|Publication number||US8064744 B2|
|Application number||US 11/558,587|
|Publication date||Nov 22, 2011|
|Filing date||Nov 10, 2006|
|Priority date||Nov 10, 2006|
|Also published as||US20080111796, WO2008055318A1|
|Publication number||11558587, 558587, US 8064744 B2, US 8064744B2, US-B2-8064744, US8064744 B2, US8064744B2|
|Inventors||Graham Roy Atkins, Dax Kukulj, Robert Bruce Charters|
|Original Assignee||Rpo Pty Limited|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (22), Non-Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (3), Classifications (29), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This invention relates to improved designs for transmit and receive optical elements of a waveguide-based optical touch screen sensor.
Any discussion of the prior art throughout the specification should in no way be considered as an admission that such prior art is widely known or forms part of common general knowledge in the field.
The transmit and receive elements of the existing design as shown in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,914,709, 6,181,842 and 2004/0201579 A1 encounter difficulties with collimation in the vertical plane, where for ease of assembly it is convenient to use a single VCL for all transmit or receive elements in each array along the sides of the optical touch screen. The placement of a VCL and a conventional transmit element 20 on a common base 28 is shown in
It can also be seen that optimal placement of focal plane 22 with curved end face 21 depends critically on gap 27 between the apex of curved end face 21 and the end of substrate 26. A simple approach in achieving the placement is to butt substrate 26 against VCL 23, which can be achieved in several ways well known in the art (for example a pick-and-place machine with a vision system). Nevertheless, distance 27 is governed by the amount that the substrate 26 protrudes past the apex of curved end face 21, and its accuracy depends on the tool used to cut the substrate. By means of alignment marks, a dicing saw typically can cut silicon wafers with an accuracy of approximately 10 μm, which may be sufficient for the present application. However for reasons of cost, it may be preferable to use plastic substrates, and unlike silicon where the only dimensional variable is thermal expansion (which is relatively easy to control), the dimensions of plastic substrates are also known to depend on humidity and thermal and mechanical history, which are far more difficult to control. For these reasons, accurate inter-layer registration is a known problem in the fabrication of multilayer plastic devices such as flexible displays.
Yet another problem with the transmit and receive elements of the existing design is that curved end face 21, being a reflective surface, must be an interface with a large refractive index difference, such as an air/polymer interface. Therefore when an upper cladding (highly desirable for optical isolation and mechanical protection of the waveguides) is being deposited, it has to be patterned so that it does not cover the curved end face, as discussed in U.S. Patent Application No. 2005/0089298 A1 (incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). However there is then a risk that the exposed curved end face could be damaged, for example during assembly of the optical touch screen sensor. The fact that curved end face 21 is an optical surface also means that gap 27 between transmit element 20 and VCL 23 cannot be filled with a transparent adhesive, which would aid in connecting the two components and prevent foreign matter from entering gap 27 and blocking the light.
It is an object of the present invention to overcome or ameliorate at least one of the disadvantages of the prior art, or to provide a useful alternative.
To this end, a first aspect of the invention provides an input device for an electronic device comprising:
at least one light source;
at least one light detector to detect light intensity at a plurality of light detecting elements;
an input area defining a plane;
and a waveguide structure including a plurality of waveguides with associated slab regions composed of a first material with first refractive index, wherein:
each of said associated slab regions has a substantially straight end face and contains at least one converging lens;
said light source couples light into a first set of waveguides with associated first set of slab regions of said waveguide structure;
said first set of waveguides directs the light into said associated first set of slab regions;
said converging lenses focus the light in the plane of the input area to produce a first grid of light beams;
and said first grid of light beams traverses the input area in a first direction and is directed to the light detecting elements of said light detector by a second set of waveguides with associated second set of slab regions of said waveguide structure.
Preferably, the first set of waveguides with associated first set of slab legions sends beams of light across the input area towards corresponding waveguides of the second set of waveguides with associated second set of slab regions.
Preferably, the converging lens is composed of a second material with refractive index different to that of said first material, and is selected from a Luneburg lens, a Fresnel lens, a chirped grating or an in-plane lens.
More preferably, the converging lens is an in-plane lens.
