|Publication number||US8125332 B2|
|Application number||US 12/276,246|
|Publication date||Feb 28, 2012|
|Filing date||Nov 21, 2008|
|Priority date||Nov 21, 2008|
|Also published as||CA2744376A1, US20100127919, WO2010059392A1|
|Publication number||12276246, 276246, US 8125332 B2, US 8125332B2, US-B2-8125332, US8125332 B2, US8125332B2|
|Inventors||David Curran, Rand A. Fanshier, Jesse Demmel|
|Original Assignee||Zoombak, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (20), Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (14), Classifications (10), Legal Events (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The presently disclosed subject matter relates generally to a method and system for locating wireless devices such as those used in analog or digital cellular systems, personal communications systems (PCS), enhanced specialized mobile radios (ESMRs), and other types of wireless communications systems. More particularly, but not exclusively, the present disclosure relates to a method for increasing the probability of detection of movement into or out of a geographically defined area while decreasing the probability of false positives.
Since the deployment of the United States Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) in 1984 and the 2000 Presidential Order disabling Selective Availability for civilian uses, precise location has been available to those equipped with GPS receivers.
The location services marketplace includes individual consumers who want to track their family members, pets, or physical assets; business owners who want to track their employees or physical assets; caretakers of Alzheimer's patients; owners of vehicles at risk of theft; and the like. Any mobile entity capable of carrying a locator device, incorporating the locator device circuitry or having the capability to attach the locator device can be situated inside or outside a geo-fence and the user of the locator device may be notified upon the device's exit or entry of a pre-provisioned 2-dimensional geographic zone area or geo-fence.
A geo-fence is a horizontal boundary on the ground based upon a closed polygon, for example a circular radius around a fixed geographic point or a multi-point polygon encompassing an area-of-interest and/or excluding areas such as roadways or properties. For the simple circle boundary, the Haversine formula is used in calculating the “great circle” distance from the locator to the boundary. The Haversine formula is an equation for calculating the great circle distances between two points on a sphere using their longitudes and latitudes. For the polygon boundary, defined as a set of up to n points, there are an equal number of arc segments. After the segment point closest to the locator is selected, the Haversine formula is applied.
A locator geo-fence consists of a boundary and an attribute to indicate when a notification will be sent—entry, exit, or both. One approach is to make use of the emerging Assisted GPS (AGPS) technology to obtain a highly reliable fast location determination that includes a trustworthy error ellipse (for convenience, of equal major and minor axes). Treating the location as a circular field of radius r rather than just a point, geo-fence factors have been applied to arrive at an acceptable balance of certainty and sensitivity for notifying subscribers that their locator has entered or exited a zone.
Practical experience in the limitations of the GPS solution reveals that an approach conforming to actual GPS behavior works much better than relying on the manufacturer specification sheets. For example, when a GPS chipset supplier specifies its accuracy, it is typically specifying open sky conditions and 95% confidence, meaning that with no obstructions 5% of locations will fall outside that error radius, and no promise of any absolute maximum error. Adding obstructions drops the confidence to 2-sigma (86.5%) or less. Without any means of minimizing false positives, false notifications may occur 13.5% or more of the time.
In various embodiments, a method and system are disclosed for locating wireless devices and determining whether a device has entered or exited a pre-provisioned 2-dimensional or 3-D dimensional geographic zone and alerting the mobile device user or a network monitor when the mobile device has entered or exited the zone. In an embodiment, the locator system may include a wireless device attached to an object that is to be located. The device may further include a GPS receiver and an internal antenna subsystem, a wireless data transceiver and an internal antenna subsystem, and application software using a false alarm minimization algorithm. The false alarm minimization algorithm minimizes the probability of false zone entry and exit zone area alerts to wireless tracking device users for device entry or exit of a user-provisioned 2-dimensional geographic zone area using position fix error ellipse characteristics, geographic zone area polygon characteristics, and position fix retries.
In addition to the foregoing, other aspects are described herein. It can be appreciated by one of skill in the art that one or more various aspects of the disclosure may include but are not limited to circuitry and/or programming for effecting the herein-referenced aspects of the present disclosure; the circuitry and/or programming can be virtually any combination of hardware, software, and/or firmware configured to effect the herein-referenced aspects depending upon the design choices of the system designer.
