|Publication number||US809640 A|
|Publication date||Jan 9, 1906|
|Filing date||Aug 11, 1903|
|Priority date||Aug 11, 1903|
|Publication number||US 809640 A, US 809640A, US-A-809640, US809640 A, US809640A|
|Inventors||Audley Hart Stow|
|Original Assignee||Audley Hart Stow|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (3), Classifications (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
' PATENTED JAN. 9, 1906.
A'. H. STOW. GUN.
APPLICATION FILED AUG. 11, 1903.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
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PATENTED JAN. 9, 1906.
A. E. STOW.
APPLIOATION FILED AUG. 11, 1903.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
Wl TNESSES l @e dat:
l PATENTE!) JAN. 9, 1906. A. H. STOW. l
APPLICATION FILED AUG. 11l 190s.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
v Dfw" U NITED STATES PATENT VFFICE.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Jan. 9. 190e.
Application flled August 1l,A 1903. Serial No. 169,122.
To a/ZZ who/1t it may concern;
Be it known that I, AUDLEY HART Srow, a citizen of the United States, residing at I-Iunter, inthe county of Mingo and State of l/Vest Virginia, have invented a new and useful Automatic Firearm, of which the following4 is a specification.
My invention relatesto firearms in which the rearward pressure of the gases resulting from the firing of the cartridge is utilized to make the action of the firearm automatic and the objects of my invention are, first, the production of a firearm of this class which shall be not only practical, efficient, and perfectly safe in use, but also simple in construction; second, to provide simple and improved means for the control of the automatic action, thus increasing the effectiveness of the arm and preventing unnecessary waste of ammunition 5 third, to provide increased capacity of the magazine for cartridges; fourth, to provide a magazine readily and quickly removable, permitting the use of several duplicate magazines ready loaded, thus enabling the practically continuous automatic action, without appreciable intermission7 and,fifth, the production of a firearm of the class referred to, while adapted to the use with perfect safety of the heavier smokeless cartridges, also equally adapted to the lighter pistol-cartridges and to any of the heretofore-known forms of breakdown or solid-frame revolvers. I have also sought to provide simple and effective means for retaining the firing-pin locked in the rear position until an instant before the hammer strikes it.
Various other features of improvement will be more particularly referred to hereinafter.
I have chosen a rifle with horizontal magazine underneath the` barrel as an embodiment of my invention and for the purpose of eX` plaining the nature of such improvement.
I have illustrated in the accompanying drawings and shall refer to and describe hereinafter a magazine-rifle; but it will be understood that I do not intend thereby to restrict my invention to a magazine-rifle nor' any other particular kind of firearm, nor even l to the combination of the several features of im rovement in a single structure.
have represented the embodiment of my invention, which I have already referred to,
Figure 1 is a broken horizontal section through the center of the rear portion of the breech-bolt 3 in Fig. 2. Fig. 2 is a vertical section'through the frame of the rifle, exposing the side View of the working parts as they appear at the instant that the hammer has been released, but before it has moved forward; Fig. 3, a plan, on a larger scale, of
. the multiple-shot controlling-pin 12, showing its relation in one position to the forward end of the trigger-Sear 7 and the movable end or head of the Sear-trip 10, a portion of the hammer being also shown; Fig. 4, a view in perspective similar, somewhat, to Fig. 3, but on a different scale; Fig. 5, a broken longitudinal section through the barrel-fitting 60, eXposing a side view of the end of the magazine, Fig. 6, a view from below of the removable triple magazine, on a smaller scale 7, a view similar to Fig. 2, but with the breechblock, hammer, and return-lever in their eX- treme rear vposition and the carrier down; Fig. 8, a broken longitudinal section through the center of the middle compartment of the triple magazine, showinga cartridge-pusher in its eXtreme rear osition; and Fig. 9, a horizontal longitudinalD per portion of frame, exposing the breechblock in its rear position, the said section being broken away and exposing a still lower horizontal section through the carrier in the position shown in Fig. 7. Fig. 10 is a broken face view of part of the frame, showing a form of controlling-pin and slide. Fig. 11 is a broken side elevation of the muzzle portion of the barrel and magazine. Fig. 12 is a bottom view of front of magazine and magazinecatch.
Similar character of reference refer to similar parts throughout the several views.
