US 8154093 B2
Embodiments of nanoelectronic sensors are described, including sensors for detecting analytes inorganic gases, organic vapors, biomolecules, viruses and the like. A number of embodiments of capacitive sensors having alternative architectures are described. Particular examples include integrated cell membranes and membrane-like structures in nanoelectronic sensors.
1. A sensor, comprising:
a conductive base disposed adjacent the substrate;
a dielectric material covering at least a region of the conductive base;
one or more nanostructures disposed upon the dielectric material such that at least one or more of the nanostructures are in contact with the dielectric material throughout at least most of the one or more nanostructures' length and capacitively coupled to the conductive base; and
a top lead electrically communicating to the one or more nanostructures, wherein said top lead extends substantially across the one or more nanostructures.
2. The sensor of
3. The sensor of
4. A sensor, comprising:
a spaced-apart pair including a first and second conductive lead disposed adjacent the substrate;
a dielectric material covering at least a region of at least one conductive lead; and
a plurality of interconnected nanostructures disposed adjacent the dielectric material capacitively coupled to at least one conductive lead.
5. The sensor of
6. The sensor of
7. The sensor of
8. The sensor of
9. The sensor of
10. A sensor comprising:
a substrate having an active region;
first and second conductive leads disposed adjacent the substrate and spaced apart from the active region;
a dielectric material disposed adjacent at least the active region; and
first and second nanostructure layers in electrical communication with the first and second conductive leads respectively,
the nanostructure layers each including one or more nanostructures, the nanostructure layers arranged adjacent the active region and configured so as to be capacitively coupled and separated with respect to each other by the dielectric material, wherein the lengthwise dimensions of the one or more of the nanostructures are aligned generally parallel with the substrate.
11. The sensor of
12. The sensor of
13. The sensor of
14. The sensor of
This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/090,550 filed Mar. 25, 2005 now abandoned entitled “Sensitivity control for nanotube sensors”, which is a divisional application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/280,265 filed Oct. 26, 2002 (now U.S. Pat. No. 6,894,359), which in turn claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/408,412 filed Sep. 4, 2002, which applications are incorporated by reference.
This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/345,783 filed Jan. 16, 2003 now abandoned, entitled “Electronic sensing of biological and chemical agents using functionalized nanostructures” (now published as 2003-0134433), which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/349,670 filed Jan. 16, 2002, which applications are incorporated by reference.
This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/704,066 filed Nov. 7, 2003 now abandoned entitled “Nanotube-Based Electronic Detection Of Biomolecules” (published as US 2004-0132070 on Jul. 8, 2004), which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/424,892 filed Nov. 8, 2002, which applications are incorporated by reference.
This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/318,354 filed Dec. 23, 2005 now abandoned, entitled “Nanoelectronic Sensor Devices For DNA Detection”, which claims priority to (among other applications) U.S. Provisional Application Nos. 60/748,834 filed Dec. 9, 2005; 60/738,694 filed Nov. 21, 2005; 60/730,905, filed Oct. 27, 2005; 60/668,879 filed Apr. 5, 2005; 60/657,275 filed Feb. 28, 2005; and 60/639,954, filed Dec. 28, 2004, which applications are incorporated by reference.
This application claims priority to the following U.S. Provisional Application Nos. 60/660,441, filed Mar. 10, 2005, entitled “Integrated Systems Including Cell Membranes and Nanoelectronic Devices”; 60/668,879, filed Apr. 5, 2005, entitled “Nanoelectronic System For Virus Detection and Identification”; 60/669,126, filed Apr. 6, 2005, entitled “Systems Having Integrated Cell Membranes And Nanoelectronics Devices, And Nano-Capacitive Biomolecule Sensors; 60/683,460, filed May 19, 2005, entitled “Multi-Valent Breath Analyzer having nanoelectronic sensors, and it use in Asthma monitoring”; 60/730,905 filed Oct. 27, 2005, entitled “Nanoelectronic Sensors And Analyzer System For Monitoring Anesthesia Agents And Carbon Dioxide In Breath”; and 60/773,138, filed Feb. 13, 2006 entitled “Nanoelectronic Capacitance Sensors For Monitoring Analytes,” which applications are each incorporated by reference.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to nanoelectronic devices, and in particular to nanostructured sensor systems for measurement of analytes, for example by measurement of variations of capacitance, impedance or other electrical properties of nanostructure elements in response to an analyte.
2. Description of Related Art
Nanowires and nanotubes, by virtue of their small size, large surface area, and near one-dimensionality of electronic transport, are promising candidates for electronic detection of chemical and biological species. Field effect transistors (“FET”) fabricated from component semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes (“NT”) have been studied extensively for their potential as sensors. A number of properties of these devices have been identified, and different mechanisms have been proposed to describe their sensing behavior. Devices that incorporate carbon nanotubes have been found to be sensitive to various gases, such as oxygen and ammonia, and these observations have confirmed the notion that such devices can operate as sensitive chemical sensors.
Nanotubes were first reported in 1993 by S. Iijima and have been the subject of intense research since. Single walled nanotubes (“SWNT”) are characterized by strong covalent bonding, a unique one-dimensional structure, and exceptionally high tensile strength, high resilience, metallic to semiconducting electronic properties, high current carrying capacity, and extreme sensitivity to perturbations caused by charged species in proximity to the nanotube surface.
SWNT devices, including FETs and resistors, can be fabricated using nanotubes grown on silicon or other substrates by chemical vapor deposition from iron-containing catalyst nanoparticles with methane/hydrogen gas mixture at 900 degrees C. Other catalyst materials and gas mixtures can be used to grow nanotubes on substrates, and other electrode materials and nanostructure configurations and have been described previously by Gabriel et al. in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/099,664 and in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/177,929, both of which are incorporated by reference herein. Currently, technology for constructing practical nanostructure devices is in its infancy. While nanotube structures show promise for use as sensor devices and transistors, current technology is limited in many ways.
