS databases automatically, and information about executed orders is inserted into the databases automatically, the OMS databases “see” the marketplace as “just another market intermediary.” Moreover, traders are able to conduct trades in the electronic marketplace without any duplicative manual efforts.
The above description is included to illustrate the operation of the preferred embodiments and is not meant to limit the scope of the invention. The scope of the invention is to be limited only by the following claims. From the above discussion, many variations will be apparent to one skilled in the relevant art that would yet be encompassed by the spirit and scope of the invention.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2134118||Dec 31, 1930||Oct 25, 1938||Int Standard Electric Corp||Stock quotation monitoring and automatic shelf selection system|
|US3573747||Feb 24, 1969||Apr 6, 1971||Institutional Networks Corp||Instinet communication system for effectuating the sale or exchange of fungible properties between subscribers|
|US3581072||Mar 28, 1968||May 25, 1971||Frederick Nymeyer||Auction market computation system|
|US4412287||Sep 15, 1982||Oct 25, 1983||Braddock Iii Walter D||Automated stock exchange|
|US4674044||Jan 30, 1985||Jun 16, 1987||Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc.||Automated securities trading system|
|US4677552||Oct 5, 1984||Jun 30, 1987||Sibley Jr H C||International commodity trade exchange|
|US4774663||Nov 21, 1983||Sep 27, 1988||Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated||Securities brokerage-cash management system with short term investment proceeds allotted among multiple accounts|
|US4823265||May 11, 1987||Apr 18, 1989||Nelson George E||Renewable option accounting and marketing system|
|US4903201||Nov 3, 1983||Feb 20, 1990||World Energy Exchange Corporation||Automated futures trading exchange|
|US5077665||May 25, 1989||Dec 31, 1991||Reuters Limited||Distributed matching system|
|US5101353||May 31, 1989||Mar 31, 1992||Lattice Investments, Inc.||Automated system for providing liquidity to securities markets|
|US5126936||Sep 1, 1989||Jun 30, 1992||Champion Securities||Goal-directed financial asset management system|
|US5136501||May 26, 1989||Aug 4, 1992||Reuters Limited||Anonymous matching system|
|US5148365||Aug 15, 1989||Sep 15, 1992||Dembo Ron S||Scenario optimization|
|US5168446||May 23, 1989||Dec 1, 1992||Telerate Systems Incorporated||System for conducting and processing spot commodity transactions|
|US5297031||Mar 6, 1990||Mar 22, 1994||Chicago Board Of Trade||Method and apparatus for order management by market brokers|
|US5305200||Nov 2, 1990||Apr 19, 1994||Foreign Exchange Transaction Services, Inc.||Financial exchange system having automated recovery/rollback of unacknowledged orders|
|US5375055||Feb 3, 1992||Dec 20, 1994||Foreign Exchange Transaction Services, Inc.||Credit management for electronic brokerage system|
|US5497317||Dec 28, 1993||Mar 5, 1996||Thomson Trading Services, Inc.||Device and method for improving the speed and reliability of security trade settlements|
|US5517406||Sep 1, 1994||May 14, 1996||The Shareholder Services Group, Inc.||Method and apparatus for data verification and position reporting in an automated trade transactions processing system|
|US5544355||Jun 14, 1993||Aug 6, 1996||Hewlett-Packard Company||Method and apparatus for query optimization in a relational database system having foreign functions|
|US5592375||Mar 11, 1994||Jan 7, 1997||Eagleview, Inc.||Computer-assisted system for interactively brokering goods or services between buyers and sellers|
|US5615269||Feb 22, 1996||Mar 25, 1997||Micali; Silvio||Ideal electronic negotiations|
|US5664115||Jun 7, 1995||Sep 2, 1997||Fraser; Richard||Interactive computer system to match buyers and sellers of real estate, businesses and other property using the internet|