The return-lever 1, Fig. 2, (see also Figs. 7 and 9,) is preferably pivoted on the same pin 7c as the hammer 2 the upper forward faces of said return-lever and hammer being suitably recessed to receive the also suitably-recessed rear end of the breech-block 3. The said return-lever 1 is operated by the returnlever spring 4, Fig. 2, in much the same manner as is the hammer by the hammer-spring 5. Thehammer 2, Fig. 2, is controlled, preferably, by two sears, the main Sear 6 and the 2 usual trigger-Sear 7, the two sears each havn the accompanying drawings, whereln I;
ing its own independent spring. The trigger 8, pressed by the usual trigger-spring 9, disengages the said trigger-Sear from the hammer at will by means of the movable trigger-Sear trip 10. The said movable trigger-scar trip has a spring 11 attached to the said trigger, which suitably operates the said movable trigger-Sear trip. The controlling piece or pin 12, Figs. 2, 3, 4, and 7, is loose in the frame of the firearm, but is retained in the desired position in part by means of the controlling-pin spring 13. (See Figs. 2, 8, and 7.) The carrier-catch 1 4, Fig. 2, is also preferably operated by the trigger-spring 9. (See also Fig. 7 The carrier-lever 15,Fig. 2, (see also Fig. 7,) has oscillating ua-and-down motion within the carrier-lever frame 16 and is operated by the carrier-lever spring 17 connected to the said lever between the two carrier-lever pivots. The forward carrier-lever pivot a and rear carrier-lever pivot l) act within two suitable slots within the downward extensions of the carrier-lever frame, as shown. The carrier-lever frame 16 has downward extensions near its front and rear ends. The foremost extension has a slot d, and a shoulder or incline 18 at the rear of this slot acts as a cam. The rearmost extension has a slot e, with a camshoulder 19 at its rear face. The carrier-lever pivots a and b move in these slots d and e, and one or the other of these ivots becomes the supporting-fulcrum of t e carrier, according to position. As the pivots a and l) move u o and down in the slots d e they are shifted y the cam-surfaces 18 and 19 and of course cause the carrier-lever to move correspondingly. The carrier-lever 15'(see Figs. 2 and 7) is extended rearwardly that the rear end when in its lowest position may be engaged by the carrier-lever catch 20 on the return-lever 1 and lifted up by it as the returnlever moves rearwardly until the rear carrier-lever pivot b strikes the top of its slot or groove e at the same instant that the rear end of the carrier-lever slips off the carrierlever catch 20. Then the rear carrier-lever pivot b dro s back onto the said shoulder 19, the carrierever spring 17 being so designed that its pull keeps the rear carrier-lever pivot b pressed somewhat rearwardly.
Both the lower ends of the forward and rear grooves or slots d e in the carrier-lever frame have a forward extension, so as to enable the carrier-lever catch 20, Figs. 2 and 7, in its downward motion to pass the rear end of the carrier-lever by ushing the carrierlever slightly forward, tfie inclination of the said forward extension being such with regard to the pull of the carrier-lever spring 1.7 that when the carrier-lever catch 20 has passed below the carrier-lever 15 the pull of the carrier-lever spring 17 will return the carrier-lever 15 backward sufli ciently that the carrier-lever catch 2O in its upward movement may engage the rear end of the carrierlever 15 and lift it.
The cartridge-carrier 21 is preferably of the same internal diameter as the large part of the cartridge and is cylindrical internally, such that the cartridge will readily pass through it. Said carrier 21 `moves, preferably, in a vertical plane. Two vertical guides 22, (see Figs. 7 and 9,) one on either side, slide within suitable grooves 23 within the frame and serve to keep the motion of the carrier in its proper relation to the other parts. Preferably an ordinary double linkf, connected centrally to the under side of the carrier (see Figs. 2 and 7) and to the forward end of the carrier-lever, enables the suitable operation of the carrier by the carrier-lever l5.
When the hammer 2 has moved forward and fired the cartridge 24, (see Fig. 2,) the owder-gases in the cartridge-chamber and )arrel drive the hammer 2 and return-lever 1 rearwardly. It is preferable in order to prevent the escape of the powder-gases rearwardly that the several parts be so designed and proportioned that the bullet emerges from the barrel before the large part of the cartridge-shell has entirely emerged rearwardly from the large art of the cartridgechamber. The pin 25 1n bolt 3, acting within the slot or groove 26 (see Fig. 2) in the return-lever 1, insures the breech block or bolt 3 and return-lever 1 simultaneously reaching their extreme rear position. The inertia of the breech-bolt, hammer, and return-lever carries these parts back to their extreme position against the resistance of thc hammer and return-lever spring, respectively, the shell-extractor 27, Fig. 2, insuring the complete extraction of the shell.
As the breech-bolt 3 starts rearwardly from its extreme forward position it lifts the rear end of the breech-bolt-s ring catch 28. When the said breech-bolt libs reached its extreme rear position, the rear end of the said breech-bolt-spring catch 28 springs down and engages the forward face of the breech-bolt, thus retaining the breech-bolt, hammer, and return-lever in their extreme rear osition. (See Fig. 7.)