For example, it is desirable to take advantage of the small size and sensitivity of nanotube and other nanostructure sensors to sense biological molecules, such as proteins. But a useful sensor of this type should selectively and reliably respond to a molecular target of a specific type. For example, it may be desirable to selectively sense a specific protein, while not responding to the presence of other proteins in the sample. Examples of covalent chemical attachment of biological molecules to nanotubes, including proteins and DNA, are known in the art, although it has not been convincingly demonstrated that useful detection of specific proteins or other large biomolecules can be accomplished in this way. For one thing, covalent chemical attachment has the disadvantage of impairing physical properties of carbon nanotubes, making structures of this type less useful as practical sensors. In addition, carbon nanotubes are hydrophobic, and generally non-selective in reacting with biomolecules.
It is desirable, therefore, to provide a nanotube sensing device that is biocompatible and exhibits a high degree of selectivity to particular targets. As described in commonly assigned patents and applications incorporated by reference herein, nanoelectronic sensors having active elements comprising nanostructures offer salient advantages for analyte detection for a wide scope of applications, including industrial, medical and biomolecular sensing.
Nanoelectronic sensors having aspects of the invention, such as nanotube-based capacitance and transistor devices, provide a device to inexpensively identify and measure concentrations of analytes, such as analysis of species and analytes in patients' breath.
A preferred nanostructure for employment in nanoelectronic sensors is the carbon nanotube. The nanoelectronic sensors provide a large sensing surface in a tiny, low-power package which can directly sample and selectively monitor analyte concentrations. A single sensor chip may include a plurality of sensors, for example, capable of measuring multiple analytes. Much of the signal processing may be built into the sensor board, requiring only simple and inexpensive external instrumentation for display and data logging, so as to provide a fully calibrated, sterilized, packaged sensor. The small size of the nanoelectronic sensors permit them to fit directly in otherwise difficult sampling environments. Embodiments of nanoelectronic sensors having aspects of the invention may be employed for monitoring and detection of many species of analytes.
Alternative embodiments having aspects of the invention include systems configured to include multiplexed assays on a single sensor platform or chip, microprocessors and/or wireless transceivers. Because the output is digital, electronic filtering and post-processing methods may be used to eliminate extraneous noise, as desired. See, for example, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/111,121 filed Apr. 20, 2005 entitled “Remotely communicating, battery-powered nanostructure sensor devices,” which is incorporated by reference.
Alternative embodiments having aspects of the invention are configured for detection of analytes employing nanostructured sensor elements configured as one or more alternative types of electronic devices, such as capacitive sensors, resistive sensors, impedance sensors, field effect transistor sensors, and the like, or combinations thereof. Two or more such measurement strategies may be included in a sensor device so as to provide orthogonal measurements that increase accuracy and/or sensitivity. Alternative embodiments have functionalization groups or material associated with the nanostructured element so as to provide sensitive, selective analyte response.
Although in the description herein a number of exemplary sensor embodiments are based on one or more carbon nanotubes, it is understood that other nanostructures known in the art may also be employed, e.g., semiconductor nanowires, various form of fullerenes, multiwall nanotubes, and the like, or combinations thereof. Elements based on nanostructures such carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been described for their unique electrical characteristics. Moreover, their sensitivity to environmental changes (charged molecules) can modulate the surface energies of the CNT and be used as a detector. The modulation of the CNT characteristics can be investigated electrically by building devices that incorporate the CNT (or CNT network) as an element of the device. This can be done as a conductive transistor element or as a capacitive gate effect.
Certain exemplary embodiments having aspects of the invention include single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as semiconducting or conducting elements. Such elements may comprise single or pluralities of discrete parallel NTs, e.g., in contact or electrically communicating with a device electrode. For many applications, however, it is advantageous to employ semiconducting or conducting elements comprising a generally planar network region of nanotubes (or other nanostructures) substantially randomly distributed adjacent a substrate, conductivity being maintained by interconnections between nanotubes.
Particular embodiments of capacitive sensor having aspects of the invention provide an architecture in which there is no direct contact of a nanostructured capacitive plate with external electrodes, providing the advantages of extremely low parasitic capacitance and the avoidance of Schotky barriers at metal-nanostructure contacts.
Exemplary embodiments of sensor devices having aspects of the invention provide for detection of chemical species employing nanostructures as elements of capacitive components, both for use in gaseous and in liquid media, such as biological fluids, electrolytes, and the like. Real time electronic detection and monitoring and offers high sensitivity, is rapid and reversible, and has a large dynamic range. Because the output is digital, electronic filtering and post-processing may be used to eliminate extraneous noise, as desired. Certain embodiments include multiplexed assays on a single sensor platform or chip.
Alternative embodiments having aspects of the invention are configured for detection of such biomolecules and biological complexes, such as polynucleotides, (such as DNA, RNA and the like), proteins, (such as enzymes), other biopolymers, cytokines, co-factors, hormones, cell or viral fragments, surface receptor groups, antibodies, and the like. Certain embodiments use nanotube capacitance measurements to detect electrical effects due to biological interactions between biomolecules, such as DNA hybridization, enzyme-substrate interaction, antibody-antigen binding, receptor-ligand binding, and the like.
In capacitive sensing embodiments, the system measures analyte polarizability and its effect on the surface dielectric. Nanotubes have advantages for capacitive sensing because their small size generates high field strengths (108V/cm) that are not possible with conventional planar devices.
Sensor detection method embodiments having aspects of the invention include other types of nanoelectronic sensors used in conjunction or in integration with capacitive nanosensors, such as functionalized nanotube resistors, nanotube field effect transistors (NTFET), electrochemical impedance measurements, and the like. The inclusion of two or more such measurement strategies may be included to provide orthogonal measurements that increase accuracy.
Sensor detection method embodiments having aspects of the invention also may include detection or signal enhancers (and separation or concentration mechanisms), include electronic, physical and chemical stringency parameters, magnetic bead mediated nanotube strain modulation or other external forces to amplify signal transduction. Implemented with a lock-in amplifier, phased detection may be included significantly enhance sensitivity and accuracy.
Additional embodiments having aspects of the invention include the integration of biological processes and molecules with nanoscale fabricated structures (nanobioelectronics), and provide a technology suitable for electronic control and sensing of biological systems.
