|Publication number||US8066774 B2|
|Application number||US 11/400,657|
|Publication date||Nov 29, 2011|
|Priority date||Apr 7, 2006|
|Also published as||US20070239276, WO2007118119A2, WO2007118119A3|
|Publication number||11400657, 400657, US 8066774 B2, US 8066774B2, US-B2-8066774, US8066774 B2, US8066774B2|
|Inventors||Craig M. Squires, Greg C. Marik, William Cedrick McCormack|
|Original Assignee||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (86), Non-Patent Citations (13), Classifications (28), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates generally to the field of intervertebral implants, and more particularly relates to artificial disc implants and associated methods and instrumentation.
With regard to spinal deformities, the intervertebral disc space can lose its functionality as a result of disease, trauma or other defect. Intervertebral implants have been developed to restore the natural height and functionality of the disc space. However, such implants can expel or move relative to the vertebral endplates after implantation, potentially resulting in suboptimal post-operative positioning in the disc space. In order to assist in maintaining the positioning of the implant in the disc space, implants have been provided with structures that engage the vertebral endplates adjacent the disc space and/or allow bone ingrowth into the implant while retaining desired motion capabilities of the implant. However, such structures can require impaction of the implant into the space between the vertebral endplates to secure the structures to the vertebrae. The impaction of the implant must be carefully controlled and monitored to prevent or avoid over-insertion and impingement on anatomical structures adjacent the disc space, such as the spinal canal.
Thus, there remains a need for improved intervertebral implants, surgical methods, and instrumentation that can facilitate positioning of the implant within the disc space and in engagement with at least one of the endplates without impaction of the implant into the disc space. The present invention satisfies these needs and provides other benefits and advantages in a novel and unobvious manner.
The present invention relates generally to an artificial disc implant and associated methods and instrumentation. While the actual nature of the invention covered herein can only be determined with reference to the claims appended hereto, certain forms of the invention that are characteristic of the embodiments disclosed herein are described briefly as follows.
According one aspect, an artificial disc for implantation within an intervertebral disc space between adjacent vertebrae includes first and second endplate members coupled in movable relation to one another. The first and second endplate members can be sized and shaped for positioning in the intervertebral disc space to movably support the adjacent vertebrae. An anchoring member extends from an endplate contacting surface of the second endplate member in a direction opposite the first endplate member for engagement with the adjacent vertebra. The anchoring member includes a tapering configuration that can be seated in a correspondingly shaped seat in the adjacent vertebra to contact the bone of the vertebra and resist displacement of the implant relative to the vertebrae.
In another aspect, trial guide instruments and reamers are provided to facilitate preparation of the adjacent vertebrae to receive an artificial disc implant with an anchoring member. The trial guide instrument can include a bore to guide the reamer into at least one of the adjacent vertebra in an oblique orientation to the respective vertebral endplate to form a seat to receive the anchoring member of the implant.
Surgical methods for preparing adjacent vertebrae and for inserting artificial disc implants are also provided. The methods involve forming a seat in an endplate of at least one vertebra where the seat is obliquely oriented to the endplate of the vertebra. The methods may also include inserting an artificial disc implant into the disc space with an anchoring member received and engaged in an obliquely oriented seat formed in the vertebra.
It is one object of the present invention to provide an improved artificial disc implant and associated methods and instrumentation. Further objects, features, advantages, benefits, and aspects of the present invention will become apparent from the drawings and description contained herein.
For the purposes of promoting an understanding of the principles of the invention, reference will now be made to the embodiments illustrated in the drawings and specific language will be used to describe the same. It will nevertheless be understood that no limitation of the scope of the invention is hereby intended, and that alterations and further modifications to the illustrated devices and/or further applications of the principles of the invention as illustrated herein are contemplated as would normally occur to one skilled in the art to which the invention relates.
