|Publication number||US8087904 B2|
|Application number||US 12/192,022|
|Publication date||Jan 3, 2012|
|Priority date||Aug 15, 2007|
|Also published as||CA2702196A1, CA2702196C, US20090047153, WO2009023836A1|
|Publication number||12192022, 192022, US 8087904 B2, US 8087904B2, US-B2-8087904, US8087904 B2, US8087904B2|
|Inventors||Larry D. Best|
|Original Assignee||Global Oilfield Services Llc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (13), Non-Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (7), Classifications (16), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present application is a continuation application of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/964,896, filed Aug. 15, 2007, entitled “Hydraulic Pumping Unit and RAM With Down Stroke Energy Recover,” and invented by Larry D. Best.
The present invention relates in general to pump units for oil wells, and in particular to a pumping unit for recovering energy expended for pumping operations
Hydraulic pumping units have been provided for pumping fluids from subterranean wells, such as oil wells. The pumping units have hydraulic power units and controls for the hydraulic power units. The hydraulic power units usually have an electric motor which powers a positive displacement pump to force hydraulic fluid into a hydraulic ram. The ram is stroked to an extended position to lift sucker rods within a well and provide a pump stroke. The ram lifts the weight of the sucker rods and the weight of the well fluids being lifted with the sucker rods. When the ram reaches the top of the pump stroke, the hydraulic fluid is released from within the ram at a controlled rate to lower the weight of the sucker rods into a downward position, ready for a subsequent pump stroke. The hydraulic fluid is released from the ram and returns to a fluid reservoir. Potential energy of the weight of the lifted sucker rods is released and not recovered when the hydraulic fluid is released from within the ram and returns directly to the fluid reservoir without being used to perform work.
A hybrid hydraulic-electric ram pumping unit is disclosed which provides for downstroke energy recovery. A variable displacement, positive displacement pump is driven by an electric motor to supply pressurized hydraulic fluid to a hydraulic ram, which telescopically moves the ram into an extended position. Moving the hydraulic ram into the extended position lifts a sucker rod assembly from a downward position to a lifted position, to lift fluid within the well. Once the hydraulic ram is disposed in the extended position, the hydraulic fluid is released from the ram to lower the sucker rod assembly back into the downward position, which releases the potential energy provided by the weight of the sucker rod assembly when disposed in the lifted position. The variable displacement, positive displacement, hydraulic pump is modified for operating in a reverse flow direction, such that the hydraulic fluid may pass from the hydraulic ram, back into the pump discharge port, through the pump, through the pump suction port and into a fluid reservoir with the drive shaft for the hydraulic pump and the rotor for the electric motor turning in the same angular direction as that for pumping the hydraulic fluid into the ram. Reversing the flow direction of the hydraulic fluid through the pump uses the pump as a hydraulic motor which provides power for turning the electric motor at a rate which is above synchronous speeds. When the electric motor is turned at a greater rate than synchronous speeds, current is generated for applying to an electric power meter and returning electric power to the power grid from which energy to operate the electric motor and the hydraulic pump was initially drawn. A single hydraulic hose connects the outlet of the pump to the hydraulic ram, with the single hydraulic hose used both for supply of the hydraulic fluid from the pump to the ram and for return of the hydraulic fluid from the ram, through the pump and to a hydraulic fluid reservoir. The potential energy stored by lifting the weight of the sucker rod assembly during the ram up stroke is recovered by passing the hydraulic fluid from the ram and through the pump in the reverse flow direction.
For a more complete understanding of the present invention and the advantages thereof, reference is now made to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying Drawings in which
The traveling block 28 and belt 30 doubles the sucker rod stroke relative to the ram stroke. Stroke lengths up to 360 inches are available. The ram 26 is mounted on a heavy structural base 36 that stands over the well head 34 and attaches to the polished rod with a carrier bar. The hydraulic ram 26 includes a piston rod 42 disposed within a cylinder 40. A sleeve bearing provides a rod guide bearing 44 which is located at the lower end of the piston rod 42, and engages the inside wall of the cylinder 40. A rod bearing and packing assembly 46 is located at the upper end of the cylinder 40. The ram 26 and traveling block 16 can be raised and lowered with a hydraulic cylinder 38 for shipment, installation or work over. An integrally mounted linear position sensor 50 is preferably provided by a Temposonics® brand sensor available from MTS Systems Corporation, of Eden Prairie, Minn. The linear position sensor 50 provides feedback signals to the control unit 24 for determining the position of the piston rod 42 in the cylinder 40. The position sensor 50 preferably includes an integral velocity fuse for preventing runaway rod fall and oil leakage in case of a flow line failure.