The foregoing is a summary and thus contains, by necessity, simplifications, generalizations and omissions of detail. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the summary is illustrative only and is not intended to be in any way limiting.
The foregoing summary as well as the following detailed description are better understood when read in conjunction with the appended drawings.
The methods and systems disclosed herein apply to generic radio communication networks and generic wireless location systems and techniques. The Global Positioning System (GPS) model discussed herein is an exemplary but not exclusive environment in which the present disclosure may be used
Furthermore, the term circuitry used through the disclosure can include specialized hardware components such as graphics processors, and audio codecs for example. In the same or other embodiments circuitry can include microprocessors configured to perform function(s) by firmware or switches. In the same or other example embodiments circuitry can include one or more general purpose processing units and/or multi-core processing units, etc., that can be configured when software instructions that embody logic operable to perform function(s) are loaded into memory, e.g., RAM and/or virtual memory. In example embodiments where circuitry includes a combination of hardware and software, an implementer may write source code embodying logic and the source code can be compiled into machine readable code that can be processed by the general purpose processing unit(s). Since one skilled in the art can appreciate that the state of the art has evolved to a point where there is little difference between hardware, software, or a combination of hardware/software, the selection of hardware versus software to effectuate specific functions is a design choice left to an implementer. More specifically, one of skill in the art can appreciate that a software process can be transformed into an equivalent hardware structure, and a hardware structure can itself be transformed into an equivalent software process. Thus, the selection of a hardware implementation versus a software implementation is one of design choice and left to the implementer.
While global positioning system coordinates has been used for location and even geo-fencing applications since its inception in 1980, intelligent use and reliance on the GPS position error ellipse may enable vastly smaller geo-fence areas. Whereas typical industry settings for a geo-fence are often in gross increments of a half-mile in order to prevent false notifications, locators using the algorithm as described herein may monitor circular zones 50 meters, or less, in radius. In addition, the device platform services and application/algorithm software scheduling algorithm may allow for optimal power management to maximize battery life. Additionally geo-fences with an altitude component (3-dimensional) become practical.
The present disclosure addresses the empirical observation that GPS typically returns mostly inaccurate positions near the ground by delaying use of the GPS data until the accuracy is sufficient, tuning geo-fence factors based on accuracy and geo-fence size, and introducing a “vote of two” to prevent the wildest GPS jumps from turning into false notifications for the subscriber. Geo-fence factors that may be tuned may comprise location uncertainty, geofence radius, and distance from current location point to geo-fence boundary point.
In an embodiment, a voting mechanism comprising a vote of two may be implemented as follows. If a measured GPS location fix is determined to have crossed the geo-fence boundary, a second GPS location fix is immediately measured and if the second GPS location fix is also determined to have crossed the geo-fence boundary, the probability or confidence that the device has crossed the geo-fence boundary may be considered higher than the probability or confidence using only a single GPS location fix. The algorithm logic may then determine that the device has crossed the geo-fence boundary and an alert may be sent to the user. If the second fix determines that the device has not crossed the geo-fence boundary, then an alert will not be sent to the user and the algorithm may continue to the next step.
Location determination contains an inherent amount of uncertainty. However, geo-fencing requires as much precision as possible in order to prevent false positives and thus a poor user experience. The largest area of risk is when the device is close to or crossing the geo-fence boundary. In order to mitigate that risk, in one embodiment the algorithm includes several configurable parameters that are used to determine the confidence regarding crossing a boundary.
In one embodiment, the confidence threshold is defined as a level of confidence that the device has crossed the geo-fence boundary. This value is a factor expressed in terms of distance from the edge of the geo-fence and reported location uncertainty. Calculation of a level of confidence is by the formula:
As known to those skilled in the art, the Haversine formula is an equation for calculating the great-circle distance between two points on a sphere from their longitudes and latitudes. One expression of the Haversine formula may be given as:
c=2*a tan 2(√a, √(1−a))
The calculated confidence factor can be tiered into four distinct levels:
The wireless data communications uplink 104 and downlink 105 can be used for the downloading of assistance data from either the wireless communications network 106 or from the location server 111 via the intermediate data links 116, 109, and 107, packet network 108, and gateway 110. Data routing may be dependent on the capabilities of the wireless communications network 106.
The wireless communications network 106 downlink signal 105 may also be used to enable mobile-based location techniques such as cell-ID, Advanced Forward Link Trilateration (AFLT) or Enhanced Cell ID (ECID) where broadcast information, the signal timing and/or power is used to calculate a position estimate.
