|Publication number||US8153987 B2|
|Application number||US 12/454,837|
|Publication date||Apr 10, 2012|
|Filing date||May 22, 2009|
|Priority date||May 22, 2009|
|Also published as||US20100294922|
|Publication number||12454837, 454837, US 8153987 B2, US 8153987B2, US-B2-8153987, US8153987 B2, US8153987B2|
|Inventors||Jeffrey B. Hurst, Matthew Weldon, Phillip Walsh, Cristian Rivas, Dale A. Harrison|
|Original Assignee||Jordan Valley Semiconductors Ltd.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (158), Non-Patent Citations (50), Referenced by (2), Classifications (9), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present application relates to the field of optical metrology and more specifically to an optical metrology method for automated calibration that may be operated at wavelengths that include the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) range.
Optical reflectometry techniques have long been employed in process control applications in the semiconductor manufacturing industry due to their non-contact, non-destructive and generally high-throughput nature. The continuous push towards developing smaller devices comprised of thinner layers and the introduction of complicated new materials has challenged the sensitivity of such instrumentation. As a result, this has necessitated an effort to develop optical reflectometry equipment utilizing shorter vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelengths (below 200 nm), where greater sensitivity to subtle changes in material properties may be realized.
Common tools used in optical metrology techniques are reflectometry and ellipsometry. Ellipsometry is generally regarded as consisting of a “richer” dataset, including a measurement of two quantities per wavelength/incident angle. On the other hand, reflectometers are more robust due to less complex hardware configurations, have faster measurements, and typically have a smaller footprint. Generally speaking, if both technologies are capable of solving a given metrology problem, the reflectometer is a more cost effective choice for a high volume production environment.
Contamination of optical surfaces like windows and mirrors is a serious impediment to the operation of optical instruments in the VUV range. Moisture and residual molecules, particularly hydrocarbon compounds, may deposit on such surfaces over time dramatically reducing their performance. These materials may form as a function of exposure to environment and/or out-gassing materials. Additionally, VUV and DUV radiation from the optical metrology tool itself may cause the formation of a contaminant film by reacting with accumulated airborne or out-gassed contaminants via a photo-deposition process. These effects have formed the focus of previous investigations owing to their impact on the design, development and performance of 193 and 157 nm lithographic exposure tools.
When present on the surfaces of samples under investigation, contaminate layers may significantly contribute to measured optical responses in the VUV yielding inaccurate and/or erroneous results. These effects are of particular concern when the samples are comprised of ultra thin films (<100 Å), whose thicknesses may themselves be comparable to the thicknesses of the contaminate layers. Airborne molecular contaminants (AMC) deposit on the surfaces of such samples significantly affecting reflectance in the VUV region. As used herein, AMC refers not only to typical contaminants deposited on samples, but also photo-deposited contaminants.
Reflectometer calibration in the VUV is difficult since reliable absolute reflectance standards do not exist and could not necessarily be maintained. In the past, new methods were developed to overcome these issues, such as for example in U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,282,703 and 7,511,265 and U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 10/930,339, 11/789,686 and 12/072,878, the disclosures of which are all expressly incorporated by reference in their entirety. Some of these methods to calibrate reflectometers involved utilizing two calibration samples, measuring the intensity from both samples and analyzing the ratio of the two samples spectra to determine the properties of the samples and their absolute reflectances. In one embodiment, the calibration samples may be comprised of, but are not limited to, a bare silicon substrate with a native oxide layer and/or a 1000 Å SiO2 layer on a silicon substrate. This is only an exemplary composition of calibration samples. The techniques used previously work very well over a range of AMC buildup on calibration sites.
In the case where the thickness of deposited AMC exceeds some value, for example >40 Å, then the calibration sample measurements may be less accurate. This may be attributed to several reasons. For example, the AMC may be deposited over time in such a manner that an ever increasing fraction of the incident light becomes diffusely reflected. This could result in an error in the analysis of the measured spectrum. Or, the properties of the AMC film may not be uniform as a function of the film thickness. An inexact understanding of the optical properties of the AMC film, such as the case where the film consists of different components, could also lead to less accurate measurements.
In the operation of a VUV metrology instrument, previously disclosed methods provided techniques for minimizing, controlling and removing the deposited AMC layers that accumulated over time, such as for example in U.S. Pat. No. 7,342,235 and U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 11/600,414 and 11/600,477, the disclosures of which are all expressly incorporated by reference in their entirety to overcome these issues. Though the previously described techniques provided an accurate means of calibration of a VUV optical metrology instrument, the measurements remained valid only over a specific range of deposited AMC thicknesses.
Calibration of the metrology equipment may also be dependant on the tool user. The equipment operator may have to continually check on the thickness of the AMC layers and determine if the layers were thick enough to compromise calibration accuracy. It would be beneficial to an automated semiconductor manufacturing environment if the responsibility of equipment calibration was shifted from the tool user to an automated system.
A calibration pad having multiple calibration sites is provided. A particular calibration site may be utilized until that particular site has been determined to have become unacceptable for further use, for example from contamination, in which case the calibration processes may then move to use a different calibration site on the calibration pad. A variety of techniques may be utilized to provide the determination that a site is no longer acceptable for use. Movement may thus occur over time from site to site for use in a calibration process. A variety of criteria may be established to determine when to move to another site. Though the designation of a site as “bad” may be based upon measured reflectance data, other criteria may also be used. For example, the number of times a site has been exposed to light may be the criteria for designating a site as bad. Alternatively the cumulative exposure of a site may be the criteria. Further, the plurality of calibration sites that are provided on the single calibration pad may be pre-evaluated so as to initially screen out unacceptable calibration sites prior to use. The techniques provided may be utilized in calibration processes which utilize a single calibration sample or processes which require a plurality of calibration samples.
In one embodiment, a method of evaluating an optical metrology tool is provided. The method includes utilizing an optical tool characterization pad for use in assisting in the evaluation of an optical metrology tool and providing multiple characterization sites of a similar characterization structure upon the characterization pad. The method may further include designating at least some of the characterization sites as either acceptable for use or not, wherein based upon the designation, after the designation at least some of the characterization sites are not utilized for evaluation of the optical metrology tool.
In another embodiment, a method of calibrating an optical metrology tool is provided. The method may include providing a calibration pad for use in a calibration process of the optical metrology tool and partitioning the calibration pad into a plurality of calibration sites, the calibration sites having similar calibration structures. The method may further include utilizing a first calibration site of the calibration pad for calibrating the optical metrology tool and detecting that the first calibration site does not satisfy a criteria for use of the first calibration site. The method also includes switching from use of the first calibration site to use of a second calibration of the calibration pad for calibrating the optical metrology tool based upon the detection of the first calibration site not satisfying the criteria.
