|Publication number||US8081576 B2|
|Application number||US 11/922,644|
|Publication date||Dec 20, 2011|
|Filing date||Jun 24, 2005|
|Priority date||Jun 24, 2005|
|Also published as||CN101213761A, CN101213761B, EP1894310A1, US20100220603, WO2007001288A1|
|Publication number||11922644, 922644, PCT/2005/22366, PCT/US/2005/022366, PCT/US/2005/22366, PCT/US/5/022366, PCT/US/5/22366, PCT/US2005/022366, PCT/US2005/22366, PCT/US2005022366, PCT/US200522366, PCT/US5/022366, PCT/US5/22366, PCT/US5022366, PCT/US522366, US 8081576 B2, US 8081576B2, US-B2-8081576, US8081576 B2, US8081576B2|
|Inventors||Benyuan Zhang, Paul Gothard Knutson|
|Original Assignee||Thomson Licensing|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Non-Patent Citations (1), Classifications (13), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims the benefit, under 35 U.S.C. §365 of International Application PCT/US2005/022366 filed Jun. 24, 2005, which was published in accordance with PCT Article 21(2) on Jan. 4, 2007.
The present invention relates in general to wireless communications and specifically to a method and apparatus for sorting the results of a multipath search.
The general problem addressed by this invention is how to identify the different multipath components in a received WCDMA signal. This function is typically handled by a block in the receiver called the Multipath Searcher.
The characteristics of a dynamic fading channel are that it will degrade the performance of a multipath searcher using long coherent integration times. Another problem resulting from the characteristics of quickly changing fading channels is that the results from the early portion of the search cannot be meaningfully compared to the results from the later portion of the search because the channel has changed significantly in the intervening time.
The conventional approach employs a bank of correlators in the searcher and then runs the searcher over the certain code space (searching window). In order to locate all possible paths, it is necessary to consider the worst case. The longer the searcher window is, the larger the bank of correlators. The control logic is very simple for this approach, but more hardware resources are needed.
Usually there are two stages in a multipath searcher. The first stage is to get the multipath profile as described above. That is, the first stage locates all of the energy peaks and stores the energy peaks in a profile. The second stage is to identify valid energy peaks from an available profile. Due to a harsh wireless environment, false energy peaks exist in the multipath searcher profile. These may cause the multipath searcher to find paths, which do not actually describe the received multipath, creating a “false alarm” result for the multipath searcher. The general problem addressed by the present invention is how to sort the multipath profile reliably and efficiently. It would be advantageous to reduce the possibility of “false alarms” and improve the receiver's performance.
The present invention is a method for identifying the valid energy peaks from a multipath searching profile. This method will reliably identify the true paths and reduce the possibility of false alarm to improve the receiver's performance. A method to reliably and efficiently identify the valid multipaths based on the searcher profile is described.
Specifically, a method and apparatus for identifying valid multipath energy peaks are described including locating an energy peak in a profile of energy peaks, categorizing the located energy peak based on a plurality of thresholds and processing energy peaks in at least one of the categories of located energy peaks. The method and apparatus further includes removing a direct current value component from each value in the profile of energy peaks, calculating a noise floor for a multipath searching window and determining a first threshold and a second threshold of the plurality of thresholds. The step and means for categorizing further includes determining if the located energy peak exceeds the first threshold of the plurality of thresholds, labeling the located energy peak as a false alarm, if the located energy peak does not exceed the first threshold of the plurality of thresholds, determining if the located energy peak exceeds the second threshold of the plurality of thresholds and labeling the located energy peak as confident, if the located energy peak exceeds the second threshold of the plurality of thresholds. The step and means for processing further include adjusting values of neighbor peaks of the located energy peak.
An apparatus for identifying valid multipath energy peaks is described including a memory for receiving and storing multipath energy peaks, a search arithmetic/logic unit for sorting the multipath energy peaks and a control state machine for controlling the sorting operation, wherein the multipath sorting operation includes the following acts removing a direct current value component from each value in a profile of energy peaks, calculating a noise floor for a multipath searching window, determining a confidence threshold and a minimum threshold, locating an energy peak in the profile of energy peaks, determining if the located energy peak exceeds the minimum threshold, marking the located energy peak as a false alarm, if the located energy peak does not exceed the minimum threshold, determining if the located energy peak exceeds the confidence threshold, marking the located energy peak as confident, if the located energy peak exceeds the confidence threshold and adjusting all values of neighbor peaks of the located energy peak.
The present invention is best understood from the following detailed description when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings. The drawings include the following figures briefly described below where like-numbers on the figures represent similar elements:
Normally the multipath searcher will store the profile of the located energy peaks in memory. When the multipath searcher profile procedure is finished, the multipath sorting procedure will be executed to provide multipath searcher results. Due to the harsh wireless environment, the profile values may be very noisy. In our algorithm, this noise will be considered and used to improve the multipath searcher performance.