A control unit 24 and a pump control unit 74 are provided for controlling operation of the pump 18 and the ram pumping unit 12. The control unit 24 is preferably a microprocessor-based controller which is provided sensor inputs for the stroke position of the piston rod 42 of the ram 26, and the polished rod load. The polished rod load provides a measured weight of the sucker rods 10 at the wellhead 34. The control unit 24 will feed a control signal to the pump control unit 74, to vary the flow rate through the pump 18. The pump control unit 74 is an integral pump controller which is preferably provided by a microprocessor-based unit that is mounted directly to the pump 18, such as such a Model 04EH Proportional Electrohydraulic Pressure and Flow Control available from Yuken Kogyo Co., Ltd. of Kanagawa, Japan, the manufacturer of the pump 18 of the preferred embodiment. The Yuken Model 04EH pump controller includes a swash plate angle sensor and a pump pressure sensor, and provides control of the swash plate angle C and D (shown in
The swash plate 66 is mounted to a yoke or a cradle 68, preferably in fixed relation to the cradle 68, with the swash plate 66 and the cradle 68 pivotally secured within the motor housing 54 for angularly moving about an axis which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis 90 of the drive shaft 56. A bias piston 70 is mounted in the pump housing 54 to provide a spring member, or bias means, which presses against one side of the cradle 68 and urges the swash plate 66 into position to provide a maximum fluid displacement for the pump 18 when the pump 18 is operated in conventional flow direction mode to pump the hydraulic fluid from the fluid reservoir 20 into the hydraulic ram 26. A control piston 72 is mounted in the pump housing 54 on an opposite side of the pump drive shaft 56 from the bias piston 70 for pushing against the cradle 68 to move the cradle 68 and the swash plate 66 against the biasing force of the bias piston 70, minimizing fluid displacement for the pump 18, when the pump 18 operated in the conventional flow direction mode to pump the hydraulic fluid from the reservoir 20 into the hydraulic ram 26.
The swash plate 66 preferably has a planar face defining a plane 86 through which extends the central longitudinal axis 90 of the pump drive shaft 56. A centerline 88 defines a neutral position for the swash plate plane 86, with the centerline 88 is preferably defined for the pump 18 as being perpendicular to the longitudinal axis 90 of the drive shaft 56. When the swash plate 66 is disposed in the neutral position, the stroke length for the pistons 62 will be zero and the pump 18 will have zero displacement since the pistons 62 are not moving within the cylinder block 58, as the cylinder block 58 is rotating with the drive shaft longitudinal axis 90. When the swash plate 66 is in the zero stroke position, with an angle C between the swash plate plane 86 and the centerline 88 equal to zero, the pump 18 is said to be operating at center and fluid will not be moved. The angle C between the centerline 88 and the plane 80 of the swash plate 66 determines the displacement for the pump 18. Stroking the control piston moves the cradle 68 and the swash plate 66 from the neutral position, in which the plane 86 the swash plate 66 is aligned with the centerline 88, to a position in which the angle C is greater than zero for operating the pump 18 in the conventional flow mode to provide hydraulic fluid to the ram 26. The larger the angle C relative to the centerline 88, the larger the displacement of the pump 18 and the larger the volume of fluid moved by the pump 18 for a given speed and operating conditions.
