|Publication number||US8102699 B2|
|Application number||US 12/966,346|
|Publication date||Jan 24, 2012|
|Priority date||Mar 18, 2003|
|Also published as||CN1764982A, CN1764982B, EP1609154A1, EP1609154B1, US7859885, US8559211, US20060203541, US20080112211, US20110080778, US20120099370, WO2004084228A1|
|Publication number||12966346, 966346, US 8102699 B2, US 8102699B2, US-B2-8102699, US8102699 B2, US8102699B2|
|Original Assignee||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (50), Referenced by (20), Classifications (36), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present application is a continuation of and claims the benefit of priority under 35 U.S.C. §120 from U.S. Ser. No. 11/970,154, filed on Jan. 7, 2008, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,859,885 which is a division of U.S. Ser. No. 10/548,575, filed on Feb. 6, 2006, now abandoned which is the National Stage of PCT/JP03/03256, filed on Mar. 18, 2003, the entire contents of all of which are incorporated herein by reference.
This invention relates to electrically rewritable phase change memory devices which store therein a resistance value determinable by a phase change between crystalline and amorphous states of memory material in a non-volatile manner.
EEPROM flash memories are known in the prior art as large-capacity multifunctional nonvolatile semiconductor memories. In this type of semiconductor memories, microfabricated ultra-fine circuitry of less than 100 nm has been achieved on a flat surface or plane due to recent advances in lithography technologies and etching techniques. As far as considerations on the plane are concerned, it is a must for enlargement of the memory capacity to further advance microfabrication or miniaturization in order to increase a cell number per unit area. However, such further miniaturization is not easy.
In order to increase the memory capacity without advancing the miniaturization, there is employed a method for sealing a plurality of stacked memory chips together into a package or alternatively a method of stacking or laminating memory cell arrays on or above silicon to thereby provide a three-dimensional memory chip. However, the conventionally conceived cell array stacking techniques are to simply overlie planar cell arrays. In this case, although if the number of such stacked or laminated layers is N then the resultant storage capacity is N times greater than a planar cell array, accessing is done separately in units of respective layers; thus, simultaneous access to a plurality of layers has not been easily achievable.
On the other hand, a phase change memory has been proposed which is expected as a nonvolatile memory for the future use and which utilizes a phase transition between crystalline and amorphous states in chalcogenide glass material (for example, see Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Vol. 39 (2000) PP. 6157-6161 Part 1. No. 11, November 2000 “Submicron Nonvolatile Memory Cell Based on Reversible Phase Transition in Chalcogenide Glasses” Kazuya Nakayama et al). This utilizes the fact that the chalcogenide's resistance ratio of its amorphous state to crystalline state is as large as 100:1 or greater and stores therein such different resistance value states as binary data. The chalcogenide's phase change is reversible, wherein such change is well controllable by an appropriate heating technique or method, which in turn is controllable by the amount of a current flowing in this material.
In the case of designing such a phase change memory in ultra-large scale, unwanted variations or irregularities in distributions of low resistance values and high resistance values of memory cells within a cell array become larger so that how to provide the required read/write margins becomes an important technical issue.
A phase change memory device in accordance with one embodiment of the invention includes a substrate, a plurality of cell arrays stacked above the substrate and each including a matrix layout of a plurality of memory cells, each the memory cell storing therein as data a resistance value determinable by a phase change, a write circuit configured to write a pair cell constituted by two neighboring memory cells within the plurality of cell arrays in such a manner as to write one of the pair cell into a high resistance value state and write the other into a low resistance value state, and a read circuit configured to read complementary resistance value states of the pair cell as a one bit of data.
Although the diode SD is a Schottky diode in the case of this embodiment, a pn junction diode is alternatively useable. One end of the memory cell MC is connected to a bit line BL; the other end of it is connected to a word line WL. Although in the drawing the diode SD is with the word-line WL side as an anode, the polarity of diode SD may be reversed or alternatively the layout of the variable resistive element VR and diode SD can be made inverse in view of the fact that what is required here is to obtain the cell selectivity based on a potential voltage relationship of the word line WL and bit line BL.
As previously stated, data is stored in the form of a resistance value of the resistive element VR of each memory cell MC. In an unselected or non-select state, all the word lines WL are set at “L” level and all bit lines BL are at “H” level. One example is that “H” level is 1.8 V and “L” level is 0V. In this nonselect state, the diodes SD of all the memory cells MC are in a reverse bias state and thus in an off-state so that no currents flow in any resistive elements VR. Considering the case of selecting a central memory cell MC which is encircled by broken lines in the cell array of
As the amount of a current flowing in the selected cell at this time is determined by the phase of the chalcogenide which makes up the resistive element VR, detecting whether the current amount is large or small enables achievement of data readout. It is also possible for the chalcogenide of the resistive element VR to generate a phase transition by getting higher the “H” level potential of a selected word line to thereby increase the current amount and by utilizing heat-up of a cell portion due to this current, by way of example. Thus, it is possible to select a specific cell in the cell array and to rewrite the information of such cell.