W en the bolt 3, Figs. 2 and 7, has reached its extreme rear position and is there engaged by the breech-bolt-spring catch, the cartridge-shell 24 is entirely within the carrier 21. The said carrier 21 is then free to move downward. The carrier-lever 15, acted upon by the carrier-lever spring 17, then forces the said carrier 21 and its contained empty cartridge-shell quickly downward, the forward lower edge of the carrier then striking in its downward course the rear end of the spring cartridge-check 29. This check 29 is in turn forced downward against the resistance of its spring until the rear end of the spring cartridge-check 29 strikes the upper face of a horizontal portion 30 of the frame 30, which face extends across between the two sides of the frame and below the spring cartridgecheck at a suitable distance, both the carrier and spring cartridge-check being thus stopped in their downward course and brought to IOO IIO
rest. The spring cartridge-check, however, in the meantime, owing to its downward movement, has released a fresh cartridge 24 in the magazine 31.
When the carrier 21, Figs. 2 and 7, has reached its eXtreme lower position, (the inertia of the carrier assisting the movement,) a fresh cartridge 24 in the magazine 31 having been in the meantime released, the tendency of both the spring cartridge-check 29 the reloading-recess 34. While this is going j on, the carrier is being pressed upward, and as the large part of the fresh cartridge 24 reaches the rear end of thecarrier the rear upper edge of the said cartridge strikes the forward upper edge of the reloading-recess, thus preventing the ej ecting of the said cartridge 24 also through the reloading-recess. (See Fig. 7.) When the cartridge 24, Fig. 7, has entirely left the magazine, the Vcarrier 21 is free to continue its upward movement and is quickly forced upward by the carrierlever. The carrier 21 next strikes the breechbolt-spring catch 28 and then drives it upward, the inertia of the carrier assisting the carrier-lever spring to disengage the breechbolt-spring catch 28 from the breech-bolt 3. The carrier comes to rest owing more particularly to the tops of the vertical guides 22 of the carrier having struck the tops of the grooves 23. The tendency of the breech-boltspring'catch is now to return the carrier s ightly downward sufficiently to bring it in line with the breech-bolt. In addition to this the lower forward face of the breech-bolt is preferably sloped backward that the breech-bolt in moving forward may bring the carrier truly in line. The carrier v21 (see Fig.
7) in driving the Vbreech-bolt-spring catch 28 upward releases the breech-bolt 3, thus leaving the return-lever free to force the said breech-bolt, with the fresh cartridge 24 before it, quickly forward, which it does. Until the said cartridge is in the firing position the said breech-bolt-spring catch 28, by means of a suitable notch in the upper side of breech-bolt, stops the breech-bolt at the proper point, thus lessening somewhat the danger of premature explosion. Just as the return-lever 1 places the fresh cartridge 24 move forward and fire the fresh cartridge. This cycle of operation will be automatically repeated if trigger is held in the rear position as long as there are cartridges in the magazine, the controlling-pin 12 being in the proper position to that end, as in Figs. 2 and 7.
A rear horizontal portion 30 of the frame 30 serves to stop therearward movements of both the hammer 2 and return-lever 1 at the desired point by means of their upper rearward projections striking such top. The upper forward projections of said hammer and return-lever serve to stop the rearward movement of the breech-block, thus preventing injury to the user of the arm, while leaving the several parts in the desired positions for further action. The total length of the breech-block is sufficiently greater than its horizontal play that the return-lever may return the bolt when in the rear position without unnecessary friction.
It is to be noted that'the breech block or bolt 3 holds the cartridge-carrier 21 in its elevated position by its entrance at the rear end, and the cartridge itself holds the carrier in its depressed position by its entrance at the forward end, at least until the larger portion (that greatest in diameter) has emerged from the cartridge-chamber in the barrel. The general design ofthe several parts is preferably such that this does not occur until after the bullet has emerged from the barrel.
The relatively large mass of the breechblock, return-lever, hammer, and the parts operated thereby, together with the resistwhich the breech-block strikes the faces of the return-lever and hammer at the instant of explosion compared with the relatively small mass of the projectile, makes it evident that the several parts may readily be and preferably are so designed, proportioned, and adjusted to each other that the bullet or projectile may emerge from barrel before that portion of the cartridge having the largest diameter emerges from the cartridge-chamber in the barrel, thus preventing vthe escape rearward into the interior of the rifle-frame of the powder-gases.