In still another embodiment, a pad for use in characterizing an optical metrology tool is provided. The pad may include a first region of the pad at which optical measurements may be obtained, the first region comprising characterization structures constructed to be used for characterizing the optical metrology tool. The pad further includes a plurality of sub-regions of the pad. The sub-regions may be a plurality of characterization sites which are sized such that separate optical measurements may be obtained from different ones of the characterization sites so that at least some of the characterization sites may be designated unacceptable for use in the characterization of the optical metrology tool while still allowing use of other of the characterization sites for characterizing the optical metrology tool.
As described below, other features and variations can be implemented, if desired, and related systems can be utilized, as well.
A more complete understanding of the present invention and advantages thereof may be acquired by referring to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which like reference numbers indicate like features. It is noted that the appended drawings illustrate only exemplary embodiments of the techniques described herein and are, therefore, not to be considered limiting of its scope, for the techniques may admit to other equally effective embodiments.
Single crystal silicon wafers have long been used as calibration standards for reflectometers operating in the DUV-NIR. They have proved a sensible choice, as they are ubiquitous, controllably manufactured and optically well characterized in this spectral region. When employed for the calibration of reflectometers operating at wavelengths longer than about 250 nm silicon wafers work well since the underlying assumptions regarding their physical properties are relatively insensitive to error in this wavelength region. In other words, errors in the assumed thickness of the native oxide layer and/or AMC on the surface of the wafer do not significantly influence the expected reflectance of the sample and hence do not negatively impact the accuracy of the calibration process.
A non-planar AMC deposit on a calibration sample is only one of the possible developments that may result in a poor fit between measured and calculated ratios. Other considerations may be that the optical properties of the AMC film are not homogenous as a function of film thickness. Also, for certain values of AMC thickness the reflectance of the AMC/calibration pad film stack may tend to have low values or may even be approaching zero at certain wavelengths. This would provide very little insight as to the intensity of the source of these wavelengths. Another possible reason for a poor fit between measured and calculated ratios may be an inaccurate understanding of the optical properties of the AMC film. The film deposited may consist of many different components, such as discrete layers. It is noted that the non-ideal scattering or non-uniform contaminant film conditions mentioned do not absolutely preclude use of an optical model. Such conditions may, in fact, be well accounted for by use of effective optical parameters for contaminant layers. Hence, the description only becomes unreasonable after some threshold is reached and the use of said effective optical parameters no longer aptly describes the changes in the calibration pad film stack
A calibration sample may initially be acceptable, however, may evolve over time to become unacceptable. Alternatively the calibration sample may initially be unacceptable. The cause of contaminates on a sample may be widely varying. For example, a sample may be unacceptable for use if contaminates deposited upon the sample result from inadequately maintaining the purity of the atmosphere in which the sample is kept. Further, mere exposure to light may result in photo-deposition or photo-etch processes that will alter a calibration sample and thus result in a sample being classified as “contaminated.” Further, exposure to light may modify the interface bond structure of a sample, thus contaminating the sample for the purposes of calibration. Thus, there are a wide range of mechanisms and causes for a sample being unacceptably contaminated. Further, it is noted that as used herein a “contaminated” sample is not merely one in which a contaminate layer is formed but may also include a sample that has been changed as described above such as from an etch process or bond structure alterations. Alternatively, the properties of a sample may simply change as the sample ages.
Some of the techniques provided herein utilize a calibration pad in which multiple calibration sites are provided. The calibration sites may be formed on the calibration pad in a manner such that the sites provide a multiplicity of the same calibration structure on a single calibration pad. In this manner, a single calibration pad may be provided in an optical metrology tool, however, a plurality of calibration sites of a common calibration structure is now available for use. A particular calibration site may be utilized until that particular site has been determined to become contaminated, in which case the calibration processes may then move to use a different calibration site on the calibration pad. Because multiple sites are provided on the single calibration pad, a new calibration pad need not be utilized. A variety of techniques may be utilized to provide the determination that a site is no longer acceptable for use. Alternatively, the multiple sites may be utilized in such a manner such that each site is only used once or some other set number of times. Further, the plurality of calibration sites that are provided on the single calibration pad may be pre-evaluated so as to initially screen out unacceptable calibration sites prior to use. These sites would not therefore be utilized during calibration processes.
For illustrative purposes and ease of description purposes the term “calibration” is utilized with reference to the samples described herein. However, the concepts described herein are not limited to calibration samples but may also be used for other system characterization samples such as reference samples or standard samples. Thus, it will be recognized that the techniques described herein may be utilized for a wide range of optical tool characterization samples, including but not limited to calibration samples, reference samples and standard samples. The exemplary use of “calibration sample” utilized herein is merely provided for illustrative purposes and may be generically replaced by other optical tool characterization samples for such techniques could equally apply to other characterization samples.
The density of the calibration sites on the calibration pad may be impacted by the type of optical spot configuration. In some instances, the illumination and measurement areas of the metrology instrument may be adjusted independently. In such a case, at least three different conditions are possible and these different conditions may influence the nature of the AMC build-up.
The concepts described herein may be useful for a wide variety of known calibration techniques. For example some techniques involve the use of a single calibration sample while other techniques (such as those mentioned above) utilize two calibration samples and a ratio of the data collected from each sample. The techniques described herein and the use of a calibration pad having multiple calibration sites may be advantageously utilized for techniques that utilize a single calibration sample or techniques that utilize a plurality of calibration samples.
As will be described in more detail below, a wide variety of criteria may be utilized to determine whether a calibration site is good or bad. For example, initial characterization of sites could be accomplished through the use of absolute reflectometry or analytical measurement techniques. Sites may also be characterized based upon whether a calculated contamination thickness from a reflectance or reflectance ratio measurement exceeds some set limit. Further, sites may be characterized based upon the goodness of fit of measured data and calculated data. It will be recognized that the concepts described herein are not limited to the exemplary techniques described to designate a calibration site as good or bad. Such exemplary techniques are now described below, first with respect to an exemplary technique, which relates to calibration methods, which utilize two different calibration samples, and then with respect to a single calibration sample method.
As background, it is known to those in the art that once reflectance data has been recorded from a calibrated reflectometer, it is typically sent to a processor unit where it is subsequently reduced via analytical algorithms. These algorithms generally relate optical data, such as reflectance, to other properties of the sample, which can then be measured and/or monitored like film thickness, complex refractive index, composition, porosity, surface or interface roughness, critical dimensions of patterned features, etc.
Data reduction is generally accomplished using some form of the Fresnel Equations in combination with one or more models to describe the optical properties of the materials comprising the sample. Regardless of the specific model used in the reduction of the data set, the greater goal is generally to use a mathematical expression to describe the measured data such that certain parameters, relating to the properties of the samples (as discussed above), can be obtained through an iterative optimization process. That is, the measured data set is compared to one calculated using an expression that depends on a set of parameters relating to the nature of the sample. The discrepancy between the measured and calculated data sets is minimized by iteratively adjusting the values of the parameters until such time as adequate agreement between the two data sets is achieved. This discrepancy is usually quantified in terms of a “figure of merit” parameter.
