|Publication number||US8145684 B2|
|Application number||US 11/946,172|
|Publication date||Mar 27, 2012|
|Priority date||Nov 28, 2007|
|Also published as||US20090138431|
|Publication number||11946172, 946172, US 8145684 B2, US 8145684B2, US-B2-8145684, US8145684 B2, US8145684B2|
|Inventors||Ullas B. Nambiar, Biplav Srivastava|
|Original Assignee||International Business Machines Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (62), Non-Patent Citations (18), Classifications (6), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present application is related to a commonly assigned U.S. application entitled “Method For Assembly Of Personalized Enterprise Information Integrators Over Conjunctive Queries,” U.S. Ser. No. 11/946,130, filed on Nov. 28, 2007, the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.
The present invention relates to the electrical, electronic and computer arts, and, more particularly, to enterprise information integration (EII) systems and the like.
Current EII systems are generally aimed at scenarios with a large user base. These systems are often complex, and may require manual reconciliation of schemas. With current systems, the large demand typically justifies the relatively large costs involved. End-users of current systems usually expect precise answers for their queries. The SEMEX System, as discussed in X. Dong and A. Halevy, A Platform for Personal Information Management and Integration, CIDR 2005, offers users a flexible platform for personal information management by creating associations between data items on the users' desktop. However, SEMEX can only support building of integration systems for sources residing on the user's workstation. This implicitly makes the user “an expert” and also the “admin” for all the sources to be integrated. The solution is not appropriate when the user wants to combine sources operated by other users and accessible remotely.
The references (i) W. Shen, P. DeRose, L. Vu, A, Doan, R. Ramakrishnan, Source-aware Entity Matching: A Compositional Approach, ICDE 2007, and (ii) M. Sayyadian, H. LeKhac, A. Doan, L. Gravano, Efficient Keyword Search across Heterogeneous Relational Databases, ICDE 2007 support relational databases and do not provide support for quickly setting up a personalized mediator over autonomous sources.
Principles of the present invention provide techniques for assembly of personalized enterprise information integrators over conjunctive queries. In one aspect, an exemplary method (which can be computer implemented) for assembly of personalized enterprise information integrators over conjunctive queries, includes the steps of registering a plurality of sources; constructing a plurality of schemas based on the plurality of sources; and obtaining a desired output as a conjunctive query. The method further includes providing a list of potential connections between at least selected ones of the sources; and developing a plurality of join plans based on the connections.
One or more embodiments of the invention or elements thereof can be implemented in the form of a computer product including a computer usable medium with computer usable program code for performing the method steps indicated. Furthermore, one or more embodiments of the invention or elements thereof can be implemented in the form of an apparatus including a memory and at least one processor that is coupled to the memory and operative to perform exemplary method steps. Yet further, in another aspect, one or more embodiments of the invention or elements thereof can be implemented in the form of means for carrying out one or more of the method steps described herein; the means can include hardware module(s), software module(s), or a combination of hardware and software modules. As used herein, “facilitating” an action includes performing the action, making the action easier, helping to carry the action out, or causing the action to be performed. Thus, by way of example and not limitation, instructions executing on one processor might facilitate an action carried out by instructions executing on a remote processor, by sending appropriate data or commands to cause or aid the action to be performed.
One or more embodiments of the invention may offer one or more technical benefits; for example, an infrastructure that proactively helps an enterprise user in assembling an information integration system for answering queries that only the user may want to ask. One or more embodiments of the invention can be used in building and updating models of shared understanding, called Ontologies, as the information technology (IT) system evolves with time. One or more embodiments of the invention can also be used to detect emergent behavior in IT systems, and this also leads to better intelligence for enterprises.
These and other features, aspects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent front the following detailed description of illustrative embodiments thereof, which is to be read in connection with the accompanying drawings.
On-the-fly information integration refers to lightweight data management tasks that require combining information from multiple sources to achieve a task. One or more embodiments of the invention enable the non-technical users in an enterprise to easily integrate diverse sources, in some instances, even for transient tasks. Given a high level information need—specified as a conjunctive query suggesting a “desired output,” one or more embodiments of the invention help the user in quickly identifying the sources in the enterprise that can together answer the query. Further, one or more instances of the invention will help the user by suggesting possible associations between the various chosen datasets, and will enable users to easily incorporate new data sources into the database using an inventive source registration step, discussed below. One or more aspects of the invention also help in priming up the dataset for integration with other (tobe) registered sources. Thus, various instances or aspects of the invention enable a user to quickly build an integrator to find answers to (often personal) information needs from enterprise-wide data sources.