The cartridge-chamber in the barrel receives the initial shock of explosion, as in rifles with positively-locked breeches, and owing to the relative masses of the projectile and of the breech-block and parts operated by the latter the pressure of powder-gases in the barrel will be materially reduced, owing to the forward movement of the projectile. When the empty cartridge-shell has moved rearwardly suiiiciently, the carrier may receive part of the pressure of the powdergases. The carrier may be a comparatively light shell with perfect safety to the user of the firearm.
As practically from the instant the cartridge is fired the empty cartridge-shell con- IOO Vance of the several springs, and the angle at tinues to move rearwardly until it reaches its extreme rear position there is little chance for the cartridge-shell to get jammed.
The outside or external face of the shellextractor 27 is made, preferably, flush with the outer surface of the breech-block in order that it may not be necessary to provide grooves in the inside of the carrier. This will require a special cartridge having a rim of less diameter than the main body of the shell. A shell having a rim of the same diameter as the main body of the shell will require a shell-extractor that stands out from the face of the breech-block and a suitable and corresponding groove on the inside of the carrier. The shell-extractor may be integral or a separate part suitably united.
By varying the. angle at which the hammer 2 and return-lever 1 rest against the rear end of the breech-block 3 at the instant of explosion the effective rearward shove or push of the breech-block may be varied accordingly, as desired.
The controlling-pin 12, Figs. 2, 3, 4, and 7, extends across the frame between the hammer 2 and the trigger S and is held in its proper and desired position preferably by the spring 13, attached to the under side of the rear downward end of the carrier-lcv er frame 16. One end of the said controlling-pin has immediately under the cap 40 three adjoining circular V-shaped grooves m n o around it, one of these always resting in a similar but sufficiently-larger hole in a suitable recess in the frame of the rifle as to admit of the pin being shifted readily by the thumb or finger laterally, as shown in Fig. 3, or horizontally, as shown in Fig. 4, until any one of the three grooves m n 0 that may be desired rests upon the correspondingly-shaped edge of the hole in the frame of the firearm.
A trigger-Sear trip 10 is connected with the trigger 8 by means of a pivot at its lower forward end, so as to be movable about said pivot as a center. The rear end of trip 10 may move up, but against the resistance of trigger-sear-trip spring 11. On boing returned downward by said Sear-trip spring 11 trip 10 strikes a suitable point on the upper rear portion of the trigger S.
By the introduction more particularly of the controlling-pin 12, in conjunction with the movable scar-trip 10, the action of the firearm may be had under complete control and its action varied at will. When the controlling-pin 12 is shifted to the position shown in Figs. 2, 4, and 7, it is in what may be called the full automatic position, the groove o resting on the sharpened edge 30 of the frame.
catch or pawl 41, connected to the hammer, will pass through groove 37 in pin 12 without obstruction, and the controlling-pin will not act as a check to the repeated firing of cartridges. /Vhen the trigger is pulled the searin cocked position.
in this posltion the controlling-pin' trip 10, pivoted to the trigger, is lifted or swung upward and backward. The front end B, Figs. 3 and 4, of the Sear-trip when brought against the full diameter of pin 12 acts as a fulcrum or guide and compels the rear part 10 of the trip to ride up under sear 7 and release said Sear; but when trip 10 has its front end brought into a notched or recessed section of the controlling-pin the front end of the trip 10 does not force back the part 10 to operative position, and the part 10 will then ride above the front end of sear 7 and will not release the hammer to ire the cartridge. The controllingpin 12 has a ratchet 39 on its surface. When the pin is shifted endwise to the position shown in Fig. 3, the catch or pawl 41, pivoted in the hammer, will engage said ratchet and cause the pin 12 to rotate with a step-by-step movement, one ratchet-tooth being moved each time the hammer falls. This rotation of the controlling-pin takes place when the pin is in such position that the notched section 3S of pin 12 is in line with the end B of the seartrip. This notched section 38 permits the end B of the sear-trip to drop into a depression, so that the other end 10rides over the end of scar-trigger 7, This permits the hammer to fall once, but'stops it the second time Before the gun can be fired again theY hammer must be let down (which rotates the pin 12 one notch) and again cocked, when the firing can be resumed. Notchedsection 33 of pin 12 may have one or two notches, and there may be a similar section which will be brought in play when groove o is in engagement with the hole 30 of the frame. either of its adjusted positions by slides 42 in the frame engaging the pin when shifted. The slides 42 may be eccentric rings inserted in recesses in the side plates of the frame of the gun and in such case operate to shift the end of the controlling-pin by rotating around the same. Any other convenient form of slide to cover the openings around the con- IOO The pin 12 may be held in trolling-pin will serve the purpose desired.