Numerous mathematical expressions for calculating figure of merit exist in the prior art. Most of these techniques are to some degree based on a determination of the difference between the measured and calculated spectra. One such technique is the sum of squared residuals normalized by the number of data points (i.e. the un-weighted chi-squared statistic).
A known method of two sample calibration involves the analysis of a reflectance ratio from two calibration samples that results in a determination of the properties of the calibration samples, such as described for example in U.S. Pat. No. 7,282,703 and U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 10/930,339; 11/418,846 and 11/789,686 the disclosures of which are all expressly incorporated by reference in their entirety to overcome these issues. These techniques may be utilized in conjunction with figure of merit values to characterize the confidence in the calibration procedure. Poor figure of merit values usually indicate less accurate calibration events, while superior figure of merit values are indicative of accurate calibration events. The techniques disclosed herein propose a method that would involve comparing the calibration results to predefined limits in order to determine whether the calibration was successful. If deemed successful, then sample measurements are performed. If the event is unsuccessful, the system automatically moves to the next set of calibration sites on the calibration pads and another attempt is made to calibrate. Other aspects of a calibration event are also taken into account. For example, source failure and hardware issues.
Another example of a successful calibration criterion is represented in
As mentioned above, characterizing the calibrations pads or screening the sites prior to use may further enhance the calibration methodology performance. This method may be utilized to identify “good” and “bad” sites and the bad sites may be skipped so as to yield more accurate calibration results. Also, monitoring and adjusting the exposure dose on the calibration samples by the measurement system may accomplish further performance enhancements. This method may be used to reduce and/or eliminate changes caused by interactions between the illumination of the measurement system and the samples. This would improve the variation between a fleet of tools in an automated semiconductor environment in which exposure dose amongst the fleet may vary.
It is important to consider that certain aspects of the auto-advance calibration methodology described herein may be useful in other embodiments. Such as for example in U.S. Pat. No. 7,126,131, the VUV reflectometer disclosed involved a referencing channel. In this embodiment, the reference plane mirror may be expected to accumulate greater amounts of AMC than other optical surfaces in the system since it is exposed to higher power densities. This is attributed to the mirror being located at the focal plane of a focusing optic. It may be beneficial to mount the reference plane mirror on an x-y stage in the focal plane in order to aid the movement to a different location on the reference mirror, once the contaminants have attained a pre-determined limit. Thus, this is an example in which the concepts described herein may be useful with regard to a reference sample. As noted above, the techniques provided herein may be generally applicable to any optical tool characterization samples, as the example of a calibration sample is meant to be illustrative for all optical tool characterization samples.
The auto-advance methodology may also be beneficial to improve tool and tool-matching performance through a variety of ways. The data may be exchanged between modules on the same equipment front end module (EFEM) or within the same semiconductor manufacturing fabrication plant located at one site or within several semiconductor manufacturing fabrication plants located at different sites. It would also be advantageous for the data exchange to adjust limits on calibration success criteria based on a module duty cycle or to adjust the illumination conditions on a module-by-module basis in order to better match conditions. Also, matching may occur by controlling the flow of materials and measurements to individual modules to ensure that the calibration pads properties remain synchronized. The improvement of tool and tool-matching performance utilizing the auto-advance methodology is not limited to these particular modifications
An alternate choice to exemplary multi-sample techniques described above is the utilization of only a single calibration pad. In one example, this method may involve the usage of one calibration sample whose optical properties are well known and stable (for at least a portion of the wavelength range of the measurement) with respect to time and exposure. Although this assumption may not be completely accurate, it may be reasonable in certain conditions with appropriate calibration sample conditioning. The single calibration pad method may involve pre-characterization, such as collection of reflectance spectra from a group of pre-defined locations on the calibration pad. Pad locations exhibiting significantly different reflectance spectra are discarded from the list of “good” locations to be used in subsequent calibration events. The pre-characterization information for the “bad” sites may also be utilized for adjusting and/or correcting future calibration events from these same sites. Typically the bad sites will have lower reflectance values.
Some effort is needed in order to determine the absolute reflectance of the calibration sample to be used. This may be achieved using an absolute reflectometer or through some special sample preparation, for example an etch-back of the native oxide on silicon technique. Determination of the absolute reflectance may also be accomplished using an analytical measurement technique, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray methods, etc. Alternately, a reflectance ratio or multiple reflectance ratios can be used for a single determination of the absolute reflectance of the calibration sample.
The advantage of this approach is that it may yield higher stability. This is due to the fact that a fitting/analysis step is not involved. Disadvantages include less insight into accuracy. The method is unable to determine whether the sites have changed since the pre-characterization, and, the system is less capable of indicating “errors” such as identifying problems with calibration pads, sources, signal levels, mechanical alignments, etc.
It is noteworthy that the calibration success criteria may be based on a single result of a calibration event or any combination of results from multiple calibration events. Although figure of merit values and AMC thickness values have been presented as factors for determining calibration success, it is notable that many other possibilities exist and may be utilized equally as well. Further, the mere frequency that the calibration site needs to be changed may be indicative of a sample and/or environmental cleanliness condition. These conditions may be monitored and used to adjust and/or enhance tool-cleaning parameters in order to establish optimum tool maintenance, such as for example in U.S. Pat. No. 7,342,235 and U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 11/600,414 and 11/600,477, the discloses of which are all expressly incorporated by reference in their entirety to overcome these issues.
The calibration site change frequency may be expected to be influenced and/or impacted by tools, processes, samples, or conditions in the neighboring vicinity of the calibration samples. It follows that calibration site change frequency may be monitored and used to identify significant events or activities which could be expected to impact other events or activities within a manufacturing environment. For example, it is conceivable that activities conducted on certain process tools could result in a change in the contamination level of the environment within a manufacturing facility and that these changes could adversely affect product yield. If a correlation between the occurrence of such activities and the calibration site change frequency could be established, then the calibration site change frequency could be monitored in order to identify such occurrences and enable action to be taken in order to reduce yield impact. In this sense monitoring of the calibration site frequency could provide valuable feedback to manufacturing organizations in order to assist with yield improvement.
The pre-characterization technique described above may be used on its own or in conjunction with the dual sample methods described above or other methods that monitor changes over time. When used in combination with the dual sample method, a preferred embodiment may involve performing an initial successful dual sample calibration, and then utilizing the calibrated instrument to pre-characterize a series of pre-defined locations on the calibration pads. Thus, the technique involves making an initial identification of “good” and “bad” calibration sites. In this way, a separate metrology tool is not needed to pre-characterize the sites. Determination is made of at least one property of “good” calibration sites and accumulated for future use in performing a dual pad calibration. Finally, one may also use the stored pre-characterization data to aid in determination of dual pad calibration results. This pre-characterization data should improve the stability of the dual sample calibration method since fewer properties of the dual pad calibration samples would be determined during the calibration process.