In the illustrated embodiment, spacer member 22 is a dome shaped member with opposite ends 24, 26 at least one of which can be rounded and positioned in correspondingly shaped recess in the respective endplate member 30, 50 to maintain spacer member 22 in engagement therewith. First endplate member 30 is shown in the Figures positioned above or superiorly to spacer member 22 and second endplate member 50 and in engagement with an upper or superior vertebra. It should be understood that first endplate member 30 could be positioned below spacer member 22 for engagement with a lower or inferiorly located vertebra.
First endplate member 30 includes a body portion 32 positionable along an endplate of an adjacent vertebra. Body portion 32 further extends between a distal leading insertion end 36 and an opposite proximal trailing end 38. Leading insertion end 36 can be rounded and tapered distally to facilitate placement between vertebral bodies and into the disc space. Body portion 32 can be rectangular, square, oval, D-shaped, kidney shaped, or have any other suitable configuration. Body portion 32 includes an endplate contacting surface 34 located on an outer side thereof that is opposite spacer member 22. Endplate contacting surface 34 can be rectangular as shown, or include any other suitable shape that is similar to or that differs from the shape of body portion 32. Endplate contacting surface 34 can reside in a corresponding milled or prepared surface of the vertebral endplate. Endplate contacting surface 34 can include ridges, teeth, spikes, roughening, knurlings, pores or other structure to facilitate bone ingrowth and interlocking engagement with the adjacent vertebral endplate, although such is not required.
Trailing end 38 can include a stop member or flange 40 extending therefrom in a direction toward and projecting from endplate contacting surface 34. Flange 40 can include a bore 42 to receive a bone screw or other suitable bone anchor that engages the adjacent vertebral body. In the illustrated embodiment, flange 40 includes a rounded or dome shape along its outer perimeter to minimize its intrusiveness into adjacent tissue along the vertebra. Body portion 32 further includes an inner surface 44 oriented toward second endplate member 50. Inner surface 44 defines a receptacle 46 sized and shaped to receive a portion of spacer member 22 therein when artificial disc implant 20 is assembled. Receptacle 46 can be partially spherical to receive an adjacent dome-shaped end of spacer member 22 while allowing pivoting motion therebetween. Recess 46 can also include any other suitable shape to accommodate spacer member 22. In another embodiment, inner surface 44 includes a projection that engages a recess in the adjacent surface of spacer member 22.
Second endplate member 50 includes a body portion 52 positionable along an endplate of an adjacent vertebra. Body portion 52 further extends between a distal leading insertion end 56 and an opposite proximal trailing end 58. Leading insertion end 56 can be rounded and tapered distally to facilitate placement between vertebral bodies and into the disc space. Body portion 52 can be rectangular, square, oval, D-shaped, kidney shaped, or have any other suitable configuration that is the same as or that differs from the shape of body portion 32. Body portion 52 includes an endplate contacting surface 54 located on an outer side thereof that is opposite spacer member 22. Endplate contacting surface 54 can be rectangular as shown, or include any other suitable shape that is similar to or that differs from the shape of body portion 52. Endplate contacting surface 54 can include ridges, roughening, teeth, spikes, knurlings, pores or other structure to facilitate bone ingrowth and interlocking engagement with the adjacent vertebral endplate, although such is not required.
Trailing end 58 can include a stop member or a flange 60 extending therefrom in a direction toward and projecting from endplate contacting surface 54. Flange 60 can include a solid groove 62 therein that opens proximally in the direction away from body portion 52. In the illustrated embodiment, flange 60 includes a rounded or dome shape around its perimeter to minimize its intrusiveness into adjacent tissue. Body portion 52 further includes an inner surface 64 oriented toward first endplate member 30. Inner surface 64 can define a receptacle 66 sized and shaped to receive a portion of spacer member 22 therein if spacer member 22 were provided separated from endplate member 50. Receptacle 66 can be partially spherical to receive an adjacent dome-shaped end of spacer member 22 while allowing pivoting motion therebetween. Recess 66 can also include any other suitable shape. It is also contemplated that spacer member 22 can be integrally formed with or irremovably attached to a respective one of the endplate members 30, 50.