|US5689652||Apr 27, 1995||Nov 18, 1997||Optimark Technologies, Inc.||Crossing network utilizing optimal mutual satisfaction density profile|
|US5710889||Jun 7, 1995||Jan 20, 1998||Citibank, N.A.||Interface device for electronically integrating global financial services|
|US5715402||Nov 9, 1995||Feb 3, 1998||Spot Metals Online||Method and system for matching sellers and buyers of spot metals|
|US5717989||Oct 13, 1994||Feb 10, 1998||Full Service Trade System Ltd.||Full service trade system|
|US5727165||Dec 27, 1994||Mar 10, 1998||Reuters Limited||Offer matching system having timed match acknowledgment|
|US5787402 *||Oct 8, 1996||Jul 28, 1998||Crossmar, Inc.||Method and system for performing automated financial transactions involving foreign currencies|
|US5794207||Sep 4, 1996||Aug 11, 1998||Walker Asset Management Limited Partnership||Method and apparatus for a cryptographically assisted commercial network system designed to facilitate buyer-driven conditional purchase offers|
|US5794219||Feb 20, 1996||Aug 11, 1998||Health Hero Network, Inc.||Method of conducting an on-line auction with bid pooling|
|US5809483||Nov 14, 1997||Sep 15, 1998||Broka; S. William||Online transaction processing system for bond trading|
|US5818914||Mar 27, 1995||Oct 6, 1998||Aucnet Inc.||Auction information transmission processing system|
|US5835087||Oct 31, 1995||Nov 10, 1998||Herz; Frederick S. M.||System for generation of object profiles for a system for customized electronic identification of desirable objects|
|US5842178||Jan 30, 1998||Nov 24, 1998||Giovannoli; Joseph||Computerized quotation system and method|
|US5845266||Dec 12, 1995||Dec 1, 1998||Optimark Technologies, Inc.||Crossing network utilizing satisfaction density profile with price discovery features|
|US5873071||May 15, 1997||Feb 16, 1999||Itg Inc.||Computer method and system for intermediated exchange of commodities|
|US5897620||Jul 8, 1997||Apr 27, 1999||Priceline.Com Inc.||Method and apparatus for the sale of airline-specified flight tickets|
|US5924082||Jun 7, 1995||Jul 13, 1999||Geneva Branch Of Reuters Transaction Services Limited||Negotiated matching system|
|US5924083||May 29, 1996||Jul 13, 1999||Geneva Branch Of Reuters Transaction Services Limited||Distributed matching system for displaying a book of credit filtered bids and offers|
|US5926801||Apr 3, 1996||Jul 20, 1999||Fujitsu Limited||Electronic security/stock trading system with voice synthesis response for indication of transaction status|
|US5950176||Mar 25, 1996||Sep 7, 1999||Hsx, Inc.||Computer-implemented securities trading system with a virtual specialist function|
|US5950177||Jul 15, 1997||Sep 7, 1999||Optimark Technologies, Inc.||Crossing network utilizing optimal mutual satisfaction density profile|
|US5970479 *||May 28, 1993||Oct 19, 1999||Swychco Infrastructure Services Pty. Ltd.||Methods and apparatus relating to the formulation and trading of risk management contracts|
|US6012046||Oct 16, 1997||Jan 4, 2000||Optimark Technologies, Inc.||Crossing network utilizing satisfaction density profile with price discovery features|
|US6014627||Jun 18, 1996||Jan 11, 2000||Ebs Dealing Resources, Inc.||Credit management for electronic brokerage system|
|US6029146||Aug 21, 1996||Feb 22, 2000||Crossmar, Inc.||Method and apparatus for trading securities electronically|
|US6029195||Dec 5, 1997||Feb 22, 2000||Herz; Frederick S. M.||System for customized electronic identification of desirable objects|
|US6055504||Dec 11, 1997||Apr 25, 2000||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and system for accommodating electronic commerce in a communication network capacity market|
|US6058379||Jul 11, 1997||May 2, 2000||Auction Source, L.L.C.||Real-time network exchange with seller specified exchange parameters and interactive seller participation|