NT Network Capacitive Embodiments
The exemplary nanoelectronic devices having aspects of the invention include a nanotube-based capacitance device, e.g., a sensor, in addition to including a biological component generally similar to that described. Although in the description that follows, the exemplary embodiments are based on one or more carbon nanotubes, it is understood that other nanostructures known in the art may also be employed. Elements based on nanostructures such carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been described for their unique electrical characteristics. Moreover, their sensitivity to environmental changes (charged molecules) can modulate the surface energies of the CNT and be used as a detector. The modulation of the CNT characteristics can be investigated electrically by building devices that incorporate the CNT (or CNT network) as an element of the device. This can be done as a conductive transistor element or as a capacitive gate effect.
Certain exemplary embodiments having aspects of the invention include SWNTs as semiconducting or conducting elements. Such elements may comprise single or pluralities of discrete parallel NTs, e.g., in contact or electrically communicating with a device electrode. For many applications, however, it is advantageous to employ semiconducting or conducting elements comprising a generally planar network region of nanotubes (or other nanostructures) substantially randomly distributed adjacent a substrate, conductivity being maintained by interconnections between nanotubes.
Devices fabricated from random networks of SWNTs eliminates the problems of nanotube alignment and assembly, and conductivity variations, while maintaining the sensitivity of individual nanotubes For example, such devices are suitable for large-quantity fabrication on currently on 4-inch silicon wafers, each containing more than 20,000 active devices. These devices can be decorated with specific recognition layers to act as a transducer for the presence of the target analyte. Such networks may be made using chemical vapor deposition (“CVD”) and traditional lithography, by solvent suspension deposition, vacuum deposition, and the like. See for example, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/177,929 entitled “Dispersed Growth of Nanotubes on a Substrate” and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/280,265 entitled “Sensitivity Control for Nanotube Sensors” U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/846,072 entitled “Flexible Nanotube Transistors”; and L. Hu et al., Percolation in Transparent and Conducting Carbon Nanotube Networks, Nano Letters (2004), 4, 12, 2513-17, each of which is incorporated herein by reference.
The nanoscale elements can be fabricated into arrays of devices on a single chip for multiplex and multiparametric applications See for example, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/388,701 entitled “Modification of Selectivity for Sensing for Nanostructure Device Arrays”; U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/656,898 entitled “Polymer Recognition Layers for Nanostructure Sensor Devices”, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/940,324 entitled “Carbon Dioxide Nanoelectronic Sensor”; and U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/564,248 entitled “Remotely Communicating, Battery-Powered Nanostructure Sensor Devices”; each of which is incorporated herein by reference.
In contrast to resistive or transconductance measurements that monitor charge transfer and charge mobility, capacitance measures the polarizability of the analyte molecules on the nanotubes. The surface capacitance effect is caused by the large electric field gradient radiating from the nanotubes. SWNTs are about 1-2 nm in diameter; field gradients of 108V/cm can be generated, which is impossible in conventional electrode geometries (See Snow et al., “Chemical Detection with a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor”, Science (2005) 307: 1942-1945, which is incorporated herein by reference).
Capacitive sensing may exploit the principle that binding events tend to change the thickness or dielectric properties of the recognition layer, and is therefore dependent on the functionalization of nanotubes. Preferably this layer is very thin and electrically insulating to improve the ratio between capacitance and Faradaic currents. Analyte polarizability can be modulated by peak-peak voltage and the AC frequency providing a two-dimensional image of the analyte for better sensitivity and accuracy. Bode plots may provide the frequency dependence of impedance magnitude and phase angle. Data may be plotted as differential capacitance as a function of time. Capacitance measurements do not require a conduction path and are therefore are flexible in terms of functionalization chemistries.
A CNT network may be included in a capacitive electrode. In an active device, such as a sensor for the detection for bio-analytes, a capacitive electrode may be interrogated with an AC signal. Preferably, a CNT network is integrated with metal electrodes. A CNT network may be included as first “plate” of a capacitor. A metal electrode may be included as a second plate of a capacitor, and (or both “plates” may include nanostructure elements). Functionalization on this structure (either on the metal plate, on the CNT network, or on other adjacent elements) allows the biochemical attachment of bio-analytes. See for example, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/345,783 entitled “Electronic Sensing of Biological and Chemical Agents Using Functionalized Nanostructures”; and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/704,066 entitled “Nanotube-Based Electronic Detection of Biomolecules”, each of which is incorporated herein by reference.
The second plate of the capacitor may include metallic surface that is separated from the first plate through some dielectric (could be material, liquid or gas, such as air). Presence or absence of bioanalytes on the capacitor plate will change the impedance of the structure and can be detected by external measurement equipment. Measurement of capacitance is a well known technique in medical and diagnostic devices. Low cost electronic acquisition chips exist to quantify the change in capacitance (e.g., chips made by Analog Devices, among others).
The change in capacitance can be affected by the dipole moment of the molecules in contact with the capacitor. In addition, large dipole molecules can be included in the system that specifically bind to the analyte of interest (sandwich assay) to further enhance the signal of the detection.
The following is a list which summarizes the drawings and figures herein:
Exemplary Nanosensor Architecture
In an embodiment of the invention, conducting channel 106 may comprise one or more carbon nanotubes. For example, conducting channel 106 may comprise a plurality of nanotubes forming a mesh, film or network. Certain exemplary embodiments having aspects of the invention include nanostructure elements which may be made using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and traditional lithography, or may be deposited by other methods, such as solvent suspension deposition, AFM manipulation, and the like. Certain embodiments include one or more discrete nanotubes in electrical contact with one or more metal electrodes. A number of different arrangements of active nanostructures may be included without departing from the spirit of the invention.
One or more conductive elements or contacts (two are shown, 110, 112) may be disposed over the substrate and electrically connected to conducting channel 106 comprising a nanostructure material. The conductive elements permit electrical charge and/or current to be applied to the nanostructured material of channel 106, and may be used in the measurement of an electrical property of the channel 106. For example, contacts 110, 112 may comprise source and drain electrodes, respectively, permitting application of a source-drain voltage Vsd, and inducing a current in channel 106. Elements 110, 112 may comprise metal electrodes in contact with conducting channel 106. In the alternative, a conductive or semi-conducting material (not shown) may be interposed between contacts 110, 112 and conducting channel 106.