An alternative method to the combined dual sample and single pad methods described above would be to pre-characterize samples of a dual sample technique, and then to use the ratio to determine if a site has altered over time, by comparing subsequent data to the stored ratio for that site. If no change has occurred, a single pad calibration may then be performed.
The techniques described above provide a wide range of means to evaluate a calibration site so as to determine if the calibration site is acceptable for either initial or further use. It will be recognized that for calibration methods in which two different calibration sample sites are utilized in the calibration process, one site and/or both sites may be determined to be unacceptable for use. In some methods in which two sample sites are utilized, it may not be possible to distinguish which particular site is unacceptable for use and thus both sites may be designated as “bad” even though it may be possible that only one of the two calibration sites is actually unacceptable.
It may be desirable to perform the characterization of a site, whether a pre-characterization, or an analysis such as the dual sample techniques described above, after the site has “aged” in a system for some period. Thus, when a pad is first placed in a system the pad may exhibit some initial settling changes after which relative equilibrium is reached. Thus, changes in the site, which occur during an initial period of time, may not be mistaken for system changes.
The technique disclosed herein regarding automated calibration is advantageous for use with a wide range of optical metrology tools. For example, as described herein the techniques may be used with VUV reflectometers. However, it will be recognized that these concepts are not just limited to the VUV spectral range and not just limited to use with reflectometers. Rather other wavelengths and other optical metrology tools may advantageously utilize the concepts disclosed herein.
Further modifications and alternative embodiments of the techniques described herein will be apparent to those skilled in the art in view of this description. It will be recognized, therefore, that the techniques described herein are not limited by these example arrangements. Accordingly, this description is to be construed as illustrative only and is for the purpose of teaching those skilled in the art the manner of carrying out the techniques described herein. It is to be understood that the forms of the techniques described herein shown and described are to be taken as the presently preferred embodiments. Various changes may be made in the implementations and architectures. For example, equivalent elements may be substituted for those illustrated and described herein and certain features of the techniques described herein may be utilized independently of the use of other features, all as would be apparent to one skilled in the art after having the benefit of this description of the techniques.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3091154||Jan 6, 1961||May 28, 1963||Barnes Eng Co||Reflectometer|
|US3160752||Feb 19, 1963||Dec 8, 1964||Bennett Harold E||Reflectometer for measuring surface finishes|
|US3572951||Oct 29, 1968||Mar 30, 1971||Us Army||Single mirror normal incidence reflectometer|
|US3751643||May 23, 1972||Aug 7, 1973||Ibm||System for performing spectral analyses under computer control|
|US3825347||Aug 9, 1971||Jul 23, 1974||Max Planck Gesellschaft||Apparatus for determining a substance by an optical radiation|
|US4029419||Oct 10, 1975||Jun 14, 1977||International Business Machines Corporation||Textile color analyzer calibration|
|US4368983||Nov 13, 1980||Jan 18, 1983||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy||Absolute reflectometer|
|US4645349||May 10, 1985||Feb 24, 1987||O R C Manufacturing Co., Ltd.||Method of measuring film thickness|
|US4729657||Jun 23, 1986||Mar 8, 1988||Miles Laboratories, Inc.||Method of calibrating reflectance measuring devices|
|US4837603||Oct 29, 1986||Jun 6, 1989||Nihon Shinku Gijutsu Kabushiki Kaisha||Method of correcting azimuth angle of photometric ellipsometers|
|US4899055||May 12, 1988||Feb 6, 1990||Tencor Instruments||Thin film thickness measuring method|
|US4984894||Aug 16, 1989||Jan 15, 1991||Dainippon Screen Mfg. Co., Ltd.||Method of and apparatus for measuring film thickness|
|US5042949||Mar 17, 1989||Aug 27, 1991||Greenberg Jeffrey S||Optical profiler for films and substrates|
|US5045704||Feb 1, 1990||Sep 3, 1991||Nanometrics Incorporated||Method for determining absolute reflectance of a material in the ultraviolet range|
|US5120966||Feb 6, 1991||Jun 9, 1992||Dainippon Screen Mfg. Co., Ltd.||Method of and apparatus for measuring film thickness|
|US5128549||Mar 30, 1990||Jul 7, 1992||Beckman Instruments, Inc.||Stray radiation compensation|
|US5182618||Nov 13, 1991||Jan 26, 1993||Aimo Heinonen||Reflectometric method of measurement and apparatus for realizing the method|
|US5241366||Mar 4, 1992||Aug 31, 1993||Tencor Instruments||Thin film thickness monitor|
|US5251006||Mar 7, 1991||Oct 5, 1993||Nirsystems Incorporated||Automatic spectrophotometer calibration system|
|US5357448||Feb 2, 1993||Oct 18, 1994||Quad/Tech, Inc.||Method and apparatus for controlling the printing of an image having a plurality of printed colors|
|US5388909||Sep 16, 1993||Feb 14, 1995||Johnson; Shane R.||Optical apparatus and method for measuring temperature of a substrate material with a temperature dependent band gap|
|US5440141||Aug 11, 1994||Aug 8, 1995||Dainippon Screen Mfg. Co., Ltd.||Method of measuring a thickness of a multilayered sample using ultraviolet light and light with wavelengths longer than ultraviolet|
|US5452091||Mar 22, 1993||Sep 19, 1995||Nanometrics Incorporated||Scatter correction in reflectivity measurements|
|US5486701||Mar 28, 1994||Jan 23, 1996||Prometrix Corporation||Method and apparatus for measuring reflectance in two wavelength bands to enable determination of thin film thickness|
|US5493401||Sep 20, 1994||Feb 20, 1996||Dainippon Screen Mfg. Co., Ltd.||Method of measuring film thicknesses|
|US5581350||Jun 6, 1995||Dec 3, 1996||Tencor Instruments||Method and system for calibrating an ellipsometer|