If the plane 86 of the swash plate 66 is moved across the centerline 88 to an angle D, the pump swash plate 66 is defined herein to have moved across center for operating the pump 18 over center as a hydraulic motor in the reverse flow mode. When the swash plate 66 is moved across center, the pump 18 will no longer move fluid from the fluid reservoir 20 to the hydraulic ram 26, but instead will move the hydraulic fluid in the reverse flow direction, from the hydraulic ram 26 to the fluid reservoir 20, for the same angular direction of rotation of the pump drive shaft 56 and the rotor for the electric motor 16 as that for pumping hydraulic fluid into the hydraulic ram 26. With fluid flow through the pump 18 reversed, the pressure of the hydraulic fluid in the hydraulic ram 26 may be released to turn the pump 18 into a hydraulic motor, which applies mechanical power to the AC electric motor 16. The load or weight of the piston rod 42, the traveling block 28, the belt 30 and the sucker rods 10 provide potential energy created by being lifted with hydraulic pressure applied to the hydraulic ram 26. The potential energy may be recaptured by passing the hydraulic fluid from the ram 26 through the hydraulic pump 18, with the swash plate 66 disposed over center such that the pump 18 acts as a hydraulic motor to apply power to the electric motor 16. The control unit 24 positions the swash plate 66 at the angle D from the centerline 88, such that the hydraulic pump 18 powers the electric motor 16 to run above synchronous speeds and generate electric power for applying to the meter 22 and passing into the power grid. With the energy previously stored as the potential energy of the weight of the lifted sucker rods 10, the carrier bar 32, the nylon belt 30 and the traveling block 28 recovered and applied to the meter 22 and the power grid, the only the energy used in operating the hybrid hydraulic-electric ram pumping unit 12 is that for lifting well fluids from the well, for friction losses and for efficiency losses.
In operation, the hybrid hydraulic-electric pumping unit 12 is operated to return energy to the electric power grid, by operating a positive displacement hydraulic pump 12 over center on the downstroke of the hydraulic ram 26. The control unit 24 will analyze data from both the load on the traveling block 28, or the hydraulic ram 26, and from the position sensor 50 which indicates the position of the piston rod 42 in the ram 26, and adjusting the position of the swash plate 66 to control the motor displacement. This controls the rate of the oil metered from the hydraulic ram 26, thus controlling the down-stroke speed of the ram 26 and the pump 18, which provides a counterbalance for the weight of the sucker rod assembly 10. Increasing the displacement increases the speed and decreasing the displacement decreases the speed for the pump 18 and the electric motor 16. During up-stroke of the hydraulic ram 26, the electric motor 16 is operated to move the hydraulic fluid through the pump 18, from the suction port 82 to the discharge port 84 and to the ram 26. The up-stroke speed of the pump 18 is controlled manually or is controlled automatically by a microprocessor-based control unit 24. During the downstroke of the hydraulic ram 26. The pump 18 is stroked over center by moving the swash plate 66 over center, and the hydraulic fluid will flow from the ram 26 into the port 84, through the pump 18 and then out the port 82 and into the reservoir 20, with the pump 18 acting as a hydraulic motor to drive the electric motor 16, which provided power for the up-stroke. During the downstroke, the electric motor 16 will be driven at rotations speeds above synchronous speeds to generate power for placing back into the power grid.
The load on the piston rod 42 at various linear positions as measured by the linear position sensor 50 is also analyzed by the control unit 24 to automatically provide selected up-stroke and downstroke speeds, and acceleration and deceleration rates within each stroke, for optimum performance. Should the well begin to pump down, the up-stroke and the downstroke speeds may be adjusted to maintain a constant fluid level within the well. The control unit 24 monitors key data and provides warnings of impending failure, including automatically stopping the pump from operating before a catastrophic failure. The control unit 24 will preferably monitor only the linear position of the piston rod 42 and the load on the piston rod 42. The load on the piston rod 42, or the polished rod load for the sucker rods 10 at the well head 34, may be determined by measuring hydraulic pressure in the ram 26, or measured by use of a load cell, or load sensor, mounted to the piston rod 42, the traveling block 28, the belt 20 or the carrier bar 32, and the like. Sensors may optionally be provided to allow the control unit 24 to also monitor the speed of the pump drive shaft and the rotor for the electric motor, and the input and output voltage and current for the electric motor.