In the example of
The conducting channel 106 (e.g., a carbon nanotube layer) may be functionalized to produce a sensitivity to one or more target analytes 101. Although nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes may respond to a target analyte through charge transfer or other interaction between the device and the analyte, more generally a specific sensitivity can be achieved by employing a recognition material 120, also called a functionalization material, that induces a measurable change in the device characteristics upon interaction with a target analyte.
Device 100 may be packaged in a conventional manner to conveniently permit connection to operating circuitry.
Device 100 may further comprise suitable circuitry in communication with sensor elements to perform electrical measurements.
Particular Nanosensor Elements
Substrate. The substrate 104 may be insulating, or on the alternative, may comprise a layered structure, having a base 114 and a separate dielectric layer 116 disposed to isolate the contacts 110, 112 and channel 106 from the substrate base 114. The substrate 104 may comprise a rigid or flexible material, which may be conducting, semiconducting or dielectric. Substrate 104 may comprise a monolithic structure, or a multilayer or other composite structure having constituents of different properties and compositions.
Wafer Substrate. Suitable substrate materials may include quartz, alumina, polycrystalline silicon, III-V semiconductor compounds, and other suitable materials. Substrate materials may be selected to have particular useful properties, such as transparency, microporosity, magnetic properties, monocrystalline properties, polycrystalline or amorphous properties, or various combinations of these and other desired properties. For example, in an embodiment of the invention, the substrate 104 may comprise a silicon wafer doped so as to function as a back gate electrode 114.
A diffusion barrier (e.g., a deposited layer of Si3N4) may be included at or adjacent the substrate surface. The barrier can prevent contamination of a substrate (such as a doped silicon wafer) such as by metallic catalysts or other substances introduced during fabrication steps. Similarly, a surface conditioning top layer (such as a nano-smooth layer of SiO2) may be included, so as to promote nanotube CVD growth, and/or to provide a smooth surface for nanotube network deposition. For further description, see commonly invented and assigned U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/652,883, filed Feb. 15, 2005, entitled “Nanoelectric Sensor System and Hydrogen-Sensitive Functionalization”, which is incorporated by reference.
Alternative Flexible Substrate. In certain alternative embodiments, the substrate may comprise a flexible insulating polymer, optionally having an underlying gate conductor (such as a flexible conductive polymer composition), as described in application Ser. No. 10/846,072 filed May 14, 2004 entitled “Flexible Nanotube Transistors”, the entirety of which application is incorporated herein by this reference. In certain embodiments of nanosensors having aspects of the invention, a commercially available flexible substrate with pre-patterned conductors (e.g., graphite film) may be employed. Further elements, such as a nanotube network and associated functionalization, may be deposited upon the substrate in electrical communication with the pre-patterned conductors. Such embodiments may be readily adapted to disposable sensor products, such as for home medical testing.
Alternative Porous Substrate. In other alternative embodiments, the substrate may comprise a porous material. For example, sensor elements such as a nanotube network and contacts may be deposited on a porous material so as to permit analyte medium and/or a carrier solvent or gas to pass through the substrate. In certain embodiments, the substrate may comprise a micro-porous membrane having a pore size and density suitable for deposition of nanostructures such as SWNTs, and the microporous membrane may in turn be disposed upon a porous support material having a different pore size, density and thickness. The substrate may comprise more than one layer of microporous membrane material, for example, where it is desired to embed structures (e.g., a gate or counter electrode, thermistors, heating elements, circuit leads and the like) within the substrate. Particular materials may be selected for properties such as electrical insulation, hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity, solvent stability, protein non-binding, cell culture compatibility, and the like.
The micro-porous membrane may comprise, for example, an alumina matrix with an electrochemically etched honeycomb pore structure (e.g., the Anopore® membrane, by Whatman plc of Brentford, West London, UK, see
Contacts or electrodes. The conductor or contacts 110, 112 used for the source and drain electrodes can be any of the conventional metals used in semiconductor industry, or may be selected from Au, Pd, Pt, Cr, Ni, ITO, W or other metallic material or alloy or mixture thereof. In the alternative, the contact may comprise a multi-layer or composite of metallic materials, such as Ti+Au, Cr+Au, Ti+Pd, Cr+Pd, or the like. A multi-layer construction may help in improving the adhesion of the metal to the substrate. For example, electrical leads may be patterned on top of a nanotube network channel from titanium films 30 nm thick capped with a gold layer 120 nm thick. In the alternative, other conductive materials may be employed, such as conductive polymers, graphitic materials, and the like. The dimension of the distance between source 110 and drain 112 may be selected to achieve desired characteristics for a particular application. It should be understood that one or more of each of a source and drain electrode may be arranged in an interdigitated or spaced-apart electrode array, permitting a comparative large area of nanostructure channel 106 having a comparatively small source-drain gap to be arranged compactly.
Gate or counter electrode 114 may comprise materials generally similar to contacts 110, 112. In the alternative, the gate electrode 114 may comprise a sublayer within substrate 104. Gate electrode 114 may comprise doped silicon, patterned metal, ITO, other conductive metal or non-metal material, or combinations thereof. Alternative forms of gate electrodes may be employed, such as a top gate, a gate effected via a conducting analyte carrier medium (e.g. an aqueous solution). Optionally, a device 102 may comprise such other electrodes as a counter electrode, a reference electrode, a pseudo-reference electrode, without departing from the spirit of the invention.
Nanostructure Channel Or Layer. Exemplary embodiments having aspects of the invention include sensor devices having at least one conducting channel 106 comprising one or more nanostructures. For example, conducting channel or layer 106 may comprise one or more single-wall carbon nanotubes, multiple-wall carbon nanotubes, nanowires, nanofibers, nanorods, nanospheres, or other suitable nanostructures. In addition, or in the alternative, conducting channel or layer 106 may comprise one or more nanostructures comprised of boron, boron nitride, and carbon boron nitride, silicon, germanium, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, indium phosphide, molybdenum disulphide, silver, or other suitable materials. Various suitable methods for manufacturing nanotubes and other nanostructures are known in the art, and any suitable method may be used.