|US5607800||Feb 15, 1995||Mar 4, 1997||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Method and arrangement for characterizing micro-size patterns|
|US5608526||Jan 19, 1995||Mar 4, 1997||Tencor Instruments||Focused beam spectroscopic ellipsometry method and system|
|US5686993||Jul 9, 1996||Nov 11, 1997||Dainippon Screen Mfg. Co., Ltd.||Method of and apparatus for measuring film thickness|
|US5747813||Apr 14, 1994||May 5, 1998||Kla-Tencop. Corporation||Broadband microspectro-reflectometer|
|US5754296||Nov 27, 1996||May 19, 1998||Kansas State University Research Foundation||Ellipsometric microscope|
|US5771094||Jan 29, 1997||Jun 23, 1998||Kla-Tencor Corporation||Film measurement system with improved calibration|
|US5777733||Dec 3, 1996||Jul 7, 1998||Bodenseewerk Perkin-Elmer Gmbh||Spectrometer with wavelength calibration|
|US5781304||Feb 14, 1997||Jul 14, 1998||Textron Systems Corporation||Laser ultrasonics-based material analysis system and method|
|US5784167||Dec 3, 1996||Jul 21, 1998||United Microelectronics Corp.||Method of measuring thickness of a multi-layers film|
|US5798837||Jul 11, 1997||Aug 25, 1998||Therma-Wave, Inc.||Thin film optical measurement system and method with calibrating ellipsometer|
|US5805285||Mar 17, 1997||Sep 8, 1998||J.A. Woollam Co. Inc.||Multiple order dispersive optics system and method of use|
|US5867276||Mar 7, 1997||Feb 2, 1999||Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.||Method for broad wavelength scatterometry|
|US5880831||Dec 9, 1997||Mar 9, 1999||N & K Technology, Inc.||Reflectance spectrophotometric apparatus with optical relay|
|US5900939||Jun 17, 1998||May 4, 1999||Therma-Wave, Inc.||Thin film optical measurement system and method with calibrating ellipsometer|
|US5903351||Oct 7, 1997||May 11, 1999||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Method and apparatus for selective spectroscopic analysis of a wafer surface and gas phase elements in a reaction chamber|
|US5917594||Apr 8, 1998||Jun 29, 1999||Kla-Tencor Corporation||Spectroscopic measurement system using an off-axis spherical mirror and refractive elements|
|US5991022||May 15, 1998||Nov 23, 1999||N&K Technology, Inc.||Reflectance spectrophotometric apparatus with toroidal mirrors|
|US6052401||Jun 12, 1997||Apr 18, 2000||Rutgers, The State University||Electron beam irradiation of gases and light source using the same|
|US6091485||Dec 15, 1999||Jul 18, 2000||N & K Technology, Inc.||Method and apparatus for optically determining physical parameters of underlayers|
|US6122052||Apr 27, 1999||Sep 19, 2000||Perkin Elmer Llc||Computer operated spectrometric instrument and associated calculator|
|US6128085||Oct 19, 1999||Oct 3, 2000||N & K Technology, Inc.||Reflectance spectroscopic apparatus with toroidal mirrors|
|US6129807||Oct 6, 1997||Oct 10, 2000||Applied Materials, Inc.||Apparatus for monitoring processing of a substrate|
|US6181427||Jul 6, 1999||Jan 30, 2001||Nanometrics Incorporated||Compact optical reflectometer system|
|US6184529||Jan 28, 1998||Feb 6, 2001||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Methods and apparatus for performing scene based uniformity correction in imaging systems|
|US6184984||Feb 9, 1999||Feb 6, 2001||Kla-Tencor Corporation||System for measuring polarimetric spectrum and other properties of a sample|
|US6226086||Aug 11, 1997||May 1, 2001||Vorgem Limited||Thickness monitoring|
|US6261853||Feb 7, 2000||Jul 17, 2001||Therma-Wave, Inc.||Method and apparatus for preparing semiconductor wafers for measurement|
|US6265033||Sep 10, 1999||Jul 24, 2001||Donald Bennett Hilliard||Method for optically coupled vapor deposition|
|US6275292||Mar 2, 2000||Aug 14, 2001||Micron Technology, Inc.||Reflectance method for evaluating the surface characteristics of opaque materials|
|US6278519||Jan 29, 1998||Aug 21, 2001||Therma-Wave, Inc.||Apparatus for analyzing multi-layer thin film stacks on semiconductors|
|US6297880||May 2, 2000||Oct 2, 2001||Therma-Wave, Inc.||Apparatus for analyzing multi-layer thin film stacks on semiconductors|
|US6304326||Feb 8, 1999||Oct 16, 2001||Therma-Wave, Inc.||Thin film optical measurement system and method with calibrating ellipsometer|
|US6313466||May 12, 1999||Nov 6, 2001||Philips Electronics North America Corp.||Method for determining nitrogen concentration in a film of nitrided oxide material|
|US6340602||Feb 12, 2001||Jan 22, 2002||Sensys Instruments||Method of measuring meso-scale structures on wafers|
|US6361646||Mar 18, 1999||Mar 26, 2002||Speedfam-Ipec Corporation||Method and apparatus for endpoint detection for chemical mechanical polishing|
|US6392756||Jun 18, 1999||May 21, 2002||N&K Technology, Inc.||Method and apparatus for optically determining physical parameters of thin films deposited on a complex substrate|
|US6411385||Jun 21, 2001||Jun 25, 2002||Therma-Wave, Inc.||Thin film optical measurement system and method with calibrating ellipsometer|
|US6414302||Sep 24, 1998||Jul 2, 2002||Interface Studies Inc||High photon energy range reflected light characterization of solids|
|US6417921||Jun 13, 2001||Jul 9, 2002||Therma-Wave, Inc.||Apparatus for analyzing multi-layer thin film stacks on semiconductors|
|US6433878||Jan 29, 2001||Aug 13, 2002||Timbre Technology, Inc.||Method and apparatus for the determination of mask rules using scatterometry|
|US6453006||Mar 16, 2000||Sep 17, 2002||Therma-Wave, Inc.||Calibration and alignment of X-ray reflectometric systems|
|US6485872||Nov 22, 2000||Nov 26, 2002||Mks Instruments, Inc.||Method and apparatus for measuring the composition and other properties of thin films utilizing infrared radiation|
|US6525829||May 25, 2001||Feb 25, 2003||Novellus Systems, Inc.||Method and apparatus for in-situ measurement of thickness of copper oxide film using optical reflectivity|
|US6549279||Apr 9, 2001||Apr 15, 2003||Speedfam-Ipec Corporation||Method and apparatus for optical endpoint calibration in CMP|
|US6556303||Jul 10, 2001||Apr 29, 2003||Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.||Scattered signal collection using strobed technique|
|US6572951||Mar 28, 2001||Jun 3, 2003||Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.||Printing sheet|