In this way, in the cell array of this embodiment, accessing is done only by potential level setup of a single word line WL and a single bit line BL. In the case of providing a transistor for cell selection, an extra signal line is required for selection of the gate of such transistor within the cell array; however, in this embodiment, such signal line is not required in any way. Additionally, in view of the fact that the diode is simpler in structure than the transistor, the cell array becomes simpler in configuration due to this feature along with the decreased signal line feature, which in turn makes it possible to achieve higher integration densities of the cells involved.
Regarding the diode SD which is used, for cell selection, a Schottky diode is used therefor in particular whereby many effects are obtainable. Firstly, the Schottky diode is a majority-carrier element unlike pn junction diodes whereby accumulation of minority carriers hardly takes place so that high-speed access becomes possible. Second, both the cell array configuration and the fabrication process become simpler because of the fact that it is unnecessary to form any pn junctions. Third, Schottky junctions remain stable relative to temperatures unlike the pn junctions which inherently suffer from temperature-induced changes or variations in characteristics.
Although in the above operation explanation one specific case was indicated in which the potential levels of a word line WL and bit line BL are controlled to perform resistance value detection (data readout) and phase-change control (data write or data program) of the chalcogenide that makes up the resistive element VR, it is also possible to perform the read and write operations by controlling the levels of currents flowing in the word line WL and bit line BL. These voltage control scheme and current control scheme are different from each other in the significance of energy to be given to the chalcogenide during reading of a resistance value. This is because the chalcogenide is higher in resistance value when it is set in its amorphous state and low in resistance value in the crystalline state thereof. More specifically, if the voltage control is used then power being produced in the chalcogenide becomes equal to v2/R, where R is the resistance of chalcogenide; if the current control is used then the same is defined by iR2. Due to this, the both schemes are different from each other in influenceability of a temperature change of the chalcogenide in the process of resistance detection being given to the phase change. Accordingly, an appropriate one of these schemes may be chosen by taking account of the cell structure and the stability as given to the phase state of the chalcogenide.
So far, the configuration of the basic cell array has been explained. In this embodiment, a three-dimensional (3D) cell array structure with a plurality of cell arrays stacked or laminated on or above a substrate is used. Such 3D cell array structure will be explained below.
To be more concrete, memory cells MC of the first layer cell array MA0 are formed by pattering of a lamination or multilayer film of the chalcogenide layer 13 a, an ohmic electrode 14 a, an n+-type silicon layer 15 a and an n-type silicon layer 16 a. The memory cells MC are pattern-formed into columnar shapes by use of a method as will be explained later. At this stage, the Schottky diodes SD remain unfinished yet—only their main body portions are made. Peripheral portions of the memory cells MC are buried with an interlayer dielectric film 17 and then made flat or “planarized.”
And, word lines (WL) 18 are formed which become anode electrodes of the diodes SD and which commonly connect the diodes SD in the direction that crosses the bit lines 12 a. A Schottky junction is formed between the word line 18 and the n-type silicon layer 16 a, thus obtaining the Schottky diode SD. Optionally, in order to make a more preferable Schottky diode, it is also permissible to form a metal film in addition to the word line 18, which film is in Schottky contact with the n-type silicon layer 16 a.
A space between adjacent word lines 18 is filled with a buried interlayer dielectric film 19 and then planarized. And on this film, a second layer cell array MA1 is stacked. More specifically, through patterning of a lamination film of an n-type silicon layer 16 b, an n+-type silicon layer 15 b, an ohmic electrode 14 b and a chalcogenide 13 b, column-like memory cells MC are formed each of which is a stacked body of a Schottky diode SD and a variable resistive element VR. The layout of these memory cells MC is the same as that of the first layer cell array MA0. A Schottky junction is formed between a word line 18 and the n-type silicon layer 16 b. The periphery of this memory cell MC also is filled with a buried interlayer dielectric film 20 and then planarized. Furthermore, bit lines (BL1) 12 b are formed by patterning in such a manner as to commonly connect chalcogenide layers 13 b which are aligned or queued in the direction that crosses the word lines 18 at right angles.
In the way stated above, the cell arrays MA0, MA1 are stacked each other while commonly sharing the word lines (WL) 18. Although in
The above-stated three-dimensional cell array is such that the word lines WL and bit lines BL are formed with the line/space=1F/1F, where F is the minimum device-feature size, by way of example. And, in each cell array, a column-like memory cell MC with its chalcogenide and diode stacked over each other is disposed at each cross point or intersection of the word lines WL and bit lines BL.