One or more embodiments of the invention provide a novel framework for building personalized mediation systems for answering conjunctive queries using enterprise-wide sources and services. Instances of the inventive domain-independent framework support publishing Source Information (data and services) without knowing the complete global model, e.g., schema models. A “desired output” model is then accepted and an integration scheme is suggested. Techniques are provided to recommend mapping between source schema and global schema to publisher. Additional techniques provide easy information extraction from the integration scheme, support keyword searches over the personalized integration scheme, provide ranked results and explanations, and/or automatically gather cost-metrics and performance statistics.
In another aspect, a domain independent method is provided for mapping data sources that have been registered by different users, without the presence of a single global schema. The mappings may be identified, for example, using syntactic matching techniques or derived from past linkage models in turn derived from integration systems built by other users. Once the mappings are approved by the user, one or more embodiments of the invention will then suggest various possible plans for combining the information from the sources along with a cost based ranking of such plans. The user can pick an appropriate plan, and preferably, the best plan, to set up the personalized integration system and then issue conjunctive queries over the system. One or more inventive techniques can be easily extended to support a variety of querying formats and languages, including keyword search and support for ranked answers for queries issued by the users.
Aspects of the invention will be illustrated using a non-limiting example. Consider a mid-level Project Manager who is interested in identifying the average cost of setting up a new 10 member team for developing a custom software application. Also, he or she would like to identify potential team members and their availability. It will be appreciated that this example is one which addresses satisfaction of an immediate need, of interest to a single user or a very small subset of users. The user may well be ready to trade completeness for speed and lower cost. With reference to
The skilled artisan is familiar with the basics of databases. A database is a repository of data whose structure is explicitly defined in a standardized representation called a schema. All data instances in the database would conform to the defined schema of the database. Data can be stored outside databases also, like on a file system. In this case, the structure is unknown up-front, and such data is called unstructured data. Data can be also represented in semi-structured format like extensible mark-up language (XML) where its structure is not restricted up-front but can be automatically extracted out by the syntax in which the data is stored. One or more embodiments of the invention address data in one, some, and/or all of the three forms.
In terms of constraints, there will likely be many sources with varying schemas. The need being immediate, and not generic enough, makes it infeasible to build a system to integrate the sources from scratch. Even assuming the sources have easily reconcilable schema, the project manager may not have time and the necessary expertise to integrate the sources. Schema building, based on registration suggestions and content, is shown at 210, is discussed in greater detail below.
It should be noted that information sources may be partially or completely autonomous. The number of sources is typically in the hundreds. There may be structured sources, e.g., relational databases (used by EII systems); semi-structured sources, e.g. spreadsheets, emails, web pages, web logs (“blogs”), and the like; and unstructured sources, e.g. reports, publications, manuals and so on. The source schema and content may change, and sources may enter and/or leave the integration environment
Attention should now be given to
One exemplary inventive approach to iteratively building a “Desired Output” based personalized enterprise information integrator will now be set forth. The user 460 provides a “desired output” to the system in the form of a “conjunctive query”. For illustrative purposes, the exemplary embodiment employs a simple syntax for such a query, like the widely accepted SQL. Given the high level goal, potential sources that can be used to answer such a query are identified. The user 460 can optionally add and/or remove sources to the identified list. Once the sources are accepted by the user, using schema matching techniques along with information from the plan libraries, a list of potential connections (joins) between the sources is provided. The user can filter out the connections if need be and then proceed towards a join plan creation at step 520. The system can then automatically generate various join plans and use statistical information about the sources to provide cost metrics for each such plan. The user 460 can pick the best plan as per his understanding which will then be registered as the schema for the user's personalized information integrator. The user 406 can be same as the user 460; however, in a general case, he may be a totally different user who just decided to register the source. Hence,
Schema builder 404 can include a personalized schema designer 430 and a mapper 432. Thus, builder 404 accesses the source schema and selects appropriate users' schema for the user 460. The metadata mentioned elsewhere herein can be contained in metabase 434. The user's query can be provided to query engine 436, including intelligent query builder 438 and dynamic executor 440. Engine 436 outputs the results as shown. Learner 442 includes source monitor 444 and metadata miner 446, and may be accessed by query engine 436 when processing queries to obtain results.