Alternative Conducting Network Layer. In preferred embodiments having aspects of the invention, a conducting channel or nanostructure layer 106 comprises an interconnected network of smaller nanostructures disposed to form a percolation layer, mesh, or film which provides at least one electrical conduction path between a source electrode 110 and a drain electrode 112. In such a network of nanoparticles, it is not necessary that any single nanoparticle extends entirely between the source and drain contacts. In operation the conductivity of channel 106 between source electrode 110 and drain electrode 112 may be maintained by interconnections, contacts or communications between adjacent nanostructures. Such networks of nanoparticles, such as nanotubes and the like, may be configured to be defect-tolerant, in that disruption of any particular conductive path may be compensated by remaining paths within the network. In an embodiment of the invention, nanostructure conducting channel 106 comprises one or more single-walled or multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes may be arranged as clumps or bundles, or as distinct separated fibers. A useful network of nanotubes may be provided, for example, by distributing a dispersion of nanotubes over a substrate so as to be approximately planar and randomly oriented. For example, conducting channel 106 may comprise a network including a plurality of dispersed single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), in which the nanotubes are oriented substantially randomly, non-parallel and separated with respect to one another (i.e., not clumped) as an interconnecting mesh disposed generally parallel to the substrate.
Electrical characteristics of the channel 106 may be optimized to suit a particular functionalization chemistry or other constituent of the sensor which effects conductivity, or to suit a desired range of analyte concentration. In preferred embodiments, the density or thickness of a nanotube network may be varied to provide a desired degree of conductivity between the source and drain electrodes. In the alternative, or in addition, the proportion of metallic or semiconducting nanotubes in the network may be selected to achieve a desired conductivity in the network. One advantage of using a nanostructure network architecture for the conducting channel 106 is that these factors may be varied to produce a conducting network having a selected margin above (or below) the percolation limit, permitting convenient optimization of device characteristics. For example, a NT network channel may be formed to be slightly below the percolation limit for the uncoated network, and modified by deposition of a conducting recognition material, such as Pd, to result in a functionalized channel of desired conductivity. In another example, the conductivity of an initially dry network may be selected to allow for operation in association with anticipated additional conductivity of a fluid analyte medium, such as a physiologic buffer or solvent.
CVD Nanoparticle Network. Nanostructure networks may be formed by various suitable methods. One suitable approach may comprise forming an interconnecting network of single-wall carbon nanotubes directly upon the substrate, such as by reacting vapors in the presence of a catalyst or growth promoter disposed upon the substrate. For example, single-walled nanotube networks can be grown on silicon or other substrates by chemical vapor deposition from iron-containing catalyst nanoparticles with methane/hydrogen gas mixture at about 900 deg C. The network contains many randomly oriented carbon nanotubes, which occur individually, rather than in bundles. The density of nanotubes and nanotube interconnections may adjusted so that there is a selected network conductivity or percolation level. The CVD process may advantageously use a highly dispersed catalyst or growth-promoter for nanostructures permits a network of nanotubes of controlled diameter and wall structure to be formed in a substantially random and unclumped orientation with respect to one another, distributed substantially evenly at a selected mean density over a selected portion of the substrate. The particle size distribution may be selected to promote the growth of particular nanotube characteristics, such as tube diameter, number of walls (single or multi-walled), conductivity, or other characteristics.
Other catalyst materials and gas mixtures can be used to grow nanotubes on substrates, and other electrode materials and nanostructure configurations and are disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/099,664, filed Mar. 15, 2002 entitled “Modification Of Selectivity For Sensing For Nanostructure Sensing Device Arrays”; and International Application No. PCT/US03/19,808, filed Jun. 20, 2003, entitled “Dispersed Growth Of Nanotubes On A Substrate” and published as WO2004-040,671, both of which applications are incorporated by reference.
Solution Deposition Nanoparticle Network. In an alternative, conducting layer 106 comprising an interconnecting network of nanostructures may be formed by deposition from a solution or suspension of nanostructures, such as a solution of dispersed carbon nanotubes. See for example, the methods described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/846,072, filed May 14, 2004 entitled “Flexible Nanotube Transistors”, which is incorporated by reference. Such methods as spin coating, spray deposition, dip coating and inkjet printing may be employed to deposit the solution or suspension of nanostructures.
In certain embodiments, a micro-porous filter, membrane or substrate may be employed in deposition of a nanotube (or other nanoparticle) network channel 106 from suspension or solution. A porous substrate can accelerate deposition by removing solvent so as to minimize “clumping,” and can assist in controlling deposition density. The deposition may be carried out by capillary absorption, or using suction or vacuum deposition across the porous substrate or membrane, as described in U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/639,954 filed Dec. 28, 2004 entitled “Nanotube Network-On-Top Architecture For Biosensor,” and in L. Hu et al., Percolation in Transparent and Conducting Carbon Nanotube Networks, Nano Letters (2004), 4, 12, 2513-17, each of which application and publication is incorporated herein by reference. The network thus formed may be separated from the deposition membrane using a method such as membrane dissolution or transfer bonding, and included in a sensor device structure as a conducting channel (e.g., disposed on a device substrate, contact grid, or the like).
Alternatively, a nanotube (or other nanoparticle) network deposited on a micro-porous substrate may be included in a sensor device as disposed upon the deposition substrate or membrane. This arrangement simplifies processing, and has the advantage of permitting analyte media flow perpendicularly through the pores of the device substrate, as further described in commonly invented and assigned U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/669,126, filed Apr. 6, 2005, entitled “Systems Having Integrated Cell Membranes And Nanoelectronics Devices, And Nano-Capacitive Biomolecule Sensors, which is incorporated by reference.
Functionalization or Recognition Layer. The sensor functionalization material 120 may be selected for a specific application, such as to interact with a targeted analyte 101 to cause a measurable change in electrical properties of nanosensor device 102. For example, the functionalization material 120 may cause an electron transfer to occur in the presence of analyte 101, or may influence local environment properties, such as pH and the like, so as to indirectly change device characteristics. Alternatively or additionally, the recognition material may induce electrically-measurable mechanical stresses or shape changes in the nanostructure channel 106 upon interaction with a target analyte. Sensitivity to an analyte or to multiple analytes may be provided or regulated by the association of a nanotube conducting channel 106 with an adjacent functionalization material 120. Specific examples of suitable functionalization materials are provided later in the specification. The functionalization material 120 may be disposed as a continuous or discontinuous layer on or adjacent to channel 106. Functionalization material 120 may comprise as little as a single compound, element, or molecule bonded to or adjacent to the nanostructure channel 106. In addition, or in the alternative, functionalization materials may comprise a mixture or multilayer assembly, or a complex species (e.g., including both synthetic components and naturally occurring biomaterials).