To achieve further miniaturization in the manufacture of such three-dimensional cell array, it is a must to take into consideration the influenceability of diffraction of electromagnetic waves or the like at exposure steps. In this point of view, whenever an attempt is made to lay out the memory cells at positions distant far from the stripe-shaped word lines and bit lines, it is difficult to optimize the fabrication processes required therefor. In the three-dimensional cell array of this embodiment, the memory cells are placed at respective intersections of the bit lines and word lines in the state that each cell is interposed or “sandwiched” between bit and word lines. In the light of this, when performing resist exposure for memory cell etching purposes, double exposure of stripe-shaped mask patterns for the bit lines and word lines is carried out to thereby enable patterning of highly miniaturized ultrafine memory cells without receiving any possible influence of diffraction or the like. This point will be explained in more detail below.
For the patterning of the laminated films such as shown in
By repeating such lithography and etching processes with respect to each cell array, a three-dimensional cell array with memory cells disposed at the same positions of each cell array is obtained. As shown in
As described above, when the resist 30 is of negative type, double exposure portions, which are exposed at twice by two exposure steps, are remained as etching masks. In contrast to this, positive type resist may also be employed. When such the resist is used, it is required to perform two exposure steps as similar to the above-described exampled by use of an inverse exposure mask that has a pattern inverted to the above-described exposure mask 31. In this case, non-expressed portions of the resist during the two exposure steps are remained as etching masks as similar to the above-described example.
While the three-dimensional cell array of this embodiment enables realization of a large storage capacity of memory, it is preferable when performing data processing to receive certain considerations as to the accessing of the three-dimensional cell array. More definitely, arrange three-dimensional cell blocks that are preferable for use during data search or else.
The select signals /WS, BS are outputs of an address decoder: in a non-select state, /WS=“H” and BS=“L.” Thus, in the nonselect state, the select transistors QP1, PN0 turn off and the resetting transistors QN1, QP0 turn on, causing the word line WL to be set at “L” level of Vss while letting the bit line BL stay at “H” level of Vcc. In a select state, the reset transistors QN1, QP0 turn off and the select transistors QP1, QN0 turn on. During data reading, the word line WL and bit line BL are connected to the signal lines WP, BP respectively as shown in the drawing. Suppose that these signal lines WP and BP are given “H” level (for example, Vcc=1.8V) pulse and “L” level (e.g. Vss=0V) pulse, respectively when selected. Whereby, a read current flows in a memory cell MC in accordance with the turn-on time periods of the select transistors QP1, QN0.
Practically, in the case of employing the cell block arrangement such as shown in
A bitline selector circuit 50 a shown in
A wordline selector circuit 50 b shown in
The pulse signal line BPij of
Although not specifically shown in the selector circuits 50 a, 50 b of
When a great number of phase-change memory cells are integrated together as the three-dimensional cell array stated above, unwanted variability or irregularity in characteristics thereof causes problems. In practical use, the data state or status of a cell which utilizes the phase change of chalcogenide can change and vary depending on its past experiences (history) along with the environment thereof. An example is as follows: while setting a chalcogenide layer in the state that is full of amorphous portions—namely, in amorphous-rich state—in order to write data “0” (high resistance value state) and setting the chalcogenide layer in a crystalline part-rich state in order to write data “1” (low resistance value state), such cell's initial state is different depending on its history and position.
The cell's state change will be explained using
Although there are the above-stated resistance value variations, when looking at a single cell, the resistance value of data “0” which was set in the amorphous state is higher than that of data “1” as set in the polycrystalline state irrespective of the environment and status thereof. Accordingly, when taking a look at a limited range of a less number of cells, a gap in which no resistance values overlap each other takes place between a high resistance value distribution of “0” data cell and a low resistance value distribution of “1” data cell, as shown in
However, even if the resistance value of “1” data of a certain cell is always lower than that of “0” data, it will possibly happen that the setting of the reference value Rref is hardly achievable in cases where the cells used increase in number such as in three-dimensional cell arrays with the history and environment of each cell being significantly different within a cell array. This can be said because if the cell number increases then the gap shown in
Consequently in this embodiment, a scheme is used which enables well stabilized data readout without having to use any reference values. This point will be explained in detail below. Even in the situation with an increased cell resistance value variation or irregularity as shown in
Although a practically implemented data write/read circuit will be explained below, in the following embodiments, an explanation will be given of a three-dimensional cell array having four-layered cell arrays MA0-MA3 shown in
In the example of
An explanation will next be given of a write circuit and a read circuit which are used when writing and reading complementary data into and from a cell pair by using the three-dimensional cell array in the way stated above.