The details of functionality for source registration 402 and for the schema builder 404 are shown in
With attention now to flow chart 600 of
One or more embodiments of the invention thus provide a framework for publishing source information (data and services) without knowledge of the complete global model, e.g., schema models. Further, one or more embodiments also provide an approach that accepts a “desired output” model and suggests an integration scheme, and techniques to recommend, to a user, mapping between a source schema and a user schema. An advantage of the on-the-fly integration over autonomous sources is the significant value-add for information integration tools.
Exemplary System and Article of Manufacture Details
A variety of techniques, utilizing dedicated hardware, general purpose processors, firmware, software, or a combination of the foregoing may be employed to implement the present invention or components thereof. One or more embodiments of the invention, or elements thereof, can be implemented in the form of a computer product including a computer usable medium with computer usable program code for performing the method steps indicated. Furthermore, one or more embodiments of the invention, or elements thereof, can be implemented in the form of an apparatus including a memory and at least one processor that is coupled to the memory and operative to perform exemplary method steps.
One or more embodiments can make use of software running on a general purpose computer or workstation. With reference to
Accordingly, computer software including instructions or code for performing the methodologies of the invention, as described herein, may be stored in one or more of the associated memory devices (for example, ROM, fixed or removable memory) and, when ready to be utilized, loaded in part or in whole (for example, into RAM) and executed by a CPU. Such software could include, but is not limited to, firmware, resident software, microcode, and the like.
Furthermore, the invention can take the form of a computer program product accessible from a computer-usable or computer-readable medium (for example, media 718) providing program code for use by or in connection with a computer or any instruction execution system. For the purposes of this description, a computer usable or computer readable medium can be any apparatus for use by or in connection with the instruction execution system, apparatus, or device. The medium can store program code to execute one or more method steps set forth herein.
The medium can be an electronic, magnetic, optical, electromagnetic, infrared, or semiconductor system (or apparatus or device) or a propagation medium. Examples of a computer-readable medium include a semiconductor or solid-state memory (for example memory 704), magnetic tape, a removable computer diskette (for example media 718), a random access memory (RAM), a read-only memory (ROM), a rigid magnetic disk and an optical disk. Current examples of optical disks include compact disk-read only memory (CD-ROM), compact disk-read/write (CD-R/W) and DVD.
A data processing system suitable for storing and/or executing program code includes at least one processor 702 coupled directly or indirectly to memory elements 704 through a system bus 710. The memory elements can include local memory employed during actual execution of the program code, bulk storage, and cache memories which provide temporary storage of at least some program code in order to reduce the number of times code must be retrieved from bulk; storage during execution.
Input/output or I/O devices (including but not limited to keyboards 708, displays 706, pointing devices, and the like) can be coupled to the system either directly (such as via bus 710) or through intervening I/O controllers (omitted for clarity).
Network adapters such as network interface 714 may also be coupled to the system to enable the data processing system to become coupled to other data processing systems or remote printers or storage devices through intervening private or public networks. Modems, cable modem and Ethernet cards are just a few of the currently available types of network adapters.
In any case, it should be understood mat the components illustrated herein may be implemented in various forms of hardware, software, or combinations thereof, for example, application specific integrated circuits) (ASICS), functional circuitry, one or more appropriately programmed general purpose digital computers with associated memory, and the like. Given the teachings of the invention provided herein, one of ordinary skill in the related art will be able to contemplate other implementations of the components of the invention.