Functionalization material 120 may be selected for a wide range of alternative chemical or biomolecular analytes. Examples include functionalization specific to gas analytes of industrial or medical importance, such as carbon dioxide as disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/940,324 filed Sep. 13, 2004 entitled “Carbon Dioxide Nanoelectronic Sensor”, which is incorporated herein by reference. See also U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/656,898 referenced hereinabove. Examples of functionalization materials specific to biomolecules, organisms, cell surface groups, biochemical species, and the like are disclosed in application Ser. No. 10/345,783, filed Jan. 16, 2003, entitled “Electronic Sensing Of Biological And Chemical Agents Using Functionalized Nanostructures” (now published as US 2003-0134433), and in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/704,066 referenced hereinabove, both of which applications are incorporated herein by reference. Further examples and more detailed disclosures regarding functionalization materials are disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/388,701, filed Mar. 14, 2003 entitled “Modification Of Selectivity For Sensing For Nanostructure Device Arrays” (published as US 2003-0175161), and in U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. 60/604,293, filed Nov. 19, 2004, entitled “Nanotube Sensor Devices For DNA Detection”, which applications are incorporated herein by reference. Functionalization material 120 and other sensor elements may be selected to suit various physical forms of sample media, such as gaseous or liquid analyte media. See, for example, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/773,631, filed Feb. 6, 2004 entitled “Analyte Detection In Liquids With Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transmission Devices”, and application Ser. No. 60/604,293, filed Nov. 13, 2004, entitled “Nanotube Based Glucose Sensing,” both of which applications are incorporated herein by reference.
Other Device Elements. Optionally, a nanosensor device having aspects of the invention may include integrated temperature control elements. Temperature control may be used to control sensor sensitivity, selectivity, and/or recovery time. Thermal control may also be used to carry out analyte-related processes, such as polynucleotide hybridization and denaturization, stringency conditions, PCR, biomolecule conformation changes and the like.
For example, a nanosensor may include ohmic thermal regulation of the nanotubes of the channel, as described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/655,529 filed Sep. 4, 2003 entitled “Improved Sensor Device With Heated Nanostructure”, which is incorporated by reference.
In another alternative embodiment, the sensor device may include a microfabricated heater element and a thermal isolation structure, such as a substrate bridge or a suspended membrane. Such components may include temperature feedback sensors, such as thermistors, to assist in automated thermal control, e.g., using a microprocessor, as further described in commonly invented and assigned U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/700,953, filed Jul. 19, 2005, entitled “Improved Sensor Device With Heated Nanostructure, Including Sensor Having Thermally Isolated Nanostructure Element And Integrated Micro-Heater”, which is incorporated by reference. See also C. Tsamis et al, “Fabrication of suspended porous silicon micro-hotplates for thermal sensor applications”, Physica Status Solidi (a), Vol 197 (2), pp 539-543 (2003); A. Tserepi et al, “Fabrication of suspended thermally insulating membranes using front-side micromachining of the Si substrate: characterization of the etching process”, Journal of Micromech. and Microeng, Vol 13, pp 323-329 (2003); A. Tserepi et al, “Dry etching of Porous Silicon in High Density Plasmas”, Physica Status Solidi (a), Vol 197 (1), pp 163-167 (2003), each of which is incorporated by reference.
For certain applications thermal control may be assisted by cooling elements, such as where operating temperature need to be cycled through a substantial range of temperatures, or where high or variable ambient temperature complicates thermo-regulation. Alternative embodiments having aspects of the invention, may be include forced convection, heat sinks, thermoelectric or Peltier coolers, thermionic coolers, and the like. See for example, D-J Yao et al, “MEMS Thermoelectric Microcooler”, Proc. 20th International Conference on Thermoelectrics, Beijing, China, June 2001, pp. 401-404; and US Published Applications 2003-0020,072 and 2003-0020,132, each of which is incorporated by reference.
Optionally, a sensor device may be integrated (for example on a chip or die) with additional electronic elements such as integrated circuit elements, processor elements, memory, electro-optical elements, radiation sources, wireless communication elements and the like, without departing from the spirit of the invention. See, for example, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/111,121 filed Apr. 20, 2005 entitled “Remotely communicating, battery-powered nanostructure sensor devices,” which is incorporated by reference.
Network Properties and Multiple Device Substrate Processing
Devices fabricated from random networks of SWNTs eliminates the problems of nanotube alignment and assembly, while maintaining the sensitivity of individual nanotubes. In addition, a conducting channel 106 comprising a generally random dispersion of individual nanoparticles advantageously permits a “statistical,” rather than a “localized” approach to nanostructure device fabrication, which may be more amenable to demanding mass production techniques. In the “statistical” approach, electrical contacts can be placed anywhere on the dispersion of individual nanostructures to form devices, without a specific correspondence between electrode position and any particular nanoparticle position. The random dispersion of nanoparticles ensures that any two or more electrodes placed thereon can form a complete electrical circuit with functioning nanostructures providing the connection. By distributing a large plurality of randomly oriented nanotubes in a dispersion over (or under) an electrode array, uniform electrical properties in the individual devices can be assured with higher yields and faster processing than is possible using the prior art approach of controlled placement or growth of individual nanotubes or other nanostructures.
However, carbon nanotubes are known to exhibit either metallic or semiconductor properties, depending on the particular graphitic lattice orientation. Various methods may be employed to select a desired composition of nanotubes for a nanostructure layer 106 of a nanosensor device 102. In certain method embodiments, a network of nanostructures for conducting channel 106 may be constructed from preprocessed source nanotube material which includes a selected composition of metallic versus semiconductor properties (e.g., solely semiconductor nanotubes).