The read circuit 60 is configured from a sense amplifier circuit SA1 which detects a difference between cell currents flowing in the bit lines BL0 n, BL1 n of the paired cells or pair cells C-cell0, T-cell0 that share the word line WL0 m, and a sense amp circuit SA2 which detects in a similar way a difference between pair cell currents of C-cell1, T-cell flowing in the bit lines BL1 n, BL2 n that share the word line WL1 m. Connected to these sense amps SA are the bit lines BL0 n, BL1 n, BL2 n which are selected by the selector circuit 50 through signal lines BP0 m, BP1, BP2 n, respectively.
Practically the sense amp circuit SA is arranged as shown in
In this way, with the read circuit of this embodiment, let the bit lines that are connected to the complementary pair cells T-cell, C-cell be as inputs of the differential amplifier DA, wherein any fixed reference value is not used in any way. More specifically, convert the currents which flow in the pair cells respectively to voltages by use of the resistors; then, compare a difference of complementary data by the differential amp. With such an arrangement, it is possible to hold and read information with enhanced stability. Even where a large scaled three-dimensional cell array is used with increased variations in cell's resistance value distribution, it is possible to perform a well stabilized read operation because an appreciable difference between the high resistance value state and low resistance value state is obtainable between the neighboring pair cells as stated previously.
It should be noted that as shown in the example of
A principal concept of the write circuit 70 of this embodiment lies in that it performs a pulse-driven simultaneous writing operation with respect to a plurality of adjacent memory cells in the three-dimensional cell array. In practical use, possible combinations of at least two memory cells being subjected to such simultaneous writing are as follows. Here, the two memory cells being subject to simultaneous writing include a case of making a pair and another case of not doing so.
(1) Two upper and lower neighboring memory cells of two upper and lower neighboring cell arrays which share word lines,
(2) Two upper and lower neighboring memory cells of two upper and lower neighboring cell arrays which share bit lines, and
(3) Two neighboring memory cells within a single cell array which share a word line.
Practically the write circuit 70 of
The write pulse generator circuit 71 generates negative logic write pulses L0 n, L1 n, L2 n which are to be given to the bit lines BL0 n, BL1 n, BL2 n respectively and also positive logic write pulses H0 m, H1 m to be given to the word lines WL0 m, WL1 m respectively. Here, the negative logic write pulse L0 n being given to the bit line BL0 n of the lowermost layer cell array is used as a reference pulse. Specifically, the negative logic write pulse L0 n is supplied to the signal line BP0 n without passing through any voltage booster circuit and is supplied to the bit line BL0 n via the selector circuit 50. For the other positive logic write pulses H0 m, H1 m and negative logic write pulses L1 n, L2 n, the booster circuits 72 a, 72 b are provided in order to perform any required potential rise-up while giving a necessary delay thereto in relation to the negative logic write pulse L0 n for use as the reference.
Practically the relationship of inputs to the voltage booster circuits 72 a, 72 b and outputs of respective booster circuits 72 a, 72 b is as shown in
Practically, the positive/negative logic write pulse overlap and voltage boost operations are performed in order to determine the write energy being given to a cell(s) in accordance with the data being presently written. More specifically, in a “0” writing event, short-time overlapping of the positive and negative logic write pulses and boosting of either one of them are performed for causing the cell's chalcogenide to perform the phase change as has been explained in
An original pulse generation circuit 101 is the one that generates a pulse P0 with its pulse width T0; a delay circuit 102 is the circuit which delays this pulse P0 by about T0/2. Here, let the time T0 be a time which permits the chalcogenide to become in a polycrystalline state upon application of such time pulse thereto; let T0/2 have a length which causes it to be in an amorphous state.
A negative logic write pulse which was obtained by inverting an output pulse of the original pulse generator circuit 101 by an inverter 111 becomes the negative logic write pulse L0 n for use as the reference being given to the bit line BL0. In the following, the relationship of the pulses being given to the word line WL0 and bit line BL1 plus word line WL1 with respect to the negative logic write pulse for the bit line BL0 is realized by logical processing with logic signals Logic0-3 which are determined in accordance with write data. A set of AND gates 121, 122 is operatively responsive to Logic0 for selecting whether an output pulse of the pulse generator circuit 101 or a delay pulse due to the delay circuit 102. Outputs of these AND gates 121, 122 are taken out through an OR gate 112 to become the positive logic write pulse H0 m which is supplied to the word line WL0.
Similarly a set of AND gates 123, 124 is responsive to receipt of Logic1 for selecting whether an output pulse of the pulse generator circuit 101 or a delay pulse due to the delay circuit 102. Whereby the negative logic write pulse L1 n is obtained, which is given to the bit line BL1 via a NOR gate 113. A set of AND gates 125, 126 is responsive to Logic2 for selecting whether an output pulse of the pulse generator circuit 101 or a delay pulse due to the delay circuit 102, wherein these outputs are sent forth through an OR gate 114 to thereby obtain the positive logic write pulse H1 m which is given to the word line WL1. A set of AND gates 127, 128 is responsive to Logic3 for selecting whether an output pulse of the pulse generator circuit 101 or a delay pulse due to the delay circuit 102, wherein these outputs are sent forth through a NOR gate 115 to obtain the negative logic write pulse L2 n that is given to the bit line BL2.