It will be appreciated and should be understood that the exemplary embodiments of the invention described above can be implemented in a number of different fashions. Given the teachings of the invention provided herein, one of ordinary skill in the related art will be able to contemplate other implementations of the invention. Indeed, although illustrative embodiments of the present invention have been described herein with reference to the accompanying drawings, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to those precise embodiments, and that various other changes and modifications may be made by one skilled in the art without departing from the scope or spirit of the invention.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5600831 *||Nov 30, 1994||Feb 4, 1997||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Apparatus and methods for retrieving information by modifying query plan based on description of information sources|
|US5701460 *||May 23, 1996||Dec 23, 1997||Microsoft Corporation||Intelligent joining system for a relational database|
|US5768578 *||Feb 27, 1995||Jun 16, 1998||Lucent Technologies Inc.||User interface for information retrieval system|
|US5995961 *||Nov 7, 1996||Nov 30, 1999||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Information manifold for query processing|
|US6567802||Sep 6, 2000||May 20, 2003||The Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania||Systematic approach to query optimization|
|US6957214||Jun 22, 2001||Oct 18, 2005||The Johns Hopkins University||Architecture for distributed database information access|
|US7092958 *||Jan 29, 2003||Aug 15, 2006||Battelle Energy Alliance, Llc||Knowledge information management toolkit and method|
|US7269604 *||Oct 24, 2003||Sep 11, 2007||General Atomics||System of and method for transparent management of data objects in containers across distributed heterogenous resources|
|US7308646 *||Aug 30, 2000||Dec 11, 2007||International Business Machines Corporation||Integrating diverse data sources using a mark-up language|
|US7310646 *||May 7, 2004||Dec 18, 2007||I2 Technologies Us, Inc.||Data management system providing a data thesaurus for mapping between multiple data schemas or between multiple domains within a data schema|
|US7363299||Nov 17, 2005||Apr 22, 2008||University Of Washington||Computing probabilistic answers to queries|
|US7464083||Dec 28, 2005||Dec 9, 2008||Wolfgang Otter||Combining multi-dimensional data sources using database operations|
|US7493311 *||Jun 30, 2003||Feb 17, 2009||Microsoft Corporation||Information server and pluggable data sources|
|US7533107 *||Sep 7, 2001||May 12, 2009||The Regents Of The University Of California||Data source integration system and method|
|US7580946||Aug 9, 2007||Aug 25, 2009||Bizweel Ltd.||Smart integration engine and metadata-oriented architecture for automatic EII and business integration|
|US7620615 *||Nov 17, 2009||Teradata Us, Inc.||Joins of relations in an object relational database system|
|US7668798 *||Apr 4, 2001||Feb 23, 2010||Red Hat, Inc.||System and method for accessing data in disparate information sources|
|US7734606 *||Sep 15, 2005||Jun 8, 2010||Graematter, Inc.||System and method for regulatory intelligence|
|US20010013035 *||Feb 24, 1998||Aug 9, 2001||William W. Cohen||System and method for accessing heterogeneous databases|
|US20020023091 *||Jun 22, 2001||Feb 21, 2002||Silberberg David P.||Architecture for distributed database information access|
|US20020161748 *||Jul 24, 2001||Oct 31, 2002||International Business Machines Corporation||Data loading from a remote data source|
|US20030172368 *||Dec 23, 2002||Sep 11, 2003||Elizabeth Alumbaugh||System and method for autonomously generating heterogeneous data source interoperability bridges based on semantic modeling derived from self adapting ontology|
|US20030217069 *||May 10, 2002||Nov 20, 2003||International Business Machines Corporation||Method for schema mapping and data transformation|
|US20040034651 *||Sep 7, 2001||Feb 19, 2004||Amarnath Gupta||Data source interation system and method|
|US20040128276 *||Apr 4, 2001||Jul 1, 2004||Robert Scanlon||System and method for accessing data in disparate information sources|
|US20040133543 *||Jul 28, 2003||Jul 8, 2004||Shlaes Marc J.||Method and system of unifying data|
|US20040181543 *||Dec 18, 2003||Sep 16, 2004||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Method of using recommendations to visually create new views of data across heterogeneous sources|