|US6112189 *||Mar 19, 1997||Aug 29, 2000||Optimark Technologies, Inc.||Method and apparatus for automating negotiations between parties|
|US6131087||Nov 5, 1998||Oct 10, 2000||The Planning Solutions Group, Inc.||Method for automatically identifying, matching, and near-matching buyers and sellers in electronic market transactions|
|US6134535||Mar 3, 1995||Oct 17, 2000||Belzberg Financial Markets & News International Inc.||Computerized stock exchange trading system automatically formatting orders from a spreadsheet to an order entry system|
|US6141653||Nov 16, 1998||Oct 31, 2000||Tradeaccess Inc||System for interative, multivariate negotiations over a network|
|US6157918||Jul 5, 1996||Dec 5, 2000||Swychco Infrastructure Services Pty Ltd.||Methods and apparatus relating to the formulation and trading of investment contracts|
|US6195647||Sep 26, 1996||Feb 27, 2001||The Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc.||On-line transaction processing system for security trading|
|US6247000||Jun 16, 1998||Jun 12, 2001||Crossmar, Inc.||Method and system for confirmation and settlement for financial transactions matching|
|US6266652||Mar 9, 1999||Jul 24, 2001||Bid.Com International Inc.||Computer auction system|
|US6278982||Apr 21, 1999||Aug 21, 2001||Lava Trading Inc.||Securities trading system for consolidation of trading on multiple ECNS and electronic exchanges|
|US6313833||Oct 16, 1998||Nov 6, 2001||Prophet Financial Systems||Graphical data collection and retrieval interface|
|US6349291||Jan 21, 2000||Feb 19, 2002||Attractor Holdings Llc||Method and system for analysis, display and dissemination of financial information using resampled statistical methods|
|US6401080||Mar 21, 1997||Jun 4, 2002||International Business Machines Corporation||Intelligent agent with negotiation capability and method of negotiation therewith|
|US6408282||Apr 15, 1999||Jun 18, 2002||Wit Capital Corp.||System and method for conducting securities transactions over a computer network|
|US6418419||Jul 23, 1999||Jul 9, 2002||5Th Market, Inc.||Automated system for conditional order transactions in securities or other items in commerce|
|US6421653||Oct 12, 1998||Jul 16, 2002||Blackbird Holdings, Inc.||Systems, methods and computer program products for electronic trading of financial instruments|
|US6493683||Aug 23, 1999||Dec 10, 2002||Netrade, Llc||Open commodites exchange|
|US6505174||Nov 2, 1998||Jan 7, 2003||Hsx, Inc.||Computer-implemented securities trading system with a virtual specialist function|
|US6505175||Oct 6, 1999||Jan 7, 2003||Goldman, Sachs & Co.||Order centric tracking system|
|US6564191||Feb 24, 2000||May 13, 2003||Visveshwar N Reddy||Computer-implemented method for performance measurement consistent with an investment strategy|
|US6704716||Sep 8, 2000||Mar 9, 2004||Mindepper, Llc||Method and system for conducting an online transaction that allows the seller and bidder to negotiate|
|US6747692||Mar 28, 1997||Jun 8, 2004||Symbol Technologies, Inc.||Portable multipurpose recording terminal and portable network server|
|US6968318||Dec 11, 1998||Nov 22, 2005||Itg Software Solutions, Inc.||Computer method and system for intermediated exchanges|
|US7035819||May 5, 2000||Apr 25, 2006||D.E. Shaw & Company||Method and system for facilitating automated interaction of marketable retail orders and professional trading interest at passively determined prices|
|US7107240 *||Oct 6, 2000||Sep 12, 2006||Goldman Sachs & Co.||Order centric tracking system and protocol for communications with handheld trading units|
|US7136834 *||Apr 12, 2001||Nov 14, 2006||Liquidnet, Inc.||Electronic securities marketplace having integration with order management systems|
|US7149713||Jun 9, 1999||Dec 12, 2006||The Vanguard Group, Inc.||System and method for automating investment planning|