Output signal waveforms of the pulse generator circuit 100 which are obtainable by all possible combinations of “0”s and “1”s of Logic0-3 are as shown in
It should be noted that in this invention, complementary data bits are to be written into the cells T-cell, C-cell which make a pair together. Accordingly, the actually used ones in the output signal waveforms of
As shown in
Negative logic pulses L1, L2 which enter the positive pulse booster circuits 72 b along with a positive logic pulse H are shown in
The positive and negative pulse booster circuits 72 b, 72 a each have capacitors C1, C2 which are used to potentially raise or boost the signal lines WPij, BPij through charge-pump operations, respectively. Provided at respective nodes N12, N22 of the capacitors C1, C2 on the signal line WPij, BPij sides are a reset-use NMOS transistor QN10 and a resetting PMOS transistor QP10 which are for holding these nodes at Vss, Vcc respectively in a nonselect state. When the positive logic write pulse H and negative logic write pulse L are generated, these resetting transistors QN10, QP10 are driven thereby to turn off, respectively.
Connected to the nodes N12, N22 are diodes D12, D22 which are used to charge the capacitors C1, C2 up to the level of the positive logic pulse H (for example, Vcc) and the level of negative logic pulse L (e.g. Vss) in a select state, respectively. The nodes N12, N22 are connected to the signal lines WPij, BPij through diodes D13, D23 for use as transfer elements, respectively. Diodes D11, D21 are connected to these signal lines WPij, BPij, which diodes are for giving thereto the positive logic pulse H and negative logic pulse L when selected. In the nonselect state, the other nodes N11, N21 of the capacitors C1, C2 are arranged to be held at Vss, Vcc by outputs of an AND gate 254 b and an OR gate 254 a, respectively.
In the positive pulse booster circuit 72 b, a pulse which is obtained by a delay circuit 255 b that slightly delays the positive logic pulse H enters at one input terminal of the AND gate 254 b; to the other input terminal, a detection result of overlap states of the positive logic pulse H and negative logic pulses L1, L2 which is obtained by an OR gate 251 b and a NOR gate 252 b is input through a delay circuit 253 b. In the negative pulse booster circuit 72 a, a pulse which is obtained by a delay circuit 255 a that slightly delays the negative logic pulse L enters to one input terminal of the OR gate 254 a; to the other input terminal, a detection result of overlap states of the negative logic pulse L and positive logic pulses H1, H2 which is obtained by an OR gate 251 a and NAND gate 252 a is input via a delay circuit 253 a. Set a delay time of the delay circuit 253 a, 253 b at about T/2 with respect to the width T of each write pulse.
Operations of the pulse booster circuits 72 a, 72 b that are arranged in this way will be explained using
As shown in
Next, in case the positive logic write pulse H is generated so that it is delayed relative to the negative logic write pulses L1 and L2 by half of their pulse width, i.e. T/2, a positive-directional potential raising operation of the positive logic write pulse H is carried out in the positive pulse booster circuit 72 b. More specifically, in the positive pulse booster circuit 72 b at this time, when the positive logic write pulse H becomes its high level, the capacitor C1 is charged up so that N12=Vcc and N11=Vss. And, with a delay of the delay time of the delay circuit 255 b, the output of AND gate 254 b becomes H, that is, N11=Vcc; thus, positive charge of the capacitor C1 is transferred through the diode D13 toward the signal line WPij. More specifically the positive logic write pulse H which is given via the diode D11 to the signal line WPij by a charge pump operation by the capacitor C1 and diodes D12, D13 is boosted to potentially increase in the positive direction. In other words, a discharge current that is determined by the capacitance value and charging voltage of the capacitor C1 is added to a write current being supplied to a selected cell through the diode D11. If the relationship between the positive logic write pulse H1 or H2 and the negative logic write pulse L is the same, then there is no such potential boost operation in the negative pulse booster circuit 72 a.
Next, in case the positive logic write pulse H is generated so that it is advanced relative to the negative logic write pulses L1 and L2 by half of their pulse width T/2, a negative-directional potential boost operation of the negative logic write pulse L is performed in the negative pulse booster circuit 72 a. More specifically at this time, in the negative pulse booster circuit 72 a, when the negative logic write pulse L becomes its low level, the capacitor C2 is charged up so that N22=Vss and N21=Vcc. And, with a delay of the delay time of the delay circuit 255 a, the output of OR gate 254 a becomes L, that is, N21=Vss; thus, negative charge of the capacitor C1 is transferred through the diode D23 to the signal line BPij. More specifically the negative logic write pulse L which is given via the diode D21 to the signal line BPij by a charge pump operation by the capacitor C2 and diodes D22, D23 is boosted in the negative direction. If the relationship between the positive logic write pulse H1 or H2 and the negative logic write pulse L is the same, then there is no such boost operation in the positive pulse booster circuit 72 b.