|US20040186826 *||Mar 21, 2003||Sep 23, 2004||International Business Machines Corporation||Real-time aggregation of unstructured data into structured data for SQL processing by a relational database engine|
|US20040260715 *||Jun 20, 2003||Dec 23, 2004||Mongeon Brad A.||Object mapping across multiple different data stores|
|US20050015439 *||Jul 15, 2003||Jan 20, 2005||Ekambaram Balaji||Flexible architecture component (FAC) for efficient data integration and information interchange using web services|
|US20050055369 *||Sep 9, 2004||Mar 10, 2005||Alexander Gorelik||Method and apparatus for semantic discovery and mapping between data sources|
|US20050060647 *||Dec 18, 2003||Mar 17, 2005||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Method for presenting hierarchical data|
|US20050165752||Jan 28, 2004||Jul 28, 2005||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Synchronizing and consolidating information from multiple source systems of a distributed enterprise information system|
|US20050165817 *||Jan 8, 2004||Jul 28, 2005||O'conor George W.||Data migration and analysis|
|US20060036463||May 19, 2005||Feb 16, 2006||Patrick Paul B||Liquid computing|
|US20060047721 *||Aug 31, 2004||Mar 2, 2006||Narang Inderpal S||Dynamic and selective data source binding through a metawrapper|
|US20060136452 *||Jul 19, 2005||Jun 22, 2006||Lim Myung E||Method of generating database schema to provide integrated view of dispersed data and data integrating system|
|US20060167856 *||Apr 15, 2005||Jul 27, 2006||Ontoprise Gmbh||Enterprise information integration platform|
|US20060167865 *||Jan 24, 2005||Jul 27, 2006||Sybase, Inc.||Database System with Methodology for Generating Bushy Nested Loop Join Trees|
|US20060248045||Jul 22, 2004||Nov 2, 2006||Kinor Technologies Inc.||Information access using ontologies|
|US20060265352 *||May 20, 2005||Nov 23, 2006||International Business Machines Corporation||Methods and apparatus for information integration in accordance with web services|
|US20060271528 *||Aug 4, 2006||Nov 30, 2006||Exeros, Inc.||Method and system for facilitating data retrieval from a plurality of data sources|
|US20060271563||Feb 23, 2005||Nov 30, 2006||Metatomix, Inc.||Appliance for enterprise information integration and enterprise resource interoperability platform and methods|
|US20070016596 *||Jun 30, 2006||Jan 18, 2007||Business Objects, S.A.||Apparatus and method for producing a virtual database from data sources exhibiting heterogeneous schemas|
|US20070055647 *||May 16, 2006||Mar 8, 2007||Ward Mullins||Dynamic class inheritance and distributed caching with object <->relational mapping and Cartesian model support in a database manipulation and mapping system|
|US20070067274||Sep 16, 2005||Mar 22, 2007||International Business Machines Corporation||Hybrid push-down/pull-up of unions with expensive operations in a federated query processor|
|US20070106629||Oct 17, 2005||May 10, 2007||Steve Endacott||System and method for accessing data|
|US20070203893||Feb 27, 2006||Aug 30, 2007||Business Objects, S.A.||Apparatus and method for federated querying of unstructured data|
|US20070240172 *||Apr 11, 2006||Oct 11, 2007||Sap Portals (Israel) Ltd.||Dynamic portal registration of generic data source|
|US20070255741 *||Apr 27, 2007||Nov 1, 2007||Business Objects, S.A.||Apparatus and method for merging metadata within a repository|
|US20080027830 *||Jul 13, 2007||Jan 31, 2008||Eplus Inc.||System and method for creation and maintenance of a rich content or content-centric electronic catalog|
|US20080082569 *||Aug 9, 2007||Apr 3, 2008||Bizwheel Ltd.||Smart Integration Engine And Metadata-Oriented Architecture For Automatic EII And Business Integration|
|US20080120283||Nov 17, 2006||May 22, 2008||Oracle International Corporation||Processing XML data stream(s) using continuous queries in a data stream management system|
|US20080139179 *||Dec 8, 2006||Jun 12, 2008||Todd Christy||Wireless advisor support and data integration system|
|US20080147627||Dec 22, 2006||Jun 19, 2008||Yahoo! Inc.||Clustered query support for a database query engine|
|US20080249981||Apr 7, 2008||Oct 9, 2008||Synerg Software Corporation||Systems and methods for federating data|
|US20080313162||Jun 13, 2007||Dec 18, 2008||Ali Bahrami||Methods and systems for context based query formulation and information retrieval|