In one embodiment, the second material has refractive index less than the refractive index of said first material, and the converging lens is bi-concave, plano-concave or meniscus concave in shape. Preferably, the second material is air. In an alternative embodiment, the second refractive index is greater than said first refractive index, and the converging lens is bi-convex, plano-convex or meniscus convex in shape.
Preferably, each light beam is collimated into a plane wave
Alternatively, each light beam is focused to a point located within said input area
Preferably, each associated slab region additionally contains at least one diverging lens. More preferably, each associated slab region contains one diverging lens and one converging lens in a beam expander configuration.
In a further preferred embodiment, said light source couples light into a third set of waveguides with associated third set of slab regions of said waveguide structure;
said third set of waveguides directs the light into said associated third set of slab regions;
said converging lenses focus the light in the plane of the input area to produce a second grid of light beams;
and said second grid of light beams traverses the input area in a second direction, different to the first direction, and is directed to the light detecting elements of said light detector by a fourth set of waveguides with associated fourth set of slab regions of said waveguide structure.
Preferably, the third set of waveguides with associated third set of slab regions sends beams of light across the input area towards corresponding waveguides of the fourth set of waveguides with associated fourth set of slab regions.
Preferably, said input area is quadrilateral, said first and third sets of waveguides with associated first and third sets of slab regions are arranged along adjacent first and third edges of the input area, and said second and fourth sets of waveguides with associated second and fourth sets of slab regions are arranged along adjacent second and fourth edges of the input area.
More preferably, said input area is rectangular, and the second direction is substantially perpendicular to the first direction. More preferably, the end faces of the first, second, third and fourth sets of slab regions associated with the first, second, third and fourth sets of waveguides terminate are substantially parallel to the corresponding edges of the input area. More preferably the first direction is substantially perpendicular to the first and second edges of the input area, and the second direction is substantially perpendicular to the third and fourth edges of the input area.
Preferably, a user provides input to the electronic device by interacting with the input area. More preferably, the user interacts with the input area with a finger or stylus.
Preferably, said waveguide structure is a photolithographically defined structure.
Preferably, said first material is a dielectric material. More preferably, the dielectric material is a polymer.
In one embodiment the input device additionally comprises first and second external lenses proximate to the ends of the first and second sets of slab regions associated with the first and second sets of waveguides, to collimate the first grid of light beams in the direction perpendicular to the input area plane.
In a further embodiment, the input device additionally comprises third and fourth external lenses proximate to the ends of the third and fourth sets of slab legions associated with the third and fourth sets of waveguides, to collimate the second grid of light beams in the direction perpendicular to the input area plane.
In a further embodiment the input device additionally comprises:
first and second external lenses proximate to the ends of the first and second sets of slab regions associated with the first and second sets of waveguides, to collimate the first grid of light beams in the direction perpendicular to the input area plane; and
third and fourth external lenses proximate to the ends of the third and fourth sets of slab regions associated with the third and fourth sets of waveguides, to collimate the second grid of light beams in the direction perpendicular to the input area plane, wherein the end faces of the first, second, third and fourth sets of slab regions associated with the first, second, third and fourth sets of waveguides are located in the focal planes of the first, second, third and fourth external lenses.
Preferably, the input device additionally comprises a transparent material between the ends of the first, second, third and fourth sets of slab regions and the first second, third and fourth external lenses. More preferably, the transparent material has refractive index substantially equal to the refractive index of said first material.
Preferably, said transparent material is an adhesive, to attach each external lens to its respective set of waveguides with associated slab regions. More preferably, said transparent material has refractive index substantially equal to the refractive index of said first material.
Advantageously, optical elements according to at least a preferred embodiment of the present invention are more mechanically robust, easier to incorporate into the touch screen assembly and are less susceptible to stray light and the ingress of foreign matter.
The invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:
The waveguide-based optical touch screen sensor technology disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,914,709, 6,181,842 and 6,351,260, and U.S. Patent Application Nos. 2002/0088930 A1 and 2004/0201579 A1, has potential application to a variety of consumer electronics devices, including mobile phones, computers, games, and personal digital assistants (PDAs). To be acceptable for such devices, it is essential that the various components be fabricated and assembled at an acceptable cost. Compared to an approach with paired arrays of optical sources and detectors, as disclosed for example in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,764,813 and 4,301,447, this waveguide-based technology requires only one optical source and one detector, providing a significant cost advantage. With the waveguides and associated collimating optics being the enabling components of this touch screen sensor technology, it is essential to be able to mass produce them in a low cost manner, a requirement that can only be satisfied with polymer materials. Photo-patternable polymers that can be processed using a photolithography/wet development method are particularly preferred because of the ease and mild conditions (eg UV exposure followed by solvent development) by which they can be patterned, and the relatively low cost of the processing equipment.