First, the lowest value in the searching window (all correlation values are positive, due to the non-coherent correlation) is found and removed from each entry in the search buffer. This process is called DC value removal. V is the buffer of correlation values output from the searcher, Vi is an individual entry in the buffer, where i ranges from 0 to M−1.
V i =V i−MIN(V) i=0 . . . M−1
Second, the noise floor is calculated for the entire multipath searching window. Assuming that the total searching window has M points, where M is the number of samples per chip times the number of chips in the search window (typically 256 chips), the noise floor NL is:
Vi is an individual value for each point where i=0 . . . M−1. The worst case situation occurs during handover/handoff, which is typically 256 chips.
Based on the computed noise floor value, there are two thresholds TH1 and TH2 for multipath searcher peak identification.
where, T1 and T2 are constants.
TH1 usually is larger than TH2. TH1 is called a confidence threshold and TH2 is called a minimum threshold. The confidence threshold and the minimum threshold are adaptively determined based on the noise floor. The constants T1 and T2 have been determined experimentally using simulation and example channels. T1 has been determined to be 8, T2 is 4 when searching for the first peak, and is adapted to 2.95 for subsequent iterations of the process/loop. Any profile value that is larger than TH1 is a confident valid multipath. The receiver can assign a Rake Finger for it immediately without the finger validation stage or the searching validation stage. Any profile value that is larger than TH2 but smaller than TH1 is a potential multipath. The receiver needs to validate it through either the Rake Finger or through the multipath searcher. Any profile value that is larger than TH1 is confidently marked as a valid multipath. A third threshold, referred to as the contribution threshold, is based on the largest peak found, P0. This threshold is used to determine whether subsequent peaks will contribute significantly to the received signal. This third threshold is computed as follows:
where T3 has been determined experimentally to be 0.17. The first peak that is found, is not affected by this threshold. Subsequent peaks could be eliminated if the first peak is large. On the first pass, TH3 is zero since no first peak has been found.
Third, a peak from current profile is located. The peak value and its index in the profile are stored. If the peak value is greater than TH2, it is a potential valid multipath. Otherwise, sorting stops here.
Fourth, if the peak exists, all values of the neighbor points of the peak need to be adjusted. This is due to the energy peaks behaving like a sine function. The channel impulse response is similar to a sine function shape due to the pulse-shaping filter at the receiver front end. A walking-through method is used to find any point before and after this local peak value.
Fifth, the neighbor peaks of the valid peak need to have the noise floor value substituted for their current values. The above steps are repeated until all peak values and their indexes have been found.
Specifically, referring to
While it is likely that this invention will be implemented as software on an embedded processor as a part of an ASIC, it is possible to implement the function as a state machine controlled data path. An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) will perform the mathematical operations, while a state machine will control access to the different memories or registers.
Specifically, referring to
It is to be understood that the present invention may be implemented in various forms of hardware, software, firmware, special purpose processors, or a combination thereof, for example, within a mobile terminal, access point, or a cellular network. Preferably, the present invention is implemented as a combination of hardware and software. Moreover, the software is preferably implemented as an application program tangibly embodied on a program storage device. The application program may be uploaded to, and executed by, a machine comprising any suitable architecture. Preferably, the machine is implemented on a computer platform having hardware such as one or more central processing units (CPU), a random access memory (RAM), and input/output (I/O) interface(s). The computer platform also includes an operating system and microinstruction code. The various processes and functions described herein may either be part of the microinstruction code or part of the application program (or a combination thereof), which is executed via the operating system. In addition, various other peripheral devices may be connected to the computer platform such as an additional data storage device and a printing device.
It is to be further understood that, because some of the constituent system components and method steps depicted in the accompanying figures are preferably implemented in software, the actual connections between the system components (or the process steps) may differ depending upon the manner in which the present invention is programmed. Given the teachings herein, one of ordinary skill in the related art will be able to contemplate these and similar implementations or configurations of the present invention.
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|U.S. Classification||370/252, 455/501, 455/513, 370/342, 455/63.1|
|International Classification||H04L12/26, H04B7/216, H04B15/00, H04B1/707, H04B1/711|
|Cooperative Classification||H04B1/7117, H04B1/7113|
|Dec 20, 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: THOMSON LICENSING, FRANCE
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:ZHANG, BENYUAN;KNUTSON, PAUL GOTHARD;REEL/FRAME:020313/0760
Effective date: 20060118
Owner name: THOMSON LICENSING, FRANCE
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:THOMSON LICENSING S.A.;REEL/FRAME:020315/0109
Effective date: 20060613
|Jul 31, 2015||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Dec 20, 2015||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Feb 9, 2016||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20151220