|US7747515||Nov 3, 2006||Jun 29, 2010||Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.||Electronic securities marketplace having integration with order management systems|
|US7831507||Jun 10, 2010||Nov 9, 2010||Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.||Electronic securities marketplace having integration with order management systems|
|US20010037284||Mar 27, 2001||Nov 1, 2001||Finkelstein Ephraim Brian||Negotiated right exchange system and method|
|US20010047323||Mar 11, 2001||Nov 29, 2001||Craig Schmidt||System and method for matching buyers and sellers in a marketplace|
|US20020007335||Mar 22, 2001||Jan 17, 2002||Millard Jeffrey Robert||Method and system for a network-based securities marketplace|
|US20020032632||Dec 6, 2000||Mar 14, 2002||Pierre Sernet||Online commodities trading system with anonymous counter bid/offer function|
|US20020035533||Dec 21, 2000||Mar 21, 2002||Niels Mache||System and method for processing like-kind exchange transactions|
|US20020052824||Apr 23, 2001||May 2, 2002||Sriketan Mahanti||Method and apparatus for electronic trading|
|US20020055901||Sep 26, 2001||May 9, 2002||Gianakouros Nicholas B.||Method and system for the electronic negotiation and execution of equity block trades for institutional investors|
|US20020099647||Mar 27, 2002||Jul 25, 2002||Howorka Edward R.||Deal matching in an anonymous trading system|
|US20020103732||Dec 4, 2000||Aug 1, 2002||Tradescape Technologies, L.L.C.||Method and system for multi-path routing of electronic orders for securities|
|US20020128955||Oct 30, 2001||Sep 12, 2002||Liquidity Direct||Network and method for trading derivatives|
|US20020174045||Feb 15, 2002||Nov 21, 2002||Robert Arena||System, method, and computer program product for cost effective, dynamic allocation of assets among a plurality of investments|
|US20030004859||Jan 2, 2002||Jan 2, 2003||Shaw John C.||Method and system for facilitating secure transactions|
|US20030014354||Sep 12, 2002||Jan 16, 2003||Primex Holdings Llc, A New York Corporation||Auction market with price improvement mechanism|
|US20030050888||Aug 19, 2002||Mar 13, 2003||Michael Satow||Real-time computerized stock trading system|
|US20030061069||Oct 9, 2002||Mar 27, 2003||Reuters Limited||Negotiated matching system|
|US20030093362||Sep 17, 2002||May 15, 2003||Bruce Tupper||Electronic trading confirmation system|
|US20030216932||Nov 7, 2002||Nov 20, 2003||Kevin Foley||Automated trading of financial interests|
|US20030220868||Apr 7, 2003||Nov 27, 2003||Blackbird Holdings, Inc.||Methods for risk portfolio management within an electronic trading system|
|US20030229563||Jun 7, 2002||Dec 11, 2003||Moore Daniel F.||Opening price process for trading system|
|US20030229566||Jul 25, 2002||Dec 11, 2003||Moore Daniel F||Securities processor and a method of processing attributable interest messages|
|US20040034591||Dec 5, 2002||Feb 19, 2004||Henri Waelbroeck||Method and system for managing distributed trading data|
|US20040172356||Feb 13, 2004||Sep 2, 2004||Brijesh Agarwal||Method and system for computer-implemented trading of secondary market debt securities|
|US20040199453||Oct 15, 2003||Oct 7, 2004||Liquidity Direct Technology, Llc||Network and method for trading derivatives by providing enhanced RFQ visibility|
|US20050108140||Jul 3, 2003||May 19, 2005||Motte Alain L.D.||International trading system and method|
|US20050114254||Jan 30, 2004||May 26, 2005||Thomson Corporation||Financial-information systems, methods, interfaces, and software|
|US20050197857||Mar 4, 2005||Sep 8, 2005||Avery N. C.||Method and system for optimal pricing and allocation|
|US20050234805||Mar 11, 2005||Oct 20, 2005||Markets Inc.||Systems and methods for multiparty anonymous negotiation with incentives|