The pulse width T of the positive and negative logic write pulses H, L shown in
In the way stated above, it becomes possible for the write circuit 70 of this embodiment shown in
In the embodiments discussed up to here, a specific case has been explained where every couple of neighboring cells in the lamination direction of four-layer cell arrays constitute a pair cell in the way shown in
In the above-noted embodiment, four cells that are aligned or queued in the lamination direction make up two pair cells, which are subjected to writing simultaneously. In contrast, in the scheme of
In this way, during the simultaneous writing to the series-connected four cells in the lamination direction, waveform changes which are different between during “0” write and during “1” write are given to the pulse waveforms of the signal lines WP0 m, WP1 m as connected to word lines WL0, WL1 and of the signal lines BP0 n to BP2 n and BP0 n'-BP2 n′ as coupled to bit lines BL0-BL2 as shown in
In contrast thereto, another write method capable of greatly simplifying the write circuit will next be explained. When the complementary pair cell arranging method such as shown in
A positive logic write pulse for use as a reference is given to the signal line WP0 m which is coupled to the word line WL0 m. A negative logic write pulse which is obtained by applying appropriate delaying and pulse boosting processing to the reference positive logic write pulse in accordance with data is given to the signal lines BP0 n, BP0 n', BP1 n, BP1 n′ which are coupled to four bit lines BL0 n, BL0 n′ BL1 n, BL1 n′ that are to be selected simultaneously. 0s and 1s which are described atop a pulse waveform of the drawing are setup data of T-cell1, C-cell1, T-cell0, C-cell0 of
Regarding the upper-side neighboring cell arrays MA2, MA3 of the four layers of cell arrays, simultaneous writing may be performed to four cells of two pair cells while giving similar write pulses in a separate write cycle.
With the use of such writing scheme, the potentially raised data-matched pulse waveforms may be used only for the negative logic write pulse to be given to bit lines. Accordingly, the positive pulse booster circuits 72 b become unnecessary in the circuitry shown in
Similarly in the case of the pair-cell arranging method shown in
In this case also, the write circuit is permitted to include the negative pulse booster circuit alone, the input/output signal relationship of which is as shown in
Additionally in order to generate the input signals of
It can be said that the arrangement of the write pulse generator circuit 110 a of
As apparent from the foregoing, in order to read the data written into two pair cells which are set within the stacked cell arrays, if the bit lines that are coupled to these two pair cells are independent of each other, then let the sense amplifier circuits SA shown in
One time-division reading method is shown in
Although in the embodiments stated above Schottky diodes are used as the diodes making up the memory cells, it is also possible to use PN junction diodes as described previously. For example, a four-layer cell array structure using PN junction diodes is shown in
In the above-noted embodiment, the capacitors C1, C2 and diodes D11-D13, D21-D23 in addition to transistor circuitry are used for the write circuit as shown in
In the example of
It must be noted that in the cell array fabrication process as explained previously, after having formed the multilayer films of from a chalcogenide film up to a semiconductor film, such multilayer films are patterned to form the memory cells. However, when taking into consideration the fabrication process of peripheral circuitry including the write circuit shown in
With the use of the structure such as shown in
In accordance with this invention, it is possible to provide a phase change memory device capable of performing data read/write operations with large margins while using three-dimensional cell array arrangements.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5237529||Feb 1, 1991||Aug 17, 1993||Richard Spitzer||Microstructure array and activation system therefor|
|US5321286 *||Nov 19, 1992||Jun 14, 1994||Nec Corporation||Non-volatile semiconductor memory device having thin film memory transistors stacked over associated selecting transistors|
|US5406509||Apr 12, 1993||Apr 11, 1995||Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.||Electrically erasable, directly overwritable, multibit single cell memory elements and arrays fabricated therefrom|
|US5699293||Oct 9, 1996||Dec 16, 1997||Motorola||Method of operating a random access memory device having a plurality of pairs of memory cells as the memory device|
|US5818749||Feb 24, 1997||Oct 6, 1998||Micron Technology, Inc.||Integrated circuit memory device|
|US5969380||Jun 7, 1996||Oct 19, 1999||Micron Technology, Inc.||Three dimensional ferroelectric memory|