|US6580510||Dec 4, 2000||Jun 17, 2003||Agilent Technologies Inc.||Self-calibrating measuring setup for interference spectroscopy|
|US6590656||Sep 21, 2001||Jul 8, 2003||Kla-Tencor Corporation||Spectroscopic scatterometer system|
|US6608690||Dec 4, 2001||Aug 19, 2003||Timbre Technologies, Inc.||Optical profilometry of additional-material deviations in a periodic grating|
|US6630673||Dec 21, 2001||Oct 7, 2003||Abbott Laboratories||Non-invasive sensor capable of determining optical parameters in a sample having multiple layers|
|US6630996||Nov 14, 2001||Oct 7, 2003||Real Time Metrology, Inc.||Optical method and apparatus for inspecting large area planar objects|
|US6633831||Sep 20, 2001||Oct 14, 2003||Kla Tencor Technologies||Methods and systems for determining a critical dimension and a thin film characteristic of a specimen|
|US6643354||Apr 17, 2002||Nov 4, 2003||Therma-Wave, Inc.||Calibration and alignment of X-ray reflectometric systems|
|US6657737||Dec 12, 2000||Dec 2, 2003||Ebara Corporation||Method and apparatus for measuring film thickness|
|US6665075||Nov 13, 2001||Dec 16, 2003||Wm. Marshurice University||Interferometric imaging system and method|
|US6710865||Sep 14, 2001||Mar 23, 2004||N&K Technology, Inc.||Method of inferring optical parameters outside of a measurement spectral range|
|US6713775||Jun 21, 2002||Mar 30, 2004||Lexmark International, Inc.||Method to correct for sensitivity variation of media sensors|
|US6721052||Dec 20, 2000||Apr 13, 2004||Kla-Technologies Corporation||Systems for measuring periodic structures|
|US6734968||Apr 22, 1999||May 11, 2004||Haiming Wang||System for analyzing surface characteristics with self-calibrating capability|
|US6765676||Aug 30, 2000||Jul 20, 2004||N & K Technology, Inc.||Simultaneous compensation of source and detector drift in optical systems|
|US6768785||Aug 19, 2003||Jul 27, 2004||Therma-Wave, Inc.||Calibration and alignment of X-ray reflectometric systems|
|US6801309||Oct 8, 2002||Oct 5, 2004||Therma-Wave, Inc.||Detector array with scattered light correction|
|US6879395||Jun 19, 2001||Apr 12, 2005||Otsuka Electronics Co., Ltd.||Spectrum measuring instrument|
|US6891626||Jan 25, 2001||May 10, 2005||Timbre Technologies, Inc.||Caching of intra-layer calculations for rapid rigorous coupled-wave analyses|
|US6897456||Sep 5, 2003||May 24, 2005||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Differential pumping system and exposure apparatus|
|US6897807||Apr 5, 2004||May 24, 2005||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Radio-wave arrival-direction estimating apparatus and directional variable transceiver|
|US6934025||May 5, 2004||Aug 23, 2005||Therma-Wave, Inc.||Thin film optical measurement system and method with calibrating ellipsometer|
|US6982792||Feb 28, 2003||Jan 3, 2006||J.A. Woollam Co. Inc||Spectrophotometer, ellipsometer, polarimeter and the like systems|
|US6987832||Jun 4, 2004||Jan 17, 2006||Kla-Tencor Technologies Corp.||Calibration and alignment of X-ray reflectometric systems|
|US7026165||Jan 31, 2001||Apr 11, 2006||The University Of Montana||Calibration-free optical chemical sensors|
|US7026626||Sep 23, 2003||Apr 11, 2006||Metrosol, Inc.||Semiconductor processing techniques utilizing vacuum ultraviolet reflectometer|
|US7061614||May 8, 2002||Jun 13, 2006||Therma-Wave, Inc.||Measurement system with separate optimized beam paths|
|US7067818||Sep 23, 2003||Jun 27, 2006||Metrosol, Inc.||Vacuum ultraviolet reflectometer system and method|
|US7072050||May 27, 2004||Jul 4, 2006||Ebara Corporation||Substrate film thickness measurement method, substrate film thickness measurement apparatus and substrate processing apparatus|
|US7126131||Jul 30, 2004||Oct 24, 2006||Metrosol, Inc.||Broad band referencing reflectometer|
|US7130029||Sep 20, 2001||Oct 31, 2006||Kla-Tencor Technologies Corp.||Methods and systems for determining an adhesion characteristic and a thickness of a specimen|
|US7189973||Apr 27, 2006||Mar 13, 2007||Metrosol, Inc.||Vacuum ultraviolet reflectometer integrated with processing system|
|US7224471||Oct 28, 2003||May 29, 2007||Timbre Technologies, Inc.||Azimuthal scanning of a structure formed on a semiconductor wafer|
|US7242477||Feb 23, 2004||Jul 10, 2007||Kla-Tencor Technologies Corporation||Apparatus and methods for detecting overlay errors using scatterometry|
|US7271394||Apr 27, 2006||Sep 18, 2007||Metrosol, Inc.||Vacuum ultraviolet reflectometer having collimated beam|
|US7282703||May 5, 2006||Oct 16, 2007||Metrosol, Inc.||Method and apparatus for accurate calibration of a reflectometer by using a relative reflectance measurement|
|US7342235||Nov 16, 2006||Mar 11, 2008||Metrosol, Inc.||Contamination monitoring and control techniques for use with an optical metrology instrument|
|US7399975||Aug 31, 2004||Jul 15, 2008||Metrosol, Inc.||Method and apparatus for performing highly accurate thin film measurements|
|US7485869||Feb 27, 2007||Feb 3, 2009||Metrosol, Inc.||Prism spectrometer|
|US7511265||May 5, 2006||Mar 31, 2009||Metrosol, Inc.||Method and apparatus for accurate calibration of a reflectometer by using a relative reflectance measurement|
|US7579601||Feb 27, 2007||Aug 25, 2009||Metrosol, Inc.||Spectrometer with moveable detector element|
|US7643666||Aug 8, 2006||Jan 5, 2010||Asml Netherlands B.V.||Method and apparatus for angular-resolved spectroscopic lithography characterization|
|US7684037||Feb 27, 2007||Mar 23, 2010||Metrosol, Inc.||Spectrometer with collimated input light|
|US20010055118||Dec 4, 2000||Dec 27, 2001||Bernd Nawracala||Self-calibrating measuring setup for interference spectroscopy|
|US20020030826||Jul 3, 2001||Mar 14, 2002||Chalmers Scott A.||Method and apparatus for high-speed thickness mapping of patterned thin films|
|US20020110218||Apr 17, 2002||Aug 15, 2002||Koppel Louis N.||Calibration and alignment of X-ray reflectometric systems|
|US20020126277||Feb 21, 2002||Sep 12, 2002||Norton Adam E.||Small-spot spectrometry instrument with reduced polarization and multiple-element depolarizer therefor|
|US20020149774||Dec 21, 2001||Oct 17, 2002||Mcaninch Jeffrey E.||Purge system for optical metrology tool|
|US20020154302||May 8, 2002||Oct 24, 2002||Allan Rosencwaig||Apparatus for analyzing multi-layer thin film stacks on semiconductors|