|US20060015446||Jul 15, 2005||Jan 19, 2006||Roger Burkhardt||System and method for setting and using a momentum liquidity replenishment price in a hybrid auction market|
|US20060026090||Jul 28, 2005||Feb 2, 2006||Sam Balabon||System and method for facilitating trading of financial instruments|
|US20060031153||Aug 5, 2004||Feb 9, 2006||Kim Mike I||Methods and systems for matching buyers and sellers over electronic networks|
|US20060059082||Nov 7, 2005||Mar 16, 2006||Reuters Limited||Matching computer of a negotiated matching system|
|US20060080220||Aug 15, 2005||Apr 13, 2006||Kevin Samuel||Liquidity book system and method|
|US20060085317||Oct 15, 2004||Apr 20, 2006||Allen Gregory A||Computer-based system and method for executing orders|
|US20060089899||Sep 28, 2005||Apr 27, 2006||Durkin Bryan T||Intra-day matching message system and method|
|US20100250429||Jun 10, 2010||Sep 30, 2010||Merrin Seth I||Electronic securities marketplace having integration with order management systems|
|EP0401203A2||May 30, 1990||Dec 5, 1990||Mjt Holdings, Inc.||Automated system for providing liquidity to securities markets|
|JP2004287893A||Title not available|
|WO1995006918A3||Aug 22, 1994||Apr 13, 1995||Mjt Holdings Inc||Real-time automated trading system|
|WO1996034357A1||Apr 26, 1996||Oct 31, 1996||Optimark Technologies, Inc.||Crossing network utilizing satisfaction density profile|
|WO2000070518A8||May 12, 2000||Oct 25, 2001||Jefferies & Company Inc||Method and system for anonymously and confidentially matching contraparties to a transaction which results in human negotiation of the final terms of a transaction|
|WO2001025996A1||Sep 29, 2000||Apr 12, 2001||Bloomberg Lp||Electronic trading system supporting anonymous negotiation and indicators of interest|
|1||"India: No route in 3-day segment for negotiated deals: NSE." Businessline. Chennai: Sep. 5, 1999. p. 1 (2 pages).|
|2||"NYSE Technology Chief Joins Digital Stock Market Effort; Wit Capital Acquires Software Plus Core Development Team," Business Wire, Sep. 4, 1996.|
|3||A. Svaidi: "Wall Street Turns to Durango for Help," Denver Business Journal, Jan. 30, 1998, 3 pages.|
|4||Anonymous. "IBEX system links buyers to global business community." Purchasing. Boston: Oct. 5, 1995. vol. 119, Iss. 5; p. 23, 4 pgs.|
|5||Anthony Guerra, "Will Liquidnet Catch the Buy Side," Wall Street & Technology, Jul. 2001, 19, 7, p. 75, 3 pgs.|
|6||Banks, H., "Great Expectations," Forbes, Dec. 2, 1996.|
|7||Chapman, Peter; "Merrin's Solution to Liquidity Problem. A Better Mousetrap to Crush Market Impact?"; TRADERSmagazine.com; http://tradersmagazine.com/issues/20000930/23-1.html?type=printer-friendly; Sep. 2000 printed Jan. 14, 2008.|
|8||Chapman, Peter; "The Relaunch of Harborside: Going Toe to Toe with Liquidnet"; TRADERSmagazine.com; http://www.tradersmagazine.com/issues/20011231/1117-1.htmrtyper-printer-friendly; Dec. 2001; printed Jan. 14, 2008.|
|9||Corcella, K., "Symphony Plays a Solo," Wall Street and Technology, Mar. 1995, vol. 12, n. 11, pp. 22-23.|
|10||E-mail string containing an e-mail dated Jun. 19, 1998 from Eric Legoff to James Nikolai transmitting the Proposal to Jeffries & Company, Inc.|
|11||European Office Action in connection with European Patent Appln. 98921236.0 dated Dec. 14, 2007.|
|12||Harborside Links Demonstrate New Paradigm as Leading Order Management and Network Vendors Connect; Los Angeles (Business Wire) Jul. 12, 1999; http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi-m0EIN/is-1999-July-12/ai-55150511/print; printed Nov. 7, 2007.|
|13||Investment Technology Group Inc. et al v. Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.; Southern District of New York, Civil Action No. 07 CIV 510 (GEL/HP); Declaration of Michael A. Nicodema in Support of Liquidnet's Memorandum of Law in Opposition to the Declaratory Judgment Plaintiffs' Motion for Leave to Amend Their Complaint; Exhibits attached; dated Jan. 25, 2008.|