|US6034882||Nov 16, 1998||Mar 7, 2000||Matrix Semiconductor, Inc.||Vertically stacked field programmable nonvolatile memory and method of fabrication|
|US6133085||Jul 2, 1999||Oct 17, 2000||Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation||Method for making a DRAM capacitor using a rotated photolithography mask|
|US6141241||Apr 12, 1999||Oct 31, 2000||Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.||Universal memory element with systems employing same and apparatus and method for reading, writing and programming same|
|US6191972||May 1, 2000||Feb 20, 2001||Nec Corporation||Magnetic random access memory circuit|
|US6191989||Mar 7, 2000||Feb 20, 2001||International Business Machines Corporation||Current sensing amplifier|
|US6225933 *||Sep 29, 2000||May 1, 2001||Motorola, Inc.||Digital to analog converter using magnetoresistive memory technology|
|US6339544||Sep 29, 2000||Jan 15, 2002||Intel Corporation||Method to enhance performance of thermal resistor device|
|US6392913||Apr 14, 2000||May 21, 2002||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method of forming a polysilicon diode and devices incorporating such diode|
|US6501111||Jun 30, 2000||Dec 31, 2002||Intel Corporation||Three-dimensional (3D) programmable device|
|US6545898||Jun 29, 2001||Apr 8, 2003||Silicon Valley Bank||Method and apparatus for writing memory arrays using external source of high programming voltage|
|US6549447||Oct 31, 2001||Apr 15, 2003||Peter Fricke||Memory cell structure|
|US6594171||Mar 7, 2002||Jul 15, 2003||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Memory systems and methods of making the same|
|US6611455||Apr 11, 2002||Aug 26, 2003||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Magnetic memory|
|US6754097||Sep 3, 2002||Jun 22, 2004||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Read operations on multi-bit memory cells in resistive cross point arrays|
|US6767816 *||Sep 24, 2002||Jul 27, 2004||Matrix Semiconductor, Inc.||Method for making a three-dimensional memory array incorporating serial chain diode stack|
|US6778421||Mar 14, 2002||Aug 17, 2004||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, Lp.||Memory device array having a pair of magnetic bits sharing a common conductor line|
|US6781874||Jun 21, 2002||Aug 24, 2004||Renesas Technology Corp.||Thin film magnetic memory device including memory cells having a magnetic tunnel junction|
|US6791859||Nov 20, 2001||Sep 14, 2004||Micron Technology, Inc.||Complementary bit PCRAM sense amplifier and method of operation|
|US6813182||May 31, 2002||Nov 2, 2004||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Diode-and-fuse memory elements for a write-once memory comprising an anisotropic semiconductor sheet|
|US6822897||Sep 12, 2002||Nov 23, 2004||Renesas Technology Corp.||Thin film magnetic memory device selecting access to a memory cell by a transistor of a small gate capacitance|
|US6822903 *||Mar 31, 2003||Nov 23, 2004||Matrix Semiconductor, Inc.||Apparatus and method for disturb-free programming of passive element memory cells|
|US6839260 *||Jan 18, 2001||Jan 4, 2005||Hitachi, Ltd.||Semiconductor device having different types of memory cell arrays stacked in a vertical direction|
|US6879508||Oct 24, 2003||Apr 12, 2005||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Memory device array having a pair of magnetic bits sharing a common conductor line|
|US6912152 *||Feb 21, 2003||Jun 28, 2005||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Magnetic random access memory|
|US6963504 *||Nov 19, 2004||Nov 8, 2005||Matrix Semiconductor, Inc.||Apparatus and method for disturb-free programming of passive element memory cells|
|US7208751 *||Mar 18, 2003||Apr 24, 2007||Renesas Technology Corp.||Non-volatile semiconductor memory device allowing shrinking of memory cell|
|US7209380 *||Mar 12, 2004||Apr 24, 2007||Tdk Corporation||Magnetic memory device and method of reading the same|
|US7335906||Apr 3, 2003||Feb 26, 2008||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Phase change memory device|
|US7394680||Jun 12, 2007||Jul 1, 2008||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Resistance change memory device having a variable resistance element with a recording layer electrode served as a cation source in a write or erase mode|
|US7400522||Jun 12, 2007||Jul 15, 2008||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Resistance change memory device having a variable resistance element formed of a first and second composite compound for storing a cation|
|US7459715||Jun 11, 2007||Dec 2, 2008||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Resistance change memory device|
|US7459716||Jun 11, 2007||Dec 2, 2008||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Resistance change memory device|