The controlling-pin 12 thus controls, by its construction and position, the operation of the gun. This pin can be shifted so that the gun will iire automatically as long as there are cartridges in the magazine and the trigger is held pulled or it can be shifted so that the gun will automatically fire one, two, or other numbers of shots when the trigger is pulled and then stop for a further operation.
In order that the slide 42, Figs. 3 and 4, may not shift its position by gravity or shock, it may be split horizontally, as shown in Fig. 3, thus forming a spring-slide, or other simple and equivalent device to the same end may be used.
The rear end of the cartridgeusher 32, Figs. 2 and 7, is made of somewhat ess diameter than the main body of same, so as to allow for the said rear end passing the spring cartridge-check 29 sufficiently farther than the cartridge to enable it to retain the carrier 2 1 in the lower position when inserted in same.
When the last cartridge 24 has been afired, and the carrier 21 is depressed by the carrierlever 15 and its spring 17, as explained, the said carrier in its downward course strikes the slightly-projecting cartridge-pusher; but as the forward lower edge of the said carrier has been made sloping from above rearwardly and down the cartridge-pusher will be pushed slightly forward until the lower forward edge of the carrier has passed down below the cartridge-pusher. The cartridge pusher then moves rearward and enters the carrier sufliciently to retain it in its lower position. The rear end of the cartridge-pusher may be made conical to facilitate the action.
When the last cartridge has been fired and the firearm has ceased to act, the trigger 8 will naturally be released by the forefinger, and the rear end of the trigger-spring 9 in moving up'will force up with it the rear end of the carrier-catch 14, whereby the bifurcated and upwardly-projecting ends of the carrier-catch, terminating in suitable hooks, may engage the-corresponding hooks in the lower ends of the carrier-guides 22 and retain the said carrier in the lower position until the trigger is again pulled to the rear position.
The carrier-catch 14 has preferably a horizontal slot in its rear end through which passes the trigger-spring 9, thus reducing the number of parts necessary, although a simple link connection to the trigger or other equivalent may be used.
With the carrier 21, Figs. 2 and 7, retained in its lower position by the carrier-catch 14 cartridges may be inserted in the magazine through the reloading-recesss and vvthence through the carrier into the magazine, Fig. 7, until the magazine is'full, the carrier-catch having been so placed with regard to the hooks in the lower ends of the carrier-guides 22 that when the carrier-catch 14 engages the carrier 21 the upper rear inner edge of the carrier is slightly lhigher than the upper forward inner edge of the reloading-recess 34, whereby the insertion of a cartridge through the reloading-recess will result in a temporary depression of the carrier until the cartridge is fully within same, when the carrier will rise, thus retainingthe cartridge in position until the trigger is pulledback.
When the last cartridge has been fired, the hammer will remain cocked, the cartridgepusher retaining the carrier inthe lower position. When the magazine has been again reloaded, if no further action of the lirearm is desired it is only necessary to pullthe trigger back, when the carrier will be released, the usual action of the breech-block and returnlever following, the cartridge being then placed in firing position, it being only necessary to let the hammer down slowly to, say, the safety-notch. If it is desired to continue firing, it is only necessary to pull the trigger.
It is to be noted that the automatic action may be also stopped by simply allowing the trigger to move forward, when the carriercatch 14 will engage the carrier, as explained, while the trigger-Sear 7, Figs. 2 and 7, will also be enabled to engage the hammer 2.
In' case of the failure of the cartridge 24, Fig.2, to fire, the pin 25 in the rear end of the breech-block 3 serves to enable the extraction of the unexploded cartridge, as by the finger-piece (upper rearward projection or extension) of the return-lever. These may be. moved to their rear position, as in cooking the hammer, which will insure the extraction of the unexploded cartridge, or the hammer alone may be cocked and another effort made to explode said cartridge, as heretofore. The pin and slot may be replaced by a shoulder (see dotted lines 43, Fig. 1) on the inner lower rear end of the breech 3 or other simple means.
In order to facilitate the cocking of the hammer alone without disturbing the returnlever, breech bolt or block, and parts operated thereby, the side of the finger-piece (upward rear projection) of the return-lever that is next the hammer2 is preferably left smooth instead of hacked, the outsides, however, of both hammer and return-lever being preferably hacked.
The return-lever 1 in driving the breechblock 3 forward would tend to drive the firing-pin 44, Fig. 1, forward with sufficient force toA make a premature explosion of the cartridge probable, to prevent which a firingpin dog 45, engaging a suitable shoulder on the rear end of the iiring-pin, is provided. As the return-lever' moves the breech-block forward away from the hammer both the inertia of the firing-pin and the firing-pin spring 46 tend to force the firing-pin to its rear position when it will be engaged by the firing-pin dog 45 and there positively retained until released, as will be described. y
The rear end of the breech block or bolt 3, Fig. 1, is suitably recessed to receive both the vreturn-lever 1 and the hammer 2, (see Fig. 9,)
the hammer striking in the side 47 as shown IOO in Fig. 1, of the said recess and the return-lever acting within the side 48fof the said recess. In the forward face of said recess there may be a slightly V-shaped partition tokeep the return-lever away from the firing-pin.
