US 815350 A
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PATENTED MAR. 20, 14906. J, P. HOLLAND. ISUBMVARINHBOATL APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 24, 1904.
2 SHEBTS-SHEET 2 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. JOHN P. HOLLAND, OENEWARK, NE JERSEY.
' 'SUBMARINE BOAT.
No. 815,350. Specification ofLetters Patent. 1 Pa ented March 20, 1906. Application filed September 24, 1904. Serial No: 226,805.
To all whom it. may concern: by Water ballast. These tanks are also dis- Be it known that I, JOHN PHILIP, HOLLAND, posed symmetrically about the center of the a citizen of. the United States, residing at boat,'as'will be hereinafter explained.- D Newark, in the county of Essex and State of Obviously in carrying out the invention 60 New Jersey, have invented certain new and the tanks, the are-material of which they are useful Improvements in Submarine Boats, of constructed, and the valves controlling ad-. which thefollowing' is a specification. mission of water to the tanks may be of the his invention relates to the class of subusual or any satisfactory kind. .It is the dismarine and submergible boats in which waposition of the tanks and valves for accom- 65 1b ter is employed for ballast. Jplishing the obj ectsought that forms the dis- This classof boats are ordinarily so continctive feature of the invention. structed that they may be at will so ballasted In the accompanying drawings, which i as to have considerable freeboard and be able" serve to-illustrate the invention, Figure 1 is a to navigate on the surface pr be so ballasted side elevation of the boat on a'relatively small that they are awashed or in diving conscale. Fig. 2 is a vertlcal longitudinal axial dition, when they may be made to dive and section of the middle portion of the boat on navigate submerged. In such boats as at a much larger scale than Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a present constructed the ballast tanks are vertical longitudinal section of the middle I disposed atthe bottom of the boat and-ex-' portion of the boat, taken at one side of the 7 5 2o tend fore and aft nearly the entirelength of the axis" as indicated by line at in Fig. 4. Fi .4
boat, and the'consequence is that owing to. is a orizontal section taken at linew, in i the fluid character of the ballast and the dis- 3. Fig. 5 is a transverse section taken at line tance of the greater part of the ballast mass m in Fig. 3. p c 4 cm the center of gravity of the boat any H designates the main hull or shell of the so slight roll or pitch of the boat will produce boat; S, the sighting-hood; P, the propeller; a shift of the ballast toward the lowest point, R, the rudder; M, the motor for drivin' E, I and thus so seriously disturb the centerof. the expulsion-tube, and T a sparetorpedo. gravity of the mass as to render liable the These and some of the other ordinart appurtotal destruction of the boat if it be running tenances of a submarinetorpedo-boat are 8 3o submerged, or if on the surface should there herein indicated somewhat diagrammaticbe any opening in the boat' above the surally. Their construction will be readily unface the sudden pitch or roll of the boat will derstood by those skilled in the art. v cause it to take water at such opening and be A space equal to'about one-seventh of the founderedand sunk. Even if the opening boats length and having its center coinci- 9 5 be closed beforeenough water .entersto sink dent with the boats center of buoyancy 1s set the boat the water may find its way to the apart for the ballast and fuel tanks. This storage batteries and by the generation of portion is separated from the end portions of chlorin or other gases suffocate the crew. the boat by transverse bulkheads 1 1, having Such accidents have actually occurred. To in them door-apertures 2 2, corres onding to 40 obviate the liability of such dangerous conthe ends of a, gangway 3, formed i fy longituditions arising is the object'of the present 'dinal bulkheads 4 4. These several'bulkinvention, which consists in grouping all of heads extend to the shell of the, boat all the ballast-tanks and also the tank or tanks 'aroundabove, below, and at 'thesides. The for containing liquid fuel at the center of the gangway 3 has a floor 5 raised above the botboat where they-extend from near the 'bottom ofthe boat a distance or-height suflicient tom of the boat up to the top plates thereof. to. provide space for a sea-valve 6 to admit The tanks are grouped symmetrically about water of flotation. This may be a Kingston the .center of buoyancy of the boat, and,being valve of known construction, and it may be so near the latter, any slight flow or disturb.- operated from above the floor 5 to admit umance due to a slight heeling or pitching of the ter to a' tank or chamber 7 underthe floor 5 boat will have no appreciable effect on-the. and communicating laterally, by valve-constability of the boat. Such boats have also trolled inlets or gates 8, with lower. ballasttanks to containdiquld fuel for use in intertanks 9 at the respective sides of the an nal combustion engines for driving the boat way. These lower tanks 9 are separated by no 5 when navigating on? the surface, the conhorizontal artitions 10 from-upper ballas sumption of the liquid fuel being compensated tanks 11. it theirfore-and-aft ends the lower divided up into the gengway 3 the receivin tank 7, which is e ballast-tank, and four tanks on each side. l relcieliily ouch oil the tanks 13, plus one-lourth oi the tank 7, will have a capacity equal to about .0239 per cent. of the bonts total displacement. 'lhusfthese four tanks 13, plus t 1e tank 7, will hzive a total capacity of about 0955 per cent. of the total 3 displacement of the bout One of the tanks 9 and 1.1 at each side of the boat is designed to contain liquid fuel. Either the upper or lower of the two-superposed tanks may be used for this purpose, as found most convenient. If the fuel is to be supplied to the engine by u pump, the lower tank 9 may be utilized; but if it is to be supplied by grevi the upper tank ll may be utilized. When. it is determined whether it the upper or lower tanks that are to be used for liquid fuel, the remaining part of the central ballast-space can be properly proportioned. The portion of the ballast-space oc cnpied by the superposed tanks 9 end 11 should have a capacity (exclusive of the inch space) equal to about .03 of the boe-ts total disphicement.