|US7508695 *||Feb 22, 2007||Mar 24, 2009||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||Nonvolatile semiconductor memory device and data writing method|
|US7535748||Oct 2, 2007||May 19, 2009||Panasonic Corporation||Semiconductor memory device|
|US7606059||Mar 18, 2003||Oct 20, 2009||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Three-dimensional programmable resistance memory device with a read/write circuit stacked under a memory cell array|
|US7706167||Jun 12, 2007||Apr 27, 2010||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Resistance change memory device|
|US20020136047||Jun 29, 2001||Sep 26, 2002||Scheuerlein Roy E.||Method and apparatus for biasing selected and unselected array lines when writing a memory array|
|US20040184331||Sep 13, 2002||Sep 23, 2004||Satoru Hanzawa||Storage device|
|JP2002260377A||Title not available|
|JP2002530850A||Title not available|
|JP2002541613A||Title not available|
|WO2000030118A1||Apr 29, 1999||May 25, 2000||Matrix Semiconductor, Inc.||Vertically stacked field programmable nonvolatile memory and method of fabrication|
|WO2000062301A1||Apr 12, 2000||Oct 19, 2000||Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.||Universal memory element with systems employing same and apparatus and method for reading, writing and programming same|
|WO2003065377A1||Sep 13, 2002||Aug 7, 2003||Hitachi, Ltd.||Storage device|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8487450||May 1, 2007||Jul 16, 2013||Micron Technology, Inc.||Semiconductor constructions comprising vertically-stacked memory units that include diodes utilizing at least two different dielectric materials, and electronic systems|
|US8502291||Apr 20, 2011||Aug 6, 2013||Micron Technology, Inc.||Memory cells, memory cell constructions, and memory cell programming methods|
|US8559211 *||Dec 28, 2011||Oct 15, 2013||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Phase change memory device|
|US8648467 *||Apr 27, 2012||Feb 11, 2014||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Semiconductor memory device and method of manufacturing the same|
|US8724393 *||Apr 27, 2012||May 13, 2014||Macronix International Co., Ltd.||Thermally assisted flash memory with diode strapping|
|US8760952 *||Dec 17, 2010||Jun 24, 2014||Stmicroelectronics, Inc.||Overlapping interconnect signal lines for reducing capacitive coupling effects|
|US8867267||Nov 9, 2011||Oct 21, 2014||Micron Technology, Inc.||Memory devices, memory device constructions, constructions, memory device forming methods, current conducting devices, and memory cell programming methods|
|US8871574||Aug 5, 2013||Oct 28, 2014||Micron Technology, Inc.||Memory cells, memory cell constructions, and memory cell programming methods|
|US8982605 *||Sep 23, 2014||Mar 17, 2015||SK Hynix Inc.||Phase change memory device having multi-level and method of driving the same|
|US8987702||Feb 29, 2008||Mar 24, 2015||Micron Technology, Inc.||Selectively conducting devices, diode constructions, constructions, and diode forming methods|
|US9001605||May 27, 2014||Apr 7, 2015||Stmicroelectronics, Inc.||Method of overlapping interconnect signal lines for reducing capacitive coupling effects|
|US9159375||Feb 20, 2015||Oct 13, 2015||Micron Technology, Inc.||Selectively conducting devices, diode constructions, methods of forming diodes and methods of current modulation|
|US9214236||May 12, 2014||Dec 15, 2015||Macronix International Co., Ltd.||Thermally assisted flash memory with diode strapping|
|US20080273363 *||May 1, 2007||Nov 6, 2008||Chandra Mouli||Semiconductor Constructions, Electronic Systems, And Methods of Forming Cross-Point Memory Arrays|
|US20110194336 *||Aug 11, 2011||Chandra Mouli||Memory Cells, Memory Cell Constructions, and Memory Cell Programming Methods|
|US20120099370 *||Dec 28, 2011||Apr 26, 2012||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Phase change memory device|
|US20120155195 *||Dec 17, 2010||Jun 21, 2012||Stmicroelectronics Inc.||Overlapping interconnect signal lines|
|US20120281478 *||Apr 27, 2012||Nov 8, 2012||Macronix International Co., Ltd.||Thermally assisted flash memory with diode strapping|
|US20120299063 *||Nov 29, 2012||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Semiconductor memory device and method of manufacturing the same|
|US20150009752 *||Sep 23, 2014||Jan 8, 2015||SK Hynix Inc.||Phase change memory device having multi-level and method of driving the same|
|U.S. Classification||365/148, 365/171, 365/100, 365/175, 365/105, 365/52, 365/158, 365/72|
|International Classification||G11C7/00, G11C16/02, H01L27/24|
|Cooperative Classification||H01L45/1233, H01L27/2409, H01L45/06, H01L45/1675, H01L27/2481, G11C2213/71, G11C13/0028, G11C13/0004, G11C8/08, G11C2013/009, G11C13/0069, G11C13/0007, G11C13/004, G11C11/36, G11C2013/0042, G11C2213/31, G11C2213/72|
|European Classification||G11C13/00R3, G11C13/00R25R, G11C13/00R25W, G11C13/00R25A4, G11C11/36, G11C8/08, H01L27/24, G11C13/00R1|