The firing-pin dog 45, Fig. 1, has arearward extension into the portion 47 of the recess in the rear end of the breech-block 3, (that in which the hammer is received but said dog has such a horizontal incline and is permitted ,such play that when the hammer moves forward it engages said incline and moves the said rearward extension outward, as shown in Fig. 1,v sufficiently that by the time the hammer strikes the rear end of the firing-pin the said firing-pin dog has released the firing-pin.
The breech-bolt guides 49 serve to keep the breech-bolt from rotation, thus keeping the recess in the rear end in its proper relation to the hammer and return-lever. These guides assist the breech-bolt to resolve the gross rearward thrust of the powder-gases into a vertical component delivered by the guides and breech-bolt to the frame and the effective horizontal rearward shove, resulting in the movement of the hammer and return-lever in proportion to the angle at which the breech-bolt strikes the hammer and return-lever. The barrel 50, which may be of any of the heretofore well-known forms, is set in the forward part of the frame of the firearm. The trigger-guard 51 closes the lower portion of the frame containing the operating mechanism. The removal of said guard will enable the ready removal of the carrier 2l and the carrier-lever 15 from frame 16.
The magazine 31 is preferably triple, having two side compartments 31 and 32 and a middle compartment. It is so attached to the forward end of the barrel as to have not only a slight longitudinal play, but also sufficient horizontal play, at the rear end to enable any one of the three compartments desired being brought into line with the carrier 21. In order that any desired compartment of the triple magazine 31 Inay be retained in line with the carrier, the retainingspring 52 is preferably attached immediately below the spring cartridge check 29 by means of a common screw 53 to the underneath side of the rear magazine-fitting 54, which unites the rear ends of the three compartments and serves to press the upper cyindrical faces of the compartments of the magazine against the lower correspondingly and suitably (longitudinally) grooved side of that portion of the rifle-frame which holds the rear end of the barrel 50. The forward magazine-fitting 55, Figs. 5 and 6, uniting the forward ends of the three compartments 31, 31', and 31, has a forward extension flat vertically that slides between the two legs of the magazine-catch 56, which moves in a vertical plane on the magazine-catch pivot 57, whereby the magazine may have the desired horizontal motion at the rear end by swinging on this front end as a pivot, the free end of the magazine-catch being suitably checked or backed that it may be readily found. In order that the triple compartment may be kept pressed rearwardly in its pro er position, (a horizontal portion 30m, iowever, preventing it being pressed too far rearwardly,) the two legs of the magazine-catch are so designed and placed as to act as an eccentric. When the free end of the said magazine-catch is pulled up, as shown in Fig. 5, the forward faces of the two legs have pushed the face-plate 58 against the face-plate spring 59, set within a barrel-fitting 60, suitably attached to the upper forward end 50 of the barrel, as shown in Fig. 5, the said upward projection 6() being preferably a separate part suitably united. The upward movement of the free end of the magazine-catch not only removes the pressure of the faceplate spring from the forward end of the forward magazine-fitting, but also enables the ready removal of the forward extension of said magazine-'fitting from between the legs of the magazine-catch. A suitable spring underneath the legs of the magazine-catch 56 may serve to retain the magazine-catch in the open osition, as in Fig. 5. VV'hen the free end o the magazine-catch 56, Fig. 5, has been lowered rearwardly to the closed portion, the face-plate 58 has been shoved rearwardly by its spring 59 until the face-plate rests against the forward end of the forward magazine-fitting, thus retaining the triple magazine pressed rearwardly, but permitting of the said magazine being pushed forward at will yagainst the said face-plate and its spring. ny simple and well-known mechanical equivalents of these devices that will permit the described horizontal and longitudinal movements and removal of the magazine may replace the exact constructions shown and described.
When the last cartridge in, say, the middle compartment 31 has been fired and the carrier depressed, the lower forward edge of the carrier striking the slightly-projecting rear end of the cartridge-pusher shoves it forward. When the lower edge of the carrier has passed the pusher, the pusher again moves rearwardly, the rear reduced end of the pusher then entering the carrier and retaining it in the lower position. The action of the arm then ceases. The carrier 21 is temporarily retained in the lower position by the pusher 32 until the carrier-catch 14 also engages the carrier. The triple magazine may now be shoved forward, thus disengaging the pusher from the carrier, and the rear end of the triple magazine may be shifted either to the ri ht or left, as desired, until one of two still loa ed compartments of the magazine is in line with the carrier. The hammer and return-lever having been loft in their rearward position, a simple pull of the trigger will result in the placing of the empty cartridge in the barrel; but by pulling the hammer and return-lever rearwardly, as in cooking the hammer, a fresh cartridge will be placed in the firing )osition and the hammer left cocked, rea y for further action.