Examples of photo-patternable polymers include acrylates and siloxanes. One particularly suitable class of materials is UV curable siloxane polymers, synthesised for example by a condensation reaction as disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,800,724 and 6,818,721 (each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). Siloxane polymers have excellent adhesion to a variety of substrate materials, including silicon, glass and plastics. A photoinitiator or thermal initiator may be added to increase the rate of curing. Examples of commercially available photoinitiators include 1-hydroxy-cyclohexyl-phenyl-ketone (Irgacure 184), 2-methyl-1[4-methylthio)phenyl]-2-morpholinopropan-1-one (Irgacure 907), 2,2-dimethoxy-1,2-diphenylethan-1-one (Irgacure 651), 2-benzyl-2-dimethylamino-1-(4-morpholinophenyl)-butanone-1 (Irgacure 369), 4-(dimethylamino)benzophenone, 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-phenyl-propan-1-one (Darocur 1173), benzophenone (Darocur BP), 1-[4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-propane-1-one (Irgacure 2959), 4,4′-bis(diethylamino) benzophenone (DEAB), 2-chlorothioxanthone, 2-methylthioxanthone, 2-isopropylthioxanthone, benzoin and 4,4′-dimethoxybenzoin. For curing with visible light, the initiator may for example be camphorquinone. A mixture of two or more photoinitiators may also be used. For example, Irgacure 1000 is a mixture of 80% Darocur 1173 and 20% Irgacure 184. For thermal curing, organic peroxides in the form of peroxides (eg dibenzoyl peroxide), peroxydicarbonates, peresters (t-butyl perbenzoate), perketals, hydroperoxides, as well as AIBN (azobisisobutyronitrile), may be used as initiators.
Other additives, such as stabilisers, plasticisers, contrast enhancers, dyes or fillers may be added to enhance the properties of the polymer as required.
Thin films of polymer material suitable for waveguide fabrication by photo-patterning can be deposited on a substrate by a variety of methods, including spin coating, dip coating, meniscus coating, extrusion coating and slot coating. These thin films can then be photo-patterned with light either through a mask, for example in a mask aligner or stepper, or by a laser direct writing procedure. Exposure through a mask is generally preferred for high fabrication throughput.
As explained previously, there are several problems with the existing designs of transmit and receive elements of a waveguide-based optical touch screen sensor. These problems include: incomplete collimation in the vertical plane that may allow stray light to enter the receive optics; difficulty in cutting the substrate with sufficient accuracy for simple butt-placement of a vertical collimating lens; the risk of mechanical damage to the exposed curved end faces; and the fact that an adhesive cannot be placed between the transmit or receive elements and the vertical collimating lenses.
The following section will concentrate on modified designs for the transmit elements, however it will be appreciated that the receive elements are in general mirror images of the transmit elements. Unless stated otherwise, all design modifications for the transmit elements apply equally well to the receive elements.
With reference to
In terms of fabrication however, the most convenient converging lenses are simple in-plane convex or concave lenses composed of a transparent material with refractive index different to that of the waveguide material. In-plane lenses that converge or diverge light in planar waveguides are well known in the art, where the lens material has either higher or lower refractive index than the surrounding waveguide (“A new guided-wave lens structure”, M. M. Minot and C. C. Lee, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1856-1865 (1990); “Design of low-loss tapered waveguides using the telescope structure compensation”, C. W. Chang, M. L. Wu and W. F. Hsieh, IEEE Photon. Technol Lett 15, 1378-1380 (2003); JP 56078814A; U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,755,014; 5,253,319; 6,980,718; 6,935,764) In the present application, where the transmit elements are composed of polymer, the material used for the lenses must be compatible with the polymer, particularly in terms of processing conditions (eg deposition temperature) Generally, it is preferable for the refractive index contrast to be as large as possible, to minimise the length of the transmit element. It is particularly preferred that the in-plane lens(es) be composed of air, because the refractive index contrast is relatively large (polymer index npolymer˜1.513, air index nair˜1), and the processing is simple (no additional processing steps are required). Since the refractive index of air is less than that of polymer, an in-plane converging lens composed of air will be concave (eg bi-concave, piano-concave or meniscus concave) in shape. Alternatively, the in-plane converging lens may be composed of a material of higher refractive index, in which case it will be convex (eg bi-convex, plano-convex or meniscus convex) in shape.