|US20090012983 *||Jul 11, 2007||Jan 8, 2009||Cognos Incorporated||System and method for federated member-based data integration and reporting|
|WO2007059034A1||Nov 13, 2006||May 24, 2007||Honeywell International Inc.||Method and apparatus for identifying data of interest in a database|
|WO2007075155A2||Dec 5, 2005||Jul 5, 2007||Integrichain||System and method for intelligent information gathering and analysis|
|WO2007081666A2||Dec 29, 2006||Jul 19, 2007||Siperian, Inc.||Relationship data management|
|WO2007089264A2||Jun 9, 2006||Aug 9, 2007||The Boeing Company||Distributed database systems and methods|
|1||*||"Enterprise Information Integration: A New Definition", Information Management Online, Sep. 2, 2004, 4 pages, accessed online at on Oct. 27, 2011.|
|2||*||"Enterprise Information Integration: A New Definition", Information Management Online, Sep. 2, 2004, 4 pages, accessed online at <http://www.information-management.com/news/1009669-1.html?zkPrintable=true> on Oct. 27, 2011.|
|3||Dong, X. et al. "A Platform for Personal Information Management" CIDR 2005.|
|4||*||Garcia-Molina et al., "Integrating and Accessing Heterogeneous Information Sources in TSIMMIS", 1995, pp. 1-4, accessed online at on Jan. 12, 2010.|
|5||*||Garcia-Molina et al., "Integrating and Accessing Heterogeneous Information Sources in TSIMMIS", 1995, pp. 1-4, accessed online at <http://coast.cise.ufl.edu/˜jhammer/publications/AAAI1995/tsimmis-abstract-aaai.pdf> on Jan. 12, 2010.|
|6||*||Haas et al., "Data Integration through database federation", IBM Systems Journal, vol. 41, No. 4, 2002, pp. 578-596, accessed online at on Jan. 12, 2010.|
|7||*||Haas et al., "DiscoveryLink: A system for integrated access to life science data sources", IBM Systems Journal, vol. 40, No. 2, 2001, pp. 489-511.|
|8||*||Haas et al., "Data Integration through database federation", IBM Systems Journal, vol. 41, No. 4, 2002, pp. 578-596, accessed online at <http://iwayan.info/Research/Interoperability/Papers—Research/Federated/haas—PRN.pdf> on Jan. 12, 2010.|
|9||*||Halevy et al., "Enterprise Information Integration: Successes, Challenges and Controversies", SIGACM-SIGMOD' 05, 2005, Baltimore, Maryland USA, 10 pages, accessed online at on Oct. 27, 2011.|
|10||*||Halevy et al., "Enterprise Information Integration: Successes, Challenges and Controversies", SIGACM-SIGMOD' 05, 2005, Baltimore, Maryland USA, 10 pages, accessed online at <http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/alon/files/eiisigmod05.pdf> on Oct. 27, 2011.|
|11||*||Naidu et al, "On-The-Fly data Integration Models for Biological Databases", Symposium on Applied Computing, 2007, pp. 118-122, accessed online at on Jan. 12, 2010.|
|12||*||Naidu et al, "On-The-Fly data Integration Models for Biological Databases", Symposium on Applied Computing, 2007, pp. 118-122, accessed online at <http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1244031> on Jan. 12, 2010.|
|13||Sayyadian, M. et al "Efficient Keyword Search Across Heterogeneous Relational Databases." ICDE 2007.|
|14||Shen, W. "Source-aware Entity Matching: A Compositional Approach." ICDE 2007.|
|15||*||The Gilbane Report, "What is Enterprise Information Integration (EII)?", vol. 12, No. 6, 2004, pp. 1-7, accessed online at on Oct. 27, 2011.|
|16||*||The Gilbane Report, "What is Enterprise Information Integration (EII)?", vol. 12, No. 6, 2004, pp. 1-7, accessed online at <http://gilbane.com/artpdf/GR12.6.pdf> on Oct. 27, 2011.|
|17||Yee, L et al "A Virtual Reality Interface to an Enterprise Metadatabase" 16th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling-ER '97 Proceedings, 1997, pp. 436-449.|
|18||Yee, L et al "A Virtual Reality Interface to an Enterprise Metadatabase" 16th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling—ER '97 Proceedings, 1997, pp. 436-449.|
|U.S. Classification||707/804, 707/705, 707/805|
|Nov 28, 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION, NEW Y
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:NAMBIAR, ULLAS B.;SRIVASTAVA, BIPLAV;REEL/FRAME:020203/0586;SIGNING DATES FROM 20071127 TO 20071128
Owner name: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION, NEW Y
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:NAMBIAR, ULLAS B.;SRIVASTAVA, BIPLAV;SIGNING DATES FROM 20071127 TO 20071128;REEL/FRAME:020203/0586
|Nov 6, 2015||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Mar 27, 2016||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|