|14||Investment Technology Group Inc. et al v. Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.; Southern District of New York, Civil Action No. 07 CIV 510 (GEL/HP); Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.'s Amended Answer to the Amended Complaint, Counterclaims and Affirmative Defenses, dated Mar. 14, 2008.|
|15||Investment Technology Group Inc. et al v. Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.; Southern District of New York, Civil Action No. 07 CIV 510 (GEL/HP); Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.'s Answer to the Amended Complaint, Counterclaims and Affirmative Defenses, dated Feb. 29, 2008.|
|16||Investment Technology Group Inc. et al v. Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.; Southern District of New York, Civil Action No. 07 CIV 510 (GEL/HP); Liquidnet's Memorandum of Law in Opposition to the Declaratory Judgment Plaintiffs Motion for Leave to Amend Their Complaint; dated Jan. 25, 2007.|
|17||Investment Technology Group Inc. et al v. Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.; Southern District of New York, Civil Action No. 07 CIV 510 (GEUHP); Amended Complaint; dated Feb. 14, 2008.|
|18||Investment Technology Group Inc. et al v. Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.; Southern District of New York, Civil Action No. 1:07-cv-00510-GEL; Liquidnet's Open Claim construction Brief, with Exhibits; dated Mar. 23, 2009.|
|19||Investment Technology Group Inc. et al v. Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.; Southern District of New York, Civil Action No. 1:07-cv-00510-GEL; Notice of Motion for Leave to File Amended Complaint, Exhibits attached; dated Jan. 10, 2008.|
|20||Investment Technology Group Inc. et al v. Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.; Southern District of New York, Civil Action No. 1:07-cv-00510-GEL; Opening Brief of Investment Technology Group Inc. et al. and Pulse Trading, Inc. Concerning Claim Construction, and Exhibits, dated Mar. 20, 2009.|
|21||Investment Technology Group Inc. et al v. Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.; Southern District of New York, Civil Action No. 1:07-cv-00510-GEL; Plaintiffs' Reply Memorandum of Law in Further Support of its Motion for Leave to Amend its Complaint to Add Additional Allegations to Existing Claims and to Add a Claim for Tortious Interference; dated Feb. 6, 2008.|
|22||Investment Technology Group Inc. et at v. Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.; Southern District of New York, Civil Action No. 07 CIV 510 (GEL/HP); Liquidnets' Reply claim Construction Brief, with Exhibits; dated Apr. 17, 2009.|
|23||Investment Technology Group Inc. et at v. Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.; Southern District of New York, Civil Action No. 07 CIV 510 (GEL/HP); Reply to Amended Counterclaims Made in Response to Amended Complaint; dated Mar. 31, 2008.|
|24||Investment Technology Group Inc. et at v. Liquidnet Holdings, Inc.; Southern District of New York, Civil Action No. 1:07-cv-00510-GEL; Response Brief in Investment Technology Group, Inc. et al. and Pulse Trading, Inc. Concerning Claim Construction, dated Apr. 17, 2009.|
|25||Investment Technology Group, Inc. et al. v. Liquidnet Holdings Inc.; Liquidnet Holdings Inc. v. Pulse Trading, Inc.; Southern District of New York; Case 1:07-cv-00510-SAS-HBP; Opinion & Order 07 Civ.510 (SAS) 07 Civ.6886 (SAS); dated Jan. 19, 2010.|
|26||J. Davis: "Big Storm Rising," Business 2.0, Sep. 1, 1998, 2 pages.|
|27||Japanese Office Action in connection with Japanese Appln. 10/549604 dated May 13, 2008.|
|28||Jefferies Launches @Harborside, May 11, 1999. Press Release. www.jefco.com.|
|29||K. Lupowitz: "Merrin (DOS)/Harborside Installation Guide," Jul. 28, 1998, 7 pages.|