The present invention and U.S. patent application No. 2006/0088244A1 (incorporated by reference in its entirety) both describe in-plane converging lenses included within a slab region, but they differ in that the included lenses of the present invention perform the required collimation of signal light by themselves (so that the slab region has a straight end face), while in U.S. 2006/0088244 A1 the slab region has a curved end face that contributes to the collimation process. It should be understood that the transmit and receive elements of the present invention may also include one or more diverging lenses, as can the transmit and receive elements of U.S. 2006/0088244 A1.
A transmit element 30 incorporating a converging lens according to a first embodiment of the present invention is shown in
A method for fabricating a transmit element 30 incorporating a converging lens is described in the following non-limiting example, with reference to
Following the procedure disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,818,721, a lower refractive index polymer A was prepared with a viscosity of 2500 cP (at 20° C.) and a refractive index (measured at 20° C. on an Abbé refractometer with room light) of 1.483. A higher refractive index polymer B was prepared with a viscosity of 2200 cP (at 20° C.) and a refractive index of 1.509 (at 20° C.). A suitable photoinitiator was added to both polymer A and polymer B
Polymer A was spin coated onto silicon wafer 40 and cured with UV light from a mercury lamp, to form lower cladding layer 41 with thickness 20 μm and refractive index 1.485 (at 20° C. and 850 nm). Polymer B was spin coated onto lower cladding layer 41 to form core layer 42, and patterned with UV light through a mask. The unexposed polymer B material was then dissolved in isopropanol to form input waveguide 31 and transmit element 30 incorporating converging lens 35 composed of air. Exposed core layer 42 had thickness of 11 μm and a refractive index of 1.513 (at 20° C. and 850 nm). Finally, a protective upper cladding layer 43 was deposited by spin coating and UV curing a second layer of polymer A. Note that it is necessary to pattern upper cladding layer 43 in the same manner as for the core layer (as disclosed in U.S. patent application No. 2005/0089298 A1), to avoid in-filling converging lens 35 with cured polymer A. Although converging lens 35 is filled temporarily with uncured polymer A, this material is removed in the subsequent development step. The exact positioning of opening 44 in patterned upper cladding layer 43 is not particularly important, so long as converging lens 35 remains uncovered. If additional mechanical protection is required, a cover plate 45 may be fixed above converging lens 35, however this may not be necessary since in the assembled touch screen sensor; transmit element 30 will generally be located within the bezel of the screen.
It will be appreciated that if converging lens 35 is composed of air, no additional process steps are required to incorporate it within transmit element 30. It requires nothing more than a modification of the core layer and upper cladding layer mask designs, and is therefore preferred for ease of fabrication. It would be possible however, at the expense of additional process steps, to fill converging lens 35 with some other curable polymer C, with refractive index significantly different from polymer B, either before or after upper cladding layer 43 is deposited and patterned. It will be further appreciated that, with appropriate mask design, a lens 35 of virtually any shape can be incorporated within transmit element 30.
All subsequent examples describe exemplary transmit elements fabricated by the process described in Example 1. Unless stated otherwise, input waveguide 31 has a width of 8 μm and a height of 11 μm. With these dimensions, and with a relatively large core/cladding refractive index difference (ie difference between refractive indices of cured polymers A and B) of 0.028, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that input waveguide 31 will be multi-moded (ie it will support several optical modes) at a typical operating wavelength of 850 nm. These parameters also fix the divergence angle 2φ, which is measured experimentally to be approximately 16°.