In alternative method embodiments, a plurality of generally similar nanotube devices may be fabricated in a parallel mass production process (e.g., a wafer-scale process), such as an array of device dies disposed on a silicon wafer. Each of the plurality of devices will exhibit an electrical characteristic with a statistically predictable range of characteristics, due to differing metallic or semiconductor composition of each devices conducting layer 106.
Such a process may produce high yield, and permits testing (and marking or culling if necessary) of devices while still on the un-diced wafer. The fabricated dies (either as deposited or following post-deposition treatment) may be individually tested, such as by automated or semi-automated pin probe test rigs. Dies exhibiting a selected electrical behavior or range of behavior may be marked and selected for further processing and use, and any non-conforming dies may be culled, or otherwise processed for other uses.
Where the nanotube layer is formed of a mixture of nanotube compositions exhibiting a range of properties, the nanotube layer may optionally be subsequently treated to selectively remove, oxidize, disconnect or deactivate all or a portion of the metallic nanotubes, e.g., by ohmic heating, so as to leave a conducting channel of selected properties (e.g., solely semiconductor nanotubes). The latter approach may be employed advantageously where a random nanotube network layer is formed directly upon the substrate, for example by catalyst initiated CVD.
Such nanosensor devices may be produced in large scale production, such as on 100 and 150 mm silicon wafers, containing up to 40,000 active devices per wafer, with features in size regimes below optical resolution. Metal lines can be deposited by optical lithography onto the nanotubes to make electrical contact. Similar multiple device processing and testing techniques may be employed with devices having non-silicon substrates, such as flexible polymer or porous substrates, and with alternative nanostructures, such as nanotube networks deposited from liquid suspension, on porous substrates, and the like.
Alternative Sensor Architectures
As shown in
Optionally, device 100 may comprise a plurality of sensors like sensor 102 disposed in a pattern or array, such as described in prior application Ser. No. 10/388,701, entitled “Modification Of Selectivity For Sensing For Nanostructure Device Arrays” (now U.S. Pat. No. 6,905,655), which is incorporated by reference herein. Each device in the array may be functionalized with identical or different functionalization. Identical device in an array can be useful in order to multiplex the measurement to improve the signal/noise ratio or increase the robustness of the device by making redundancy. Different functionalization may be useful for providing sensitivity to a greater variety of analytes with a single device.
The nanoscale elements can be fabricated into arrays of devices on a single chip for multiplex and multiparametric applications. See for example, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/656,898 entitled “Polymer Recognition Layers for Nanostructure Sensor Devices”, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/940,324 entitled “Carbon Dioxide Nanoelectronic Sensor”; and U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/564,248 entitled “Remotely Communicating, Battery-Powered Nanostructure Sensor Devices,” each of which is incorporated herein by reference.
A sensor array embodiment may provide for a number of advantageous measurement alternatives, methods and benefits according to the invention, for example:
The electronic circuitry described is by way of illustration, and a wide range of alternative measurement circuits may be employed without departing from the spirit of the invention. Embodiments of an electronic sensor device having aspects of the invention may include an electrical circuit configured to measure one or more properties of the nanosensor 120, such as measuring an electrical property via the conducting elements 110-114. Any suitable electrical property may provide the basis for sensor sensitivity, for example, electrical resistance, electrical conductance, current, voltage, capacitance, transistor on current, transistor off current, and/or transistor threshold voltage. In the alternative, or in addition, sensitivity may be based on a measurements including a combination of properties, relationships between different properties, or the variation of one or more properties over time.
Note that a sensor system may include suitable circuitry to perform measurement of more than one properties of a single electronic sensor device. In the example shown in
From such measurements, and from derived properties such as hysteresis, time constants, phase shifts, or scan rate/frequency dependence, correlations may be determined with target detection or concentration. The electronic sensor device may include or be coupled with a suitable microprocessor or other computer device as known in the art, which may be suitably programmed to carry out the measurement methods and analyze the resultant signals. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that other electrical or magnetic properties may also be measured as a basis for sensitivity. Accordingly, the embodiments disclosed herein are not meant to restrict the types of device properties that can be measured. Optionally, the measurement circuitry may be configured so as to provide compensation for such factors as temperature and pressure and humidity. See U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/111,121 filed Apr. 20, 2005 entitled “Remotely communicating, battery-powered nanostructure sensor devices,” which is incorporated by reference.
Anesthesia Agent Sensor Examples
As shown in
Simultaneous conductance and capacitance measurements on a SWNT network may be used to extract an intrinsic property of molecular adsorbates. Adsorbates from dilute chemical vapors produce a rapid response in both the capacitance and the conductance of the SWNT network. These responses are caused by a combination of two distinct physiochemical properties of the adsorbates: charge transfer and polarizability. It has been shown that the ratio of the conductance (or resistance) response to the capacitance response is a concentration-independent intrinsic property of a chemical vapor that can assist in its identification (E. S. Snow and F. K. Perkins, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375, personal communication). See also: Snow E S, Perkins F K, Houser E J, Badescu S C, Reinecke T L, “Chemical detection with a single-walled carbon nanotube capacitor”, Science Mar. 25, 2005; 307 (5717):1942-5, which article is incorporated by reference herein.
Additional Alternative Nanosensor Examples.
In addition to the examples of nanostructured sensor devices described above, the following embodiments having aspects of the invention may be employed.
Capacitive sensing may exploit the principle that analyte molecules which are present adjacent to (or binding with) the nanostructured element (e.g., carbon nanotube or CNT network) or functionalization material (e.g., recognition layer) can cause a change the physical or dielectric properties, so as to change the capacitance and/or impedance of the device structure. Preferably any functionalization material that may be disposed to coat the nanotubes is thin and electrically insulating to improve the ratio between capacitance and Faradaic currents. In an active device, such as a sensor for the detection for anesthetic agents, a capacitive electrode may be interrogated with AC signal. Analyte polarizability can be modulated by peak-peak voltage and the AC frequency providing a 2D image of the analyte for better sensitivity and accuracy. Bode plots may provide the frequency dependence of impedance magnitude and phase angle. Data may be plotted as differential capacitance as a function of time. Capacitance measurements do not require a conduction path and are therefore are flexible in terms of functionalization chemistries.