Flange 60 abuts the adjacent vertebra and prevents or resists movement of artificial disc implant 20 further distally into the disc space as it is inserted. To resist expulsion of implant 20 in the opposite proximal direction, endplate member 50 includes an anchoring member 68 extending distally from flange 60 and projecting outwardly from contact surface 54. Anchoring member 68 can extend from flange 60 toward leading end 56 of body portion 52 along a portion of the length of body portion 52 along longitudinal axis L. Anchoring member 68 can be centered along body portion 52 or offset from the center thereof to one side of the other. While first endplate member 30 need not be provided with an anchoring member, the provision of the same is not precluded.
Anchoring member 68 includes a longitudinally tapered shape in at least one dimension to provide at least a proximally oriented face to contact bone of the adjacent vertebral in abutting engagement to resist expulsion forces parallel to the vertebral endplate. Anchoring member 68 can include any one or combination of height, width, or cross-section that tapers in a direction from distal end 56 toward proximal end 58. In the illustrated embodiment, anchoring member 68 can include a rounded outer surface profile defined approximately by one longitudinal half of a frusto-conically shaped body extending between an inner distal end wall 70 and an outer proximal end 72 adjacent flange 60.
Anchoring member 68 is oriented so that the frusto-conical shape tapers to a reduced or lesser width and height extending from contact surface 54 adjacent proximal trailing end 58. In this configuration, anchoring member 68 provides a uniform and continuously sloped outer vertebra contacting face 74 that contacts a correspondingly shaped seat formed in the endplate of the adjacent vertebra to provide resistance to movement of the endplate member 50 in the direction of arrow 80.
When anchoring member 68 is engaged to a vertebra that is a lower or inferior vertebra, face 74 slopes caudally or inferiorly from proximal trailing end 58 toward distal leading insertion end 56. Conversely, if anchoring member 68 were engaged to a superior or upper vertebra, face 74 would slope superiorly or cephaladly from proximal trailing end 58 toward distal leading insertion end 56. In either or both arrangements, face 74 of anchoring member 68 contacts the bone surface defining the seat formed in the endplate of the adjacent vertebra to resist expulsion of the implant in the direction of arrow 80, i.e. in the direction opposite the implant insertion direction 82.
Flange 60 works in conjunction with the distal end wall 70 to provide resistance to movement of the implant in the direction of arrow 82. Accordingly the anchoring member 68 and flange 60 act in concert to resist displacement of the implant 20 when assembled, if necessary, and positioned between adjacent vertebral bodies. Anchors need not be employed to engage flange 60 to the vertebra, and flange 60 can be solid for increased strength. However, the provision of one or more anchors through flange 60 is not precluded.
The relatively short length of anchoring member 68 relative to body portion 52 between ends 56, 58 minimizes the intrusion of anchoring member 68 into the adjacent vertebra and the amount of bone removal to accommodate anchoring member 68. In one embodiment, anchoring member 68 extends along less than half the length of body portion 52 between ends 56, 58. In another embodiment, anchoring member extends along less than about three-fourths of the length of body portion 52 between ends 56, 58.
The rounded, blunt outer surface profile of face 74 of anchoring member 68 can be provided without sharp edges that cut into the vertebral body when implanted, yet anchoring member 68 provides secure engagement to resist movement of the implant 20 relative to the vertebrae. In addition, the implant 20 need not be impacted into the disc space for insertion and secure engagement of the anchoring member in the seat formed in the adjacent vertebra. Rather, the adjacent vertebra can be slightly over-distracted at least adjacent their anterior margins or other side or location through which the implant is positioned into the disc space. The distraction allows passage of distal end wall 70 of anchoring member 68 past the proximal edge of the seat and into the disc space, and then anchoring member 68 can be seated into the seat formed in the respective adjacent vertebra. The vertebrae can be re-compressed slightly to ensure an intimate fit of the endplate contacting members 30, 50 with the vertebral endplates.