|30||Kansas, D., "OptiMark Technologies to Announce Trading System Aimed at Institutions," Wall Street Journal, Sep. 24, 1996.|
|31||Letter to Attorney Simon at Foley & Lardner from the SEC, Nov. 30, 1994 regarding Chicago Match with enclosure The Chicago Match Functional Specification Input via Extensive Text File.|
|32||LEXSEE 1991 SEC No-Act. Lexis 1112, Oct. 1, 1991, 16 pages.|
|33||Mary Schroeder, "Liquidnet to Build Interfaces With Four OMSs," Securities Industry News, Nov. 2000, vol. 12, Iss. 43, p. 5, 1 pg.|
|34||Mencke, C., "Finding the Lowest-Cost Path for Stock Trading," Investors Business Daily, May 1, 1996.|
|35||Microsoft Press Computer Dictionary, Third Edition, 1997, p. 456.|
|36||Oppenheim, E. "Electronic Trading Systems: Which. Why, Where," G-183, Business Co., Inc. Report, pp. 134-136.|
|37||Oxford, J., "Trading on the Frontier," Plan Sponsor, Oct. 1996.|
|38||Peter Chapman, "Merrin's Solution to Liquidity Problems," Traders Magazine, Oct. 2000, vol. 13, Iss. 173, p. 54, 3 pgs.|
|39||Platform 2.0 Software Installation Guide Dated Jan. 22, 1998.|
|40||T. Tarrant: "@Harborside Links Demonstrate New Paradigm as Leading Order Management and Network Vendors Connect," Jul. 12, 1999, 3 pages.|
|41||Uchki, T., "Price Forming Simulation in Electrical Market", Research Paper of Information Processing Society, Japan, Information Processing Society of Japan, Nov. 7, 1995, vol. 95, No. 105, pp. 1-67.|
|42||Victor Kulkosky, "Making Connections in Off-Exchange Trading," Wall Street & Technology, New York, Oct. 1993, vol. 11, Iss. 5, p. 14, 4 pgs.|
|43||VIE Systems, Inc.: "Proposal to Jeffries & Company, Inc.," Jun. 19, 1998, pp. 1-16.|
|44||www.liquidnet.com "Have a Change", Why Use Liquidnet: Features & Benefits, 5 pages.|
|45||Zhang, Q. et al., "A Framework or the Multi-agent System for Securities Businesses Support". The 54th speech papers (2) for a national convention, Japan, the Information Processing Society of Japan, Mar. 12, 1997, pp. 355-356.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8386362 *||Jul 25, 2002||Feb 26, 2013||The Nasdaq Omx Group, Inc.||Information distribution process and method|
|US8577780 *||Jun 6, 2008||Nov 5, 2013||Daniel R. Fitzpatrick||Method and system for identifying high probability trade matches|
|US8732065||Jul 22, 2011||May 20, 2014||Finalta, Inc.||Electronic trading system and method|
|US20030225646 *||Jul 25, 2002||Dec 4, 2003||Santino Failla||Information distribution process and method|
|US20090006236 *||Jun 6, 2008||Jan 1, 2009||Fitzpatrick Daniel R||Method and system for identifying high probability trade matches|
|US20130124381 *||Nov 5, 2012||May 16, 2013||Itg Software Solutions, Inc.||System, method, and computer program product for executing a buy or sell order|
|U.S. Classification||705/37, 705/36.00R, 705/35|
|Cooperative Classification||G06Q40/00, G06Q40/06, G06Q40/04|
|European Classification||G06Q40/04, G06Q40/06, G06Q40/00|
|May 7, 2013||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: JEFFERIES FINANCE LLC, NEW YORK
Free format text: PATENT SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:LIQUIDNET HOLDINGS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:030370/0331
Effective date: 20130507
|May 23, 2014||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: JEFFERIES FINANCE LLC, AS COLLATERAL AGENT, NEW YO
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:LIQUIDNET HOLDINGS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:033007/0151
Effective date: 20140522
Owner name: LIQUIDNET HOLDINGS, INC., NEW YORK
Free format text: RELEASE OF SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:JEFFERIES FINANCE LLC, AS COLLATERAL AGENT;REEL/FRAME:033007/0114
Effective date: 20140522
|Apr 22, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4