The wireless location device 101 radio uplink transmissions 105 may be used by network-based wireless location system(s) for localization when the GNSS signals 103 are blocked. The wireless device 101 radio uplink transmissions 105 may also be used as part of a hybrid GNSS position estimate calculation.
The packet network 108 as depicted may be a generic digital packet network with transmission and routing facilities. Depending on the implementation with the wireless operator, the packet network 108 may be either private or public.
The public packet network 115, as depicted, may be a generic digital packet network with transmission and routing facilities. The Internet is the prime example of this type of packet network.
The Location Device Management Network 123 may consist of functional software entities running on generic computer processing platforms. Although shown in this example as residents of a network cluster, the various entities within the Location Device Management Network 123 may reside on one or multiple servers. The internal digital interconnections 116, 117, and 118 within the Location Device Management Network 123 may be implemented as local area connections, wide area connections or as virtual connections within a computing platform. The external digital connections 109, 119, and 120 associated with the Location Device Management Network 123 are assumed by this model as implemented using industry defined packet WAN connections.
The Gateway 110 may be a selective firewall and communications router to protect and insulate the Location Device Management Network 123 from external threats. The Gateway 110, under direction from the Device Management Server 112, may also offer authentication and access control services. The Device Management Server 112 may be the administrative, accounting, and logistical control entity for the Location Device Management Network 123 and wireless location devices 101.
The Email Server 113 and WWW portal 114 are examples of commonly available applications. The Email Server 113 or the WWW portal 114 may be used to communicate with landside (not shown) terminals or mobile terminal 122 when location events such as arrival, departures, border crossings or periodic location verifications occur. The mobile terminal 122 may support a radio link 121 with the wireless communications network 106 which in turn may connect to the Public Packet Network 115.
The wireless location device 101 may be a single purpose device attached to an object that is to be located or incorporated into another wireless device. In either case, and referring to
Internal data links 211 may provide interconnectivity between the various subsystems of the wireless location device 101. Internal data buses 212 may be used to connect the controller 204 and thus the Device Platform Services application 205 application to the local volatile memory 207 and non-volatile memory storage 206.
The Location Determination Subsystem 208 may include the GNSS receiver and associated antenna.
The Wireless Communications Subsystem 209 may provide interfaces to the radio communications uplink 104 and downlink 105. The Subscriber Information Module 210 (also known as a removable User Information Module (R-UIM) or Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM)) is an industry standard module containing subscription information needed to enable the Wireless Communications Systems 209 to access the Wireless Communications Network 106.
If the Location Determination Subsystem 208 is implemented, the Wireless Communications Subsystem 209 and the Controller 204 may be used to implement mobile-based location techniques.
When the Device Platform Services software 205 completes a wireless data session, the application may send a command to the Wireless Communications Subsystem 209 to detach the wireless data connection to the network and transition to a low-power idle mode. When the device application software completes a location fix, the application may send a command to the Location Determination Receiver Subsystem 208 (e.g. the GPS module) to power down the module, thus eliminating power consumption by the Location Determination Receiver Subsystem 208 GPS module until the next location fix is requested by the application. When the device application software completes an application task, the application may send a command to the CPU module 204 to start the wakeup timer and transition the CPU module 204 to low-power sleep mode.
A zone alert schedule may specify the daily time intervals that the device may periodically determine a location (e.g. GPS position) fix and send an alert to a user if the device enters or exits the pre-defined geofence boundary or zone. Referring to
Referring again to
Exiting the Geofence
Referring now to
A confidence factor of Level 1 may be defined as the area within an annulus between the described level 0 circle 505 and a second circle 506 around the central point 501 with a radius 503. A confidence factor of Level 2 may be defined as the area within an annulus between the described level 1 circle 506 and a second circle 508 around the central point 501 with a radius 504. A confidence factor of Level 3 is assigned to all areas 509 around the central point 501 with a radius 500 and outside the Level 0, Level 1, and Level 2 areas.