The hydraulic pump 18 is a variable displacement pump which is commercially available and requires modification for operation according to the present invention. Pump 18 is commercially available from Yuken Kogyo Co., Ltd. of Kanagawa, Japan, such as the Yuken model A series pumps. Other commercially available pumps may be modified for operating over center, in the reverse flow direction, such as the Gold Cup series pumps available from Parker Hannifin HPD, formerly Denison Hydraulics, Inc., of Marysville, Ohio, USA, which uses a hydraulic vane chamber actuator for position a swash plate rather than the control piston of the Yuken model A series pump. The hydraulic vane chamber is preferably powered by a smaller hydraulic control pump connected to the drive shaft of the pump 18, rather than being powered by the pump 18. Hydraulic fluid is passed on either side of a moveable vane disposed in the vane chamber to move the vane within the chamber, and the vane is mechanically linked to a swash plate to move to swash plate to a desired position. In other embodiments, other type of actuators may be used to control the position of a swash plate relative to the centerline, such as pneumatic controls, electric switching, electric servomotor, and the like. The modifications for the pumps required for enabling operation according to the present invention are directed toward enabling the swash plates for the respective pumps to move over center, that is over the centerline, so that the pump may be operated over center in the review flow direction mode. The commercially available pumps were designed for use without the respective swash plates going over center, that is, they were designed and manufactured for operating in conventional flow direction modes and not for switching during use to operate in the reverse flow direction mode. Typical modifications include shortening sleeves for control pistons and power pistons, and the like. Internal hydraulic speed controls are also typically bypassed to allow operation over center. For the Denison Gold Cup series pumps, pump control manifolds may be changed to use manifolds from other pumps to allow operation of the pump over center. Closed loop pumps and systems may also be used, with such pumps modified to operate over center, in the reverse flow direction.
The hybrid hydraulic-electric pumping unit made according to the present invention provides advantages over the prior art. The pumping unit 12 comprises a single acting hydraulic ram 26, traveling block 28, belt 30, and a hydraulic power unit 18. During a downstroke, the pumping unit provides for regeneration and recapture of energy used during the up-stroke. The sucker rod load is used during the downstroke to provide useable energy for placing back into the power grid, reducing costs for operating the pumping unit. The hydraulic pump which is used on the up-stroke a conventional flow mode for moving pressurized hydraulic fluid into the hydraulic ram, is modified during operation for use in a reverse flow mode on the downstroke as a hydraulic motor for converting the potential energy from the sucker rod load into the electric motor. The electric motor is operated above synchronous speeds to generate power back into the meter and the power grid. Preferably, controls for the hydraulic pump are operated to determine the rate at which fluids flows from the ram and through the pump, such as by selectively positioning the swash plate to determine a counterbalance flow rate at which hydraulic fluid flows from the ram back into the pump and is returned to a reservoir. In other embodiments, valving may be utilized to control flow, or a combination of valving and pump controls.
Although the preferred embodiment has been described in detail, it should be understood that various changes, substitutions and alterations can be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.
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|U.S. Classification||417/271, 92/12.2, 417/237, 417/53, 417/904, 60/371, 417/375, 166/67|
|International Classification||F01B3/02, F04B49/00, F04B9/10|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S417/904, E21B43/126, E21B43/127|
|European Classification||E21B43/12B9C, E21B43/12B9|
|Dec 4, 2009||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: GLOBAL OILFIELD SERVICES LLC, TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:CHAPARRAL AUTOMATION LLC;REEL/FRAME:023604/0860
Effective date: 20091202
Owner name: CHAPARRAL AUTOMATION LLC, TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BEST, LARRY D.;REEL/FRAME:023604/0625
Effective date: 20091130
|May 21, 2013||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: HALLIBURTON ENERGY SERVICES, INC., TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GLOBAL OILFIELD SERVICES LLC;REEL/FRAME:030454/0641
Effective date: 20130503
|May 30, 2013||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: HALLIBURTON ENERGY SERVICES, INC., TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GLOBAL OILFIELD SERVICES LLC;REEL/FRAME:030511/0936
Effective date: 20130503
|Jun 24, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4