|US20020179864||Sep 20, 2001||Dec 5, 2002||John Fielden||Methods and systems for determining a thin film characteristic and an electrical property of a specimen|
|US20020179867||Sep 20, 2001||Dec 5, 2002||John Fielden||Methods and systems for determining flatness, a presence of defects, and a thin film characteristic of a specimen|
|US20020180961||Sep 20, 2001||Dec 5, 2002||Dan Wack||Methods and systems for determining an adhesion characteristic and a thickness of a specimen|
|US20020180985||Sep 20, 2001||Dec 5, 2002||Dan Wack||Methods and systems for determining at least one characteristic of defects on at least two sides of a specimen|
|US20020180986||Sep 20, 2001||Dec 5, 2002||Mehrdad Nikoonahad||Methods and systems for determining a critical dimension, a presence of defects, and a thin film characteristic of a specimen|
|US20020182760||Sep 20, 2001||Dec 5, 2002||Dan Wack||Methods and systems for determining a presence of macro defects and overlay of a specimen|
|US20020190207||Sep 20, 2001||Dec 19, 2002||Ady Levy||Methods and systems for determining a characteristic of micro defects on a specimen|
|US20030011786||Sep 20, 2001||Jan 16, 2003||Ady Levy||Methods and systems for determining overlay and flatness of a specimen|
|US20030071996||May 8, 2002||Apr 17, 2003||Wang David Y.||Measurement system with separate optimized beam paths|
|US20030081201||Oct 25, 2002||May 1, 2003||Yukihiro Shibata||Method and apparatus for inspecting defects|
|US20040032593||Mar 27, 2003||Feb 19, 2004||Lam Research Corporation||Process endpoint detection method using broadband reflectometry|
|US20040052330||Aug 19, 2003||Mar 18, 2004||Koppel Louis N.||Calibration and alignment of X-ray reflectometric systems|
|US20040150820||Nov 19, 2003||Aug 5, 2004||Mehrdad Nikoonahad||Optical system for measuring samples using short wavelength radiation|
|US20040218717||Jun 4, 2004||Nov 4, 2004||Koppel Louis N||Calibration and alignment of X-ray reflectometric systems|
|US20050002037||Sep 23, 2003||Jan 6, 2005||Harrison Dale A.||Vacuum ultraviolet referencing reflectometer|
|US20050036143 *||Aug 15, 2003||Feb 17, 2005||Nanometrics Incorporated||Reference calibration of metrology instrument|
|US20060001885||Apr 5, 2005||Jan 5, 2006||Hertzsch Albrecht E||Method and device for quantitative determination of the optical quality of a transparent material|
|US20070030488||Sep 8, 2006||Feb 8, 2007||Metrosol, Inc.||Broad band referencing reflectometer|
|US20070181793||Aug 31, 2004||Aug 9, 2007||Harrison Dale A||Method and apparatus for accurate calibration of VUV reflectometer|
|US20070181795||May 5, 2006||Aug 9, 2007||Phillip Walsh||Method and apparatus for accurate calibration of a reflectometer by using a relative reflectance measurement|
|US20070182970||Aug 31, 2004||Aug 9, 2007||Harrison Dale A||Method and apparatus for performing highly accurate thin film measurements|
|US20070215801||Apr 25, 2007||Sep 20, 2007||Phillip Walsh|
|US20080042071||May 3, 2007||Feb 21, 2008||Metrosol, Inc.||Broad band referencing reflectometer|
|US20080073560||Nov 16, 2006||Mar 27, 2008||Harrison Dale A||Contamination monitoring and control techniques for use with an optical metrology instrument|
|US20080181793||Jan 31, 2007||Jul 31, 2008||Sanjay Ishvarlal Mistry||Electric Feedback/Yoke Angle Sensor For Position Feedback|
|US20080246951||Apr 7, 2008||Oct 9, 2008||Phillip Walsh||Method and system for using reflectometry below deep ultra-violet (DUV) wavelengths for measuring properties of diffracting or scattering structures on substrate work-pieces|
|US20090002711||Sep 2, 2008||Jan 1, 2009||Metrosol, Inc.||Broad band referencing reflectometer|
|US20090248074||Mar 31, 2008||Oct 1, 2009||Playtex Products , Inc.||Pacifier|
|US20100051822||Mar 4, 2010||Metrosol, Inc.||Broad band referencing reflectometer|
|USRE34783||Aug 23, 1993||Nov 8, 1994||Nanometrics Incorporated||Method for determining absolute reflectance of a material in the ultraviolet range|
|CN2430682Y||Nov 18, 1999||May 16, 2001||金钦汉||High sensitive photometer|
|JP03202266A||Title not available|
|JP03232681A||Title not available|
|JP10160572A||Title not available|
|JP2000205966A||Title not available|
|JP2000249600A||Title not available|
|JP2002243381A||Title not available|
|WO1999002970A1||Jun 5, 1998||Jan 21, 1999||Therma Wave Inc||An apparatus for analyzing multi-layer thin film stacks on semiconductors|
|1||"Optical Characterization of Molecular Contaminant Films" Photonics Tech Briefs, 2007, 2 pgs.|
|2||"SE and GXR combined on the same instrument," Web page from http://www.sopra-sa.com, Sopra, Printed From Internet on Feb. 19, 2002, 1 pg.|
|3||"The ideal Thin Film characterization unit for Development and Pilot Line environment," Web page from http://www.sopra-sa.com, Sopra, Printed From Internet on Feb. 19, 2002, 1 pg.|
|4||"The Thin Film tool for next generation lithography at 157nm," Web page from http://www.sopra-sa.com, Sopra, Printed From Internet on Feb. 19, 2002, 1 pg.|
|5||"Vacuum UV Spectroscopic Ellipsometers," Web pages from http://www.sentech.de, Sentech Instruments, Printed From Internet on Feb. 20, 2002, 1-3 pps.|
|6||"VUV-VASE(TM), The Award Winning VUV-VASE(TM) is the latest addition to our line of Spectroscopic Ellipsometers," Web pages from http://www.jawoolam.com, J.A. Woollam Company, Nebraska, Printed From Internet on Nov. 5, 2002, 1-2 pps.|
|7||"VUV-VASE™, The Award Winning VUV-VASE™ is the latest addition to our line of Spectroscopic Ellipsometers," Web pages from http://www.jawoolam.com, J.A. Woollam Company, Nebraska, Printed From Internet on Nov. 5, 2002, 1-2 pps.|
|8||Acton Research Product Brochure "Acton Research Purged CAMS Optical Measurement System," Acton Research Corporation, Massachusetts, Published Prior to Sep. 23, 2003, 1-2 pps.|
|9||Aspnes, "The Accurate Determination of Optical Properties by Ellipsometry", Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, vol. 1, ed. D, Academic Press, 1998, 5 pgs.|
|10||Bloomstein et al., "Contamination Rates of Optical Surface At 157NM in the Presence of Hydrocarbon Impurities", Optical Microlithography XV, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 4691, 2002, 15 pgs.|