The central water-ballast space taken as a wholc---thut is, all olithe tanks 7, 9, 11, and lJ-}-'Wil have n cepacit 'such that when completel y filled with sen-water, they will suffice to neutralize entirely the buoyancy of the [boat and cause complete submcrgence.
The valves controlling the ports connecting the tanks with the receiving-tank 7 and with each other will be under the controlof the (liver. v
As herein shown, the upper tanks 11 are designed nsliquid-luel tanks, and they are con i ected by valve controlled ports with the low-er tanks in order that the lower tanks also may be utilized lorfuel-storege who the beet is to make long voyage on the surface. This connection also facilitates cleaning out the fuel-tanks by hulking it possible to discharge their contents through the sea-velve One important advantage of this arrangement of the ballzist-tunks is that it eliminates wholly the necessity for trimming the boat preparatory to divin The trim is never disturbed, and the regu etion oi the quantity of water admitted to the ballast-tanks can be e'll'ccted almost instantly and with great exactness. Promising that the boatwill be provided with the usual mvpliancos-such us a hydromotcr, depth-gages,.und means for blowing out weter iron). the tanks with compressed air -it may explained that in prcperiu to dive the sou-valve is opened, and the lruirtunks 1.3 may he iillcd lull in less than one minute. Y hen the gages shoe; that the tanks 9 are led to the required depth, the valves are closed. The tunks l3 will now be completely led and thc only free liouidsurhicos in the met will be those tunks (9 and 1 l in the present case) which are nearest the center ol the boat, and the movcmentol the liquid in these cannot cause any inconvenience, partly on account ol" the limited space in which movement is possible and partly to their proximity to the center of the bout/s buoyancy. I
As the total weight oi the boat and its contents may vn ry several hundred pounds without notably nll'ccting its perlorlmincc, when such change of weight occurs at the boztts center it will not be necessary to provide special nutomntic means for compensating the expenditure or" liquid fuel, is that can be done by hund at long intervals.
Fig 2 shows the positions oi the steersmnn, the diver, the gunner, end the engineer.
It will we seen from the above that the lending object of the invcutimi is to group the entire l )lll:iSt-S}'lzt(,fi ol" the bent at its center, so that they occupy the entire middle section of the boat with the exception of the gang Way which connects the after und forward sections of the bout. Thus all the waiter bullast and liquid fuel will be grouped closely about the center of buoyancy oi" the boat in tanks extending practically from bottom to top of the bout. Thus when the ballast-tank Shall be only partially filled, as when the bout is operating in brackish or slightly-saline woter or when the fuel-tanks are only partly full, the shift of the liquid cannot bcivery great, as the construction shown provides the minimum radii, of gyrution .of the center of gravity when the bout IOllS"()l pitches, and the disturbance of the center of gravity will thus be reduced to n minimum.
Having thus described my invention, l cleim- 1, A submarine boot, having all of its wuterballast tanks and liquidfuel tanks rouped symmetrically about the center of )uoyancy o the bout, such took-s uice extending from top to bottom and from side to side of the hull of the boat, and having it forennd-nft gengvmy extending through saidtnnk-spsice.
2. A subnmrinc bout, huving all of its Wittor-ballast and incl-tank space included bc tween two parallel transverse, vertical bulkheads in the bout and extending to the hull thereof :rbove, below and lit both sides, and said bulkhcrnls, disposed respectively nt equal distances forward and alter the boats 1 center of huoynncy, and having lorc-undmlt bulkheads ocl'wccn the transversebulkheads and extending from top to bottom of the hull, send l'oIO-lUIll-il't bulkheads lo'rnnng the sides of afor'e-and-aft space."
3 bul I .said transverse bulkheads partitioned to 3. A submarine boat, having two transverse bulkheads 1," 1, disposed atlequal distances, respectively forward of and aft the boats eenter of buoyance and extending to the top, 'bottomand'sides of thehull of the boat, two
' form allthe water-ballast and liquid-fuel metricallyabbut'its center of ceivin' eta k 7, four ballast-tanks 13 which tanks of the such tank-space occupyi ofthe boats entire length. "boat, having) grouped sym-' uoyancy a reingaboutonas} 11 4. Asu mar ne extend fr'mfthe' bottom to the top of the gangway through the tank boat, and tanks 9 and 1-1, the tanks ll being superposed on the respective tanks 9, each pair of such tanks being disposed between two of the tanks'13 at that side and extending from top to bottom of the boat;
5. A submarine 1 boat, having about oneseventh of the entire length of the boat at the way 3, a'tan 7 under the floor of the gang: way, two ,lower middle tanks 9,-two upper middle tanks 11, four tanks 13, all groupedsymmetricallj about the center of buoyancy vof the boat, and means foroontrolling the flow of liquid to and between the tanks.
In Witness whereof I have hereunto signed my name, this 18th day of'August, 1904, in the presence of two subscribin witnesses.-
JOHN P. OLLAN D. Vl itnesses:
HENRY OONNET'T, BENJAMIN H. Horn".
middle of the latter inclosed to form a tankspace, said s ace being divided into a gang- 3o