When the last cartridge in any compartment of the multiple magazine has been fired, if it be desired to at once reload that compartment, the trigger having been released and the carrier retained in the lower position, fresh cartridges may be inserted through the IOO IIO
reloading-recess until the compartment `in question is full. The carrier-catch is preferably so laced and designed with regard to the hoo is on the carrier-guides that when the carrier-catch holds the carrier in engagement the upper rear under edge of the carrier is slightly above the upper forward edge of the reloading-recess, so that as each cartridge is inserted the carrier will be slightly depressed'by the said insertion until the cartridge is fully within the carrier, when it will rise slightly, thus retainingv the cartridge in the carrier. A simple pull of the trigger will now place the cartridge in firing position and automatically fire it but if no further action of the arm is desired the trigger may be pulled and the hammer let down by hand to, say, the safety-notch, thus leaving the cartridge securely in cartridge-chainber within the barrel.
When the last cartridge has been fired and the trigger released and fresh cartridges at once inserted through the reloading-recess, the last empty shell will be forced ahead of the loads into the magazine.
Where the service. requires as nearly continuous firing as attainable, several additional interchangeable magazines are preferable, the additional magazines being charged by an assistant while the one in the firearm is being emptied. When emptied, it is only necessary to lift the free end of the magazinecatch 56, lift up the front end of the now emptied' magazineV andremove it, insert a freshly-loaded magazine, lower theV catch, and the arm is again ready for action as heretofore.
The firearm will usually be carried with the triple magazine in the central position, and in order to exclude dust and dirt from ating mechanism the rear magazine-fitting 54 has a rearward extension 54 on either side,
which meets neatly a similar forward extension of the frame, but in such a manner as to permit the desired horizontal shifting; but a ittle vert cal play between the said rearward extensionof the rearA magazine-fitting and the frame will be requiredto permit the shifting. The rearward extension of the rear magazine-fitting also serves to protect the spring cartrid e-checliv 29, Figs. 2', 7, and 8, from injury w iile the magazine is detached from the arm.
'If it be desired to retain the carrier exactly in line with the reloadin -recess when the, last cartrid e has been fire a hub or rim (see dotted ines 32', Fig. 8) around. the rear end of the cartridge-pusher, together with the suitable designing and placing of the carriercatch, will enable this result. The said rim or hub has one particular advantage in that when the last cartridge has been fired the rear end of the pusher will not pass the spring cartridge-check until the carrier in its down- 'ward course has struck the spring cartridgecheck and released the pusher, as if it were a cartridge. The pusher then enters the carrier and retains it inthe lower position.
In order to automatically close and open the reloading-recess 34 to prevent the careless insertion of cartridges, except when the carrier is in suitable position to receive, preferably the rear lower edge of the carrier 2l has a downward extension 2l. Such downward extensionpreferably extends down far enough to exclude not merely cartridges, but also dirt. (See dotted lines 21, Fig. 2.) Such downward exten sion preferably fits flush against the forward face of that portion of the frame 30 around the reloading-recess 34. The
said downward extension is so designed and placed that when the carrier is in the upper position the reloading-recess is closed. When the carrier is in the lower position, the said downward extension is necessarily below the reloading-recess, thus leaving it open for the ejection or insertion of cartridges.
The form of trigger is not essential. Any of the well-known forms to the ends described may be used. The rear magazine-fitting 54 may have ltwo upper inside extensions 54 and 54 acting as keys to keep the three compartments of the magazine in place. v
Y The operation of the gun should be generally understood from the foregoing. The breech-closing bolt is not positively locked in closed position, but is held forward by the hammer and by the return-lever, which hammer and lever are quite similar in form and pivoted on the same pivot. When the gun is fired,the gas-pressure throws back the bolt,.carrying the empty cartridge-shell with it. The bolt movement swings back the hammer and return-lever. The hammer is held by two sears, and these are under control of the controlling-pin, which by its position determines whether the gun shall continue to fire a series of shots automatically or whether the firing shall be effected by the trigger in a predetermined manner. Fresh cartridges are fed back from a magazine under the barrel to the cartridge-carrier, and this carrier re ulates the feed. A multiple magazine enab es the gunner to continue firing as long as there is a cartridge in any magazine.