Various forms for anchoring member 68 are contemplated. Outer face 74 can include surface interruptions or a non-uniform outer surface profile. Anchoring member 68 can be integrally formed at its proximal end 72 with flange 60. Proximal end 72 can be spaced from flange 60. Anchoring member 68 can include adjacent grooves or recesses extending transversely thereto or longitudinally therealong to receive bone growth. Anchoring member 68 can include pits, knurlings or other surface characteristics to receive bone ingrowth.
Various instruments are provided to facilitate preparation of the vertebrae to receive artificial disc implant 20 with anchoring member 68.
Trial guide instrument 90 further includes a bore 98 extending angularly to longitudinal axis 91 between first side 106 and second side 108. Bore 98 includes a first, large diameter portion defined by a concave scalloped or recessed portion 98 extending into body 92 from first side 106. In addition, the first portion of bore 98 includes a scalloped or concavely curved surface 114 forming an inner surface of hood portion 102. Inner surface 114 forms a distal opening 115 from hood portion 102 through first side 106 along a portion of distal insertion portion 96. Bore 98 also includes a second, distal smaller diameter portion formed by a recessed or concave portion 104 along distal insertion portion 96 that extends into second side 108. The first bore portion transitions to the second bore portion at a lip 118 therebetween.
Referring now to
Reaming head 124 includes a first cylindrical portion 126 having a first, larger diameter about axis 121 and a second cylindrical portion 128 extending distally from first cylindrical portion 126 that has a reduced, smaller diameter about axis 121. Cylindrical portion 128 includes a number of cutting flutes 132 extending thereabout at the distal end thereof, and cylindrical portion 126 has a number of cutting flutes 134 extending thereabout at the distal end thereof. An endwall 130 is provided between portions 126, 128 and extends between cutting flutes 132, 134 so that the cutting flutes defines a concentric arrangement.
Having described various elements and features associated with the artificial disc implant 20, reference will now be made to a method for implanting the artificial disc implant 20 within the intervertebral disc space D according to one form of the present invention. However, it should be understood that other implantation techniques and procedures are also contemplated, and that the following method in no way limits the scope of patent protection sought for the present invention.
Reamer 120 can be rotated to so that cutting flutes 134 of first cylindrical portion 126 remove bone material from the anterior faces F1 and F2 of vertebrae V1 and V2, respectively, forming recesses R1 and R2, respectively. Simultaneously, second cylindrical portion 128 is rotated so that cutting flutes 132 remove bone material from vertebra V2 through endplate E2 along longitudinal axis 121 and in an oblique orientation to endplate E2. Second cylindrical portion 128 can be sized so that endplate E1 of vertebra V1 remains intact as endplate material is removed from vertebra V2.
In addition to recesses R1 and R2, second cylindrical portion 128 of reamer head 124 forms seat S in endplate E2 of vertebra V2. Seat S includes a bottom surface concavely curved about longitudinal axis 121 and extending linearly from recess R2 to a distal end surface DE at a distal end of seat S. The depth of seat S at distal end surface DE is greater than its depth adjacent recess R2. In addition, the width of seat S at distal end surface DE is greater than the width of seat S at recess R2. In the illustrated embodiment, seat S has a shape that corresponds substantially to the shape of a longitudinal half of a frusto-conical form. In areas of vertebrae V1, V2 where bone is not removed, the cortical rim/apophyseal ring region of the vertebral endplates remaining substantially intact.
Other embodiments contemplate other techniques for reaming the intervertebral space to prepare the vertebrae to receive artificial disc implant 20. For example, the removal of bone material from the bony portions aligned with the distal and proximal portions of bore 98 can be done separately and sequentially with separate reamers of appropriately sized reaming heads. Other embodiments contemplated non-rotary removal of bone from vertebra V2. Examples include longitudinally moving cutting members, gougers, scrapers, chisels, impulsive-type instruments, and reciprocating type instruments, for example, that can remove bone along an axis obliquely oriented to endplate E2. It is also contemplated that seat S could be formed by freehand techniques and instruments.