A confidence factor of Level 0 may be defined as an area within a circle 515 around the central point 511 with a radius 520. A confidence factor of Level 1 may be defined as the area within an annulus between the described level 0 circle 515 and a second circle 516 around the central point 511 with a radius 513. A confidence factor of Level 2 has been defined as the area within an annulus between the described level 1 circle 516 and a second circle 518 around the central point 511 with a radius 514. A confidence factor of Level 3 519 around the central point 511 with a radius 521 may be assigned to all areas outside the Level 0, Level 1, and Level 2 areas.
Entering the Geo-Fence
Referring now to
Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the methods and systems disclosed herein may be applied to any geo-fenced area represented by any number of shapes and sizes. Shapes that may be approximated by a circle may efficiently be represented by determining a center of mass and a best fit circle. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed methods may be applied to a geo-fenced area of any shape and size and an area of uncertainty of any shape and size. For example, a geo-fenced area may be rectangular while the area of uncertainty may be circular. In such a case the confidence levels may be determined as a function of the boundary of the rectangle and the circular area of uncertainty.
The following are a series of flowcharts depicting implementations of processes.
Turning now to
The uncertainty threshold is expressed in terms of a percentage with a default value of 99%. The uncertainty threshold is exceeded if the returned uncertainty is equal to or greater than the geo-fence radius. If the uncertainty threshold is exceeded in process 612, the Application will log the error in process 613 and reset the polling interval in process 614. If the location uncertainty threshold is not exceeded, the polling interval is reset in process 614. If the polling interval timer expires, the process turns to process 608 to collect a new location estimate. If the polling interval has not expired wait for timer to expire and go to step 601. If after performing the validation check in process 611 the validation count is greater than 0, the process turns to process 617 and the Application decrements the validation count by 1 and stores the new validation count value. The process then turns to process 602, where the Application requests another position fix from the device and uses this position fix to determine the new state.
Turning now to
Turning now to
If notification is not required, operation turns to process 621 where the level 2 validation counter is reset. In process 614 the polling interval is set. Next, in process 615 it is determined whether the next polling interval timer has expired. If the next polling interval has not expired, the Application turns to process 616 and goes to sleep, waiting for the next polling interval timer to expire whereupon operation will turn to process 601. If the next polling interval has expired, the Application turns to process 608 to collect a location estimate.
If notification is required, operation turns to process 619 to check the position retry counter value. If the position retry counter value is equal to 0, the new state is sent to the server so that the server can send an “entry” or “exit” notification alert to the user via an SMS and/or Email delivery mechanism. If the position retry counter value is greater than 0, then operation turns to process 628 where the position retry counter is stored. In process 602, the Application requests and receives a new position fix. If there is an error in obtaining the position fix, operation turns to process 6219 If a successful position fix is returned, the Application goes to sleep and waits for the next sleep timer to expire to wake up the Application.
Turning now to
Operation then turns to process 621 and the level 2 validation counter is reset. In process 610 the level 3 position fix retry counter is reset. Next, operation turns to process 615 where it is determined whether the next polling interval timer has expired. If the next polling interval has not expired, the Application turns to process 616, goes to sleep, and waits for the next polling interval timer to expire whereupon operation will turn to process 601. If the next polling interval has expired, the Application turns to process 608 to collect a location estimate.
The foregoing detailed description has set forth various embodiments of the systems and/or processes via examples and/or operational diagrams. Insofar as such block diagrams, and/or examples contain one or more functions and/or operations, it will be understood by those within the art that each function and/or operation within such block diagrams, or examples can be implemented, individually and/or collectively, by a wide range of hardware, software, firmware, or virtually any combination thereof.
The scope of the present disclosure is not limited to the presently disclosed embodiments. For example, the foregoing disclosure of a mobile locator device, landside services network, and geo-fencing algorithm are merely exemplary and should not be construed so as to limit the scope of the following claims. In many cases, the particular implementation (i.e., the functional elements) described herein is merely a designer's preference. While particular aspects of the present subject matter described herein have been shown and described, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that, based upon the teachings herein, changes and modifications may be made without departing from the subject matter described herein and its broader aspects and, therefore, the appended claims are to encompass within their scope all such changes and modifications as are within the true spirit and scope of the subject matter described herein.
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|U.S. Classification||340/539.13, 340/572.1, 340/988, 455/456.1, 342/357.22|
|Cooperative Classification||H04W4/021, G01S19/40, G01S19/34|
|Feb 20, 2009||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ZOOMBAK LLC, PENNSYLVANIA
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Owner name: FREEUS, LLC, UTAH
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