What I claim is.-
l. In an automatic gun, the combination of the hammer and means for Acooking the same automatically, a sear, and a controlhng- `to control the hammer action.
3. In an automatic gun, the combination of the hammer, means for cocking the same,
a sear, and a controlling-pin having crosssections of different form, each cross-section of the pin controlling the hammer action according to a predetermined system.
4. In an automatic gun, the hammer, means for cocking the same automatically, a trigger-scar, a trigger-scar trip, and a movable controlling-piece having a series of bearing-surfaces, each bearing-surface controlling the hammer t0 operate in a predetermined manner, all combined.
5'. In an automatic gun, the combination of the hammer, means for cocking the same, a trigger-scar, a trigger-scar trip, and a movable controlling-pin having cross-sectional areas of different dimensions, and engaging the trigger-scar trip to determine the hammer action.
6. In an automatic gun, the hammer and means for eocking the same, a controlling-pin extending through the frame and movable in direction of its length, and means for holding the said pin in different positions, thereby controlling the hammer movement.
7. In an automatic gun, the hammer and means for cooking the same, the movable controlling-pin extending through the frame and varying in cross-section, a pawl on the hammer which pawl engages the sections of said pin to govern the hammer action according to the position of the controlling-pin, and means for holding the controlling-pin in adjusted position, all combined.
8. In a magazine-gun, a magazine, a vertically-movable carrier, a carrier-lever connected to said carrier, two pivots supporting said lever on variable fulcrums, and a spring acting to raise or lower said carrier according to the position of the bearing-fulcrum.
9. In a magazine-gun, the carrier, a carrier-lever pivotally connected thereto, a plurality of fulcrums on one or the other of which the carrier is supported, and a spring operating to both raise and lower` the carrier, all combined.
10. In a magazine-gun, the combination of a carrier, a lever pivotally connected thereto7 two pivot-pins pro] edting from the carrier-lever, a frame having two slots in which said pivot-pins may play, and a spring connected to the carrier-lever between said pins.
l1. In a magazine-gun, the combination of a carrier, carrier-lever pivotally connected thereto, two pivot-pins projecting from said lever, and a spring connected to the lever between said pins, and slots in the frame in which said pins play, one 0f said slots having a shoulder on which the pin rests when in elevated position.
12. In a magazine-gun, the combination of a carrier, a carrier-lever pivotally connected thereto and supported on one or the other of two fulcrums, a spring connected to said lever between the fulcrums, the breech-bolt and a lever connected thereto; and a carrier-lever catch connected to said breech-bolt lever.
13. In a magazine-gun, a longitudinally moving breech-bolt, a return-lever pivotally connected thereto, a vertically-moving cartridge-carrier and a carrier-lever pivotally connected thereto, variable fulcrums supporting said carrier-lever, and means connected with the return-lever by which the carrier-lever may be shifted on its fulcrums.
14. In an automatic gun, the combination of a cylindrical longitudinally-reciprocating breech-bolt, a vertically-moving carrier having a chamber neatly fitting said bolt andthc cartridge-body used in the gun, and means for reciprocating the carrier, so that the backward movement of the bolt permits the cartridge-shell to recoil into the carrier at the instant of firing.
15. In an automatic gun,a vertically-movable cartridge-carrier having a cylindrical bore which receives the cartridge, a longitunally-reciprocating breech-bolt which fits said bore, and means for closing the breechbolt through the chamber in the carrier, and means for lifting the carrier so that its chamber is in line with the breech-bolt.
16. In a magazine-gun, the combination of a vertically-reciprocating carrier, the trigger, and a carrier-catch connected to and operated by the trigger.
17. In a magazine-gun, the combination of a vertically-reciprocating cartridge-carrier, a trigger, and a carrier-catch pivoted in thc frame and connected to the trigger.
18. In a magazine-gun, the combination of areciprocating bolt, a'iring-pin carried thereby, a spring-actuated firing-pin catch in the breech-bolt having an inclined surface, and the hammer engaging said incline to release the 'firing-pin before striking it.
In testimony whereof I afliX my signature in presence of two Witnesses.
'AUDLEY HART STOW.
Vitnesses P. S. MCCABE, R. LEE POINDEXTER.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2422301 *||Jan 12, 1944||Jun 17, 1947||Horan Timothy F||Cartridge feeding mechanism for repeating firearms|
|US4803911 *||Aug 7, 1987||Feb 14, 1989||Morini Competition Arm S.A.||Semi-automatic target pistol|
|US5367810 *||Mar 1, 1993||Nov 29, 1994||Ikon Ltd.||Magazine|