|11||Chinese Patent Application No. 200480027513.6 Official Action dated Jul. 18, 2008.|
|12||Das et al., "Image Evaluation of the High-Resolution VUV Spectrometer at SURF II by Ray Tracing", Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, vol. 103, No. 5, pp. 483-495, Sep.-Oct. 1998.|
|13||Field et al., "Method of Using the Reflectance Ratios of Different Angles of Incidence for the Determination of Optical Constants", Applied Optics, vol. 10, No. 6, Jun. 1971, 4 pgs.|
|14||Harrison et al., copending application, entitled "Contamination Monitoring and Control Techniques for Use With an Optical Metrology Instrument", filed Nov. 16, 2006, 53 pgs.|
|15||Hunter et al., "Journal of the Optical Society of America", Optical Society of America, vol. 55, No. 10, Part 1, Oct. 1965, 8 pgs.|
|16||Hunter et al., "Thickness of Absorbing Films Necessary to Measure Their Optical Constants Using the Reflectance-Vs-Angle-of-Incidence Method", Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol. 64, No. 4, Apr. 1874, 5 pgs.|
|17||Japanese Patent Application # 528098/06 Official Action dated Jun. 15, 2010 (including English translation).|
|18||Jellison et al, "Erratum: Parameterization of the Optical Functions of Amorphous Materials in the Interband Region", Applied Physics Letter, vol. 69, 1996, 1 pg.|
|19||Jellison et al, "Parameterization of the Optical Functions of Amorphous Materials in the Interband Region", Applied Physics Letter, vol. 69, 1996, 3 pgs.|
|20||JP Patent Application # 528098/06 Official Action dated Aug. 30, 2011.|
|21||McPherson Product Brochure "Reflectometer for Sample Analysis," McPherson, Inc., Massachusetts, Published Prior to Sep. 23, 2003, 1-2 pps.|
|22||McPherson Product Brochure "Spectral Reflectometer," McPherson, Inc., Massachusetts, Nov. 12, 2001, 1 pg.|
|23||McPherson Product Brochure "VUVaS Spectrophotometers for 115 nm to >380 nm," McPherson, Inc., Massachusetts, Published Prior to Sep. 23, 2003, 1-4 pps.|
|24||McPherson Product Brochure "VUVaS Spectrophotometers, Made to Measure 115-380 nm," McPherson, Inc., Massachusetts, Published Prior to Sep. 23, 2003, 1-8 pps.|
|25||Okoroanyanwu et al., "Contamination Monitoring and Control on ASML MS-VII 157nm Exposure Tool", Optical Microlithography XVII, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 5377, 2004, 13 pgs.|
|26||Press et al., "Numerical Recipes in C" The Art of Scientific Computing, Second Edition, 1992, 15.5 Nonlinear Models, pp. 681-688.|
|27||Request for Ex Parte Reexamination for US Patent # 7,026,626 filed Nov. 7, 2008.|
|28||Request for Ex Parte Reexamination for US Patent # 7,067,818 filed Feb. 11, 2009.|
|29||Request for Ex Parte Reexamination for US Patent # 7,067,818 filed Feb. 12, 2010.|
|30||Rivas, "Optical Characterization of Hafnium-Based High-K Dielectric Films Using Vacuum Ultraviolet Reflectometry", XV International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, 2007, 6 pgs.|
|31||Rubloff, "Surface Reflectance Spectroscopy System", Technical Disclosure, Ip.com, www.ip.com, May 1, 1977, 5 pgs.|
|32||Search Report, PCT/US2007/010003, Dec. 17, 2008, 3 pgs.|
|33||Search Report; PCT/USO4/30859; 13 pgs.|
|34||*||Sendlebach, et al. "Integrated scatterometry in high volume manufacturing for polysilicon gate etch control," Metrology, Inspection, and Microlithography, edited by Chas N. Archie, Proc. of SPIE vol. 6152, published 2006.|
|35||U.S Appl. No. 12/876,242 Official Action dated Nov. 19, 2010.|
|36||U.S. Appl. No. 10/930,339 Official Action dated Apr. 18, 2008.|
|37||U.S. Appl. No. 10/930,339 Official Action dated Jan. 18, 2007.|
|38||U.S. Appl. No. 10/930,339 Official Action dated Nov. 13, 2008.|
|39||U.S. Appl. No. 10/930,339 Official Action dated Sep. 29, 2009.|
|40||U.S. Appl. No. 10/930,339 Official Action dated Sep. 6, 2007.|
|41||U.S. Appl. No. 12/590,151 Official Action dated Jun. 25, 2010.|
|42||U.S. Appl. No. 12/590,151 Official Action dated Mar. 17, 2011.|
|43||U.S. Appl. No. 12/592,641 Official Action dated Aug. 20, 2010.|
|44||U.S. Appl. No. 12/834,939 Official Action dated Jun. 10, 2011.|
|45||U.S. Appl. No. 12/854,917 Official Action dated Jul. 28, 2011.|
|46||U.S. Appl. No. 12/876,242 Official Action dated May 20, 2011.|
|47||US Re-Examination Application # 90/009,320 Official Action dated Sep. 25, 2009, and Notice of Intent to Issue Re-Exam Certificate dated Jun. 23, 2010.|
|48||US Re-Examination Application # 90/009,409 Official Action dated Jun. 18, 2010.|
|49||US Re-Examination Application # 95/000,535 Official Action dated May 14, 2010.|
|50||Walsh, copending application, entitled "Method and Apparatus for Using Multiple Relative Reflectance Measurements to Determine Properties of a Sample Using Vacuum Ultra Violet Wavelengths", filed Feb. 28, 2008, 43 pgs.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8565379||Mar 14, 2012||Oct 22, 2013||Jordan Valley Semiconductors Ltd.||Combining X-ray and VUV analysis of thin film layers|
|US8867041||Jan 15, 2012||Oct 21, 2014||Jordan Valley Semiconductor Ltd||Optical vacuum ultra-violet wavelength nanoimprint metrology|
|U.S. Classification||250/372, 250/252.1, 356/455, 356/433, 356/448|
|Cooperative Classification||G01N21/278, G01N2021/335|
|Jul 2, 2009||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: METROSOL, INC., TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:HURST, JEFFREY B.;WELDON, MATTHEW;WALSH, PHILLIP;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20090622 TO 20090625;REEL/FRAME:022931/0528
|Nov 13, 2009||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SILICON VALLEY BANK, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:METROSOL, INC.;REEL/FRAME:023510/0495
Effective date: 20091109
|Mar 19, 2010||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: METROSOL, INC., TEXAS
Free format text: RELEASE AND REASSIGNMENT OF PATENTS AND PATENT APPLICATIONS;ASSIGNOR:SILICON VALLEY BANK;REEL/FRAME:024103/0794
Effective date: 20100319
|Mar 21, 2010||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: JORDAN VALLEY SEMICONDUCTORS LTD., ISRAEL
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:METROSOL INC.;REEL/FRAME:024103/0802
Effective date: 20100318
|Aug 5, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4