The following two non-limiting examples describe transmit elements 30 according to a first embodiment of the invention, where a single included converging lens 35 composed of air is used to collimate the transmit light into a plane wave (as shown in
With this particular design of first slab waveguide region 53 and plano-convex lens 50, collimated light rays 58 will be emitted from the entire width of second slab waveguide region 54, so that when several transmit elements are placed adjacent to each other in an array, as shown in
Nevertheless, other considerations may indicate that a sheet of light is not the optimal configuration. For example, as pointed out in U.S. Patent Application No. 2006/0188196 A1 (incorporated herein by reference in its entirety), polymer materials typically have large thermo-optic coefficients (ie their refractive index varies significantly with ambient temperature) and so the refraction at lens surface 51 (governed by Snell's law) will be temperature dependent. Therefore while an elliptical concave front surface 51 of plano-concave lens 50 will collimate the light perfectly at one particular temperature, it will not do so at any other temperature, representing a source of optical power loss and possible cross-talk into adjacent receive elements. To allow for this temperature effect, it may be preferable to have a smaller “fill factor” for each transmit element, so that only some fraction of piano-concave lens 50 is illuminated by light diverging within first slab waveguide region 53.
A transmit element 80 incorporating a converging lens according to a second embodiment of the present invention is shown in
It should be noted that light rays 105 are no longer perpendicular to end face 87, and will therefore be refracted there. However since the angle of incidence will be extremely close to zero, this additional refraction will be small and can be compensated for (if required) with a minor adjustment to the shape of bi-concave lens 100.
A transmit element 110 according to a third embodiment of the present invention is shown in
The advantages of the transmit and receive elements of the present invention over those of the prior art will now be explained, with reference firstly to
A second advantage is that the whole of end face 38 can be placed at the focal plane 22 of VCL 23, so that emitted light rays 121 are perfectly collimated in the vertical plane, preventing out-of-plane stray light from being emitted from transmit element 30 or from entering the corresponding receive element. Those skilled in the art will understand that when light 122 propagating through cove layer 42 traverses converging (air) lens 35, the lack of vertical confinement will result in some out-of-plane divergence, represented by ray 123. However such rays will be blocked by screen bezel 124 or by lower cladding layer 41 and substrate 40, and therefore will not be a source of stray light to the receive optics.
A third advantage is that in the assembly process, end face 38 of transmit element 30 is automatically located at the focal plane 22 of VCL 23. This is in contrast to the situation shown in
It will be appreciated that all of these advantages stem from the feature that end face 38 of transmit element 30 is no longer a refractive surface, and can instead be made straight and perpendicular to optical axis 37. This feature is shared by transmit elements 80 and 110 of the second and third embodiments and by the receive elements that are generally mirror images of the transmit elements.
Those skilled in the art will realise that if the in-plane lenses preferred in the present invention are composed of a lower refractive index material, and in particular air, some degree of out-of-plane optical loss will occur due to reduced vertical confinement as light traverses the lenses. By way of illustration, in the piano-concave air lens structure of Example 2 shown in
While a 1.1 dB (ie ˜23%) out-of-plane loss is not ideal, it is believed to be acceptable considering the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of fabricating basic in-plane concave air lenses. There are of course many means for avoiding the out-of-plane loss, using other types of converging lenses that are all within the scope of this invention. One approach would be to construct the in-plane lenses from a material with higher refractive index than the slab. Another approach would be to fabricate an air lens with a more complicated shape, such as a Fresnel lens or a chirped grating, where the air gap is shorter. Yet another approach would be to use a geodesic lens or an overlay-type lens such as a Luneburg lens or an overlay-type Fresnel lens. Compared to a simple in-plane air lens, however, all of these alternatives require further fabrication process steps, and many of them are complicated structures that require an extremely high degree of fabrication precision.
Although the invention has been described with reference to specific examples it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the invention may be embodied in many other forms.
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|U.S. Classification||385/33, 345/175, 359/626, 345/179, 385/37, 385/31, 385/132, 359/625|
|International Classification||G06F3/042, G02B6/10, G02B6/34, G02B27/10, G02B6/42, G06F3/033, G02B6/32, G02B6/26|
|Cooperative Classification||G02B2006/1219, G02B6/32, G02B6/12004, G02B6/138, G06F3/0421, G02B2006/12102, G02B6/1221, G02B27/30|
|European Classification||G02B6/12D, G02B6/122C, G02B6/138, G06F3/042B, G02B27/30|
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