Various trial blocks 200 of various height and/or other lateral dimensions can be provided so that the implant 20 of appropriate size can be selected prior to insertion. In the illustrated embodiment, trial block 200 includes a rectangular body with longitudinal grooves 204 in its upper and lower surfaces and lateral grooves 206 in its upper and lower surfaces. When viewed on X-rays or other imaging platform and when trial block 200 is inserted in the disc space, longitudinal grooves 204 can provide a visual indication of the location of trial block 200 in the disc space relative to the spinal midline, while lateral grooves 206 can provide an indication of the location in the anterior-posterior direction of the midline of spacer member 22 relative to the vertebral endplates. Holes 208 in trailing end 212 can receive a tool to facilitate insertion and withdrawal of body 202 from the disc space. The leading end 210 can be tapered to facilitate insertion between the vertebrae, and trailing end 212 can be contoured or tapered to conform to the profile of the anterior faces of vertebrae V1, V2.
In the illustrated embodiment, anchoring member 68 and seat S have a longitudinal portion that defines a rounded, concavely curved depression in vertebra V2 that radially tapers from the distal end to the proximal end. However, it should be understood that other shapes and configurations of the anchoring member 68 and seat S are also contemplated including, for example, linearly and non-linearly longitudinally tapering shapes, uni-dimensionally tapering shapes, pyramidal shapes, or other non circular cross-sectional shapes that could be formed by an appropriate cutting instrument.
Anchoring member 68 can act, in conjunction of the engagement of first endplate member 30 with spacer member 22 and the engagement of spacer member 22 with second endplate member 50, to reduce the likelihood of migration and possible expulsion of the artificial disc implant 20 from the intervertebral disc space D. Although it is contemplated that the artificial disc implant 20 may be used without any other means of fixation, it should be understood that supplemental external intravertebral fixation elements and/or stabilization techniques may be used if excessive residual instability is encountered following insertion of the artificial disc implant 20 within the intervertebral disc space D. Moreover, first and second endplate members 30, 50 are positioned against or adjacent the opposing surfaces of the first and second vertebrae V1, V2 after distraction of vertebrae V1, V2. Compression from the weight of the spinal column above the upper vertebra can provide and/or maintain positive contact between the endplates and the first and second endplate members 30, 50. External compression forces may also be provided after implantation of artificial disc implant 20 to provide or enhance contact between first and second endplate members 30, 50 and the adjacent endplates of vertebrae V1 and V2. In instances where the annulus of the intervertebral disc remains at least partially intact, initial distraction prior to implantation of artificial disc implant 20 tightens and possibly stretches the disc annulus, thereby providing additional stabilization of the first and second vertebrae V1, V2.
As should be appreciated, if removal of the artificial disc implant 20 from the intervertebral disc space D is required due to non-optimal placement or for other reasons, the vertebrae can be distracted sufficiently at least adjacent their anterior margins a sufficient distance to allow passage of anchoring member 68 by the proximal edge of seat S adjacent recess R2 of vertebra V2. Of course, any screws or anchoring members engaging artificial disc implant 20 to vertebra V1 and V2 should also be removed before withdrawal of the implant from the disc space.
While the invention has been illustrated and described in detail in the drawings and foregoing description, the same is to be considered as illustrative and not restrictive in character, it being understood that only the preferred embodiments have been shown and described and that all changes and modifications that come within the spirit of the invention are desired to be protected.
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|13||Viscoglioski Bro., LLC, Spine Arthoplasty: Market Potential & Technology Update, Spine Industry Analysis Series, Nov. 2001, pp. 1-215.|
|U.S. Classification||623/17.16, 623/17.15, 623/17.14|
|Cooperative Classification||A61F2002/30578, A61F2002/30187, A61F2002/30884, A61F2002/30224, A61F2/4684, A61B17/1671, A61F2002/30841, A61F2002/30616, A61F2002/443, A61F2002/30836, A61F2230/0034, A61B17/1615, A61F2230/0069, A61F2/4425, A61F2002/30563, A61F2230/0015, A61F2002/30663, A61F2002/30133, A61B17/1757|
|European Classification||A61B17/16D2, A61F2/44D2, A61B17/16S4, A61B17/17S4, A61F2/46T|
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