The material or space (e.g., dielectric material, analyte media, air, vacuum, combinations of these, and the like) within the gap or plate separation has a dielectric constant or constants which contributes to the magnitude of capacitance. Presence or absence of analytes on a capacitor plate, in the separation space, or adjacent to and electrically influencing these structures may in the change the capacitance and/or impedance of the structure and can be detected by external measurement equipment. The change in capacitance can be affected by the dipole moment of the molecules in contact with the capacitor. In addition, large dipole molecules can be included in the system (for example, as a recognition material or signal enhancer) that specifically bind to the analyte of interest (sandwich assay) to further enhance the signal of the detection. Measurement of capacitance is a well known technique in medical and diagnostic devices. Low cost electronic acquisition chips exist to quantify the change in capacitance and impedance (e.g., chips made by Analog Devices, among others).
Note that a defined portion of the nanotube network is selectively burned, etched or otherwise removed from a patterned offset (e.g., using appropriate masking or the like), so that one of the contact sets 44 a (when deposited) lies free of contact with the remaining network 41, and the other contact 44 b set lies in electrical contact or communication with the network. In the example shown in
In the example shown in
In the example shown in
One advantage of disposing a nanosensor device upon a micro-porous membrane or substrate, is that detection chemistry may be accelerated, analyte molecules concentrated, and sensitivity improved. As shown schematically in
Similarly, in certain embodiments, the micro-porous membrane can act as a filter, to concentrate or detain target molecules adjacent the sensitive elements, as solvent or suspension phase fluid (e.g., gas or liquid solvent) pass through the membrane relatively unimpeded. This can be particularly advantageous for target analytes in low concentration or traces, such as in forensics, explosive detection, and the like. Note that additional controls can be used to regulate membrane transport, such as electrophoretic effects, and the like, without departing from the spirit of the invention.
Particular Capacitive Nanosensor Architectures.
As may be seen in the foregoing examples, devices having aspects of the invention may be configured to exploit the electrical properties of one or more nanostructures, such as a film or network of nanotubes, without direct contact of conductive circuit elements with the nanostructures (e.g., without metal-to-nanotube contact regions).
Integration of Cell Membranes and NT-Based Sensor Embodiments
Exemplary embodiment of nanoelectronic devices having aspects of the invention include the integration of a complex biological system and a nanoelectronic device, demonstrating that both components retain their functionality while interacting with each other. In this example, the biological system includes the cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarum. In this example, the exemplary nanoelectronic devices includes a nanotube network transistor, which incorporates many individual nanotubes in such a way that entire patches of cell membrane are contacted by nanotubes.
The examples show that the biophysical properties of the membrane are preserved, that the nanoelectronic devices function according to their electronic design when integrated with the membrane (e.g., as transistors, capacitors and the like), and that the two systems interact to produce measurable effects, useful for a range of industrial, scientific and medical purposes, such as biological or medical sensing and detection, electro-biological control or data acquisition systems, artificial neuro-sensory organs, and the like. Further, the interaction may be used to determine the charge distribution in a biological system, e.g., so as to permit a bioelectronic device to be optimally configured without undue experimentation. For example, by means of an exemplary embodiment, it was determined that the electric dipole of the example membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin is located ⅔ of the way from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic side.
Carbon nanotubes have been suggested for use as prosthetic nervous implants in organs such as eyes and ears. To achieve this goal requires the parallel preparation of fully functional biological systems and nanoelectronic systems that are integrated together. One major obstacle is the preservation of functionality in both systems. A second major obstacle is the difference in scale between nanostructures and biological systems. While nanotubes are comparable in size to individual proteins, they are much smaller than cells. Preferred device embodiments include nanotube networks, a recently developed class of nanotube devices, to bridge the gap in size between nanotechnology and biotechnology. In this example, embodiments of nanoelectronic devices having aspects of the invention achieve integration between a functioning nanotube transistor and a cell membrane.
Portions of the structure of the certain exemplary devices having aspects of the invention are illustrated in
As shown in the exemplary devices of
This configuration has several significant features and advantages. First, the cell membrane is in direct contact with the semiconducting channel of the transistor. Thus the devices detect local electrostatic charges on the biomolecules. This is possible because the nanotube network includes robust, air-stable semiconductors that can be exposed to cell membranes. Second, the use of a large number of nanotubes ensures that entire patches of membrane are in contact with nanotubes. Thus, the size scale of nanotechnology, which enables the semiconductor integration, is interfaced with the larger size scale of biology.
The cellular material in this example includes a portion of purple cell membrane (PM) of Halobacterium salinarum, an organism which has been widely studied. PM contains the light-sensitive membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin, which serves as a photochemical proton pump and has been used to fabricate phototransistors. In addition, rhodopsin has a permanent electric dipole moment, a charge distribution which produces an electric field pointing from the extracellular side of the membrane towards the cytoplasmic side. In one aspect, the dipole is employed as an indicator that the integration preserves the biomaterial while bringing it into contact with the nanoelectronic devices. In another aspect, the dipole moment of the PM (or an alternative cellular or quasi-cellular component having a dipole) is employed to electrically influence the properties of adjacent nanostructures included in an exemplary nanoelectronic sensor embodiment having aspects of the invention, so as to produce measurable changes when the membrane interacts with a target species, such as an analyte of interest. For example, in a carbon nanotube capacitance sensor embodiment, the dipole moment of the PM may serve to increase the effective capacitance of the sensor, so that interactions of the PM with species which cause the dipole moment of the PM to change are in turn detected by the sensor as a measurable change in sensor capacitance. An analyte of interest may absorb onto or intercalate into the membrane so as to cause the dipole to change.
In the example of
View B illustrates cytoplasmic orientation, with −3 V on the top substrate 29, so that the net dipole moment is upwards and the PM contacts the nanotubes with the cytoplasmic side.
View C illustrates extracellular orientation, with +3 V on the top substrate 29, so that the net dipole moment is downwards and the PM contacts the nanotubes on the extracellular side.
The device embodiments shown in
A number of features on the integrated devices are demonstrated in
Secondly, the hysteresis decreased dramatically in all cases as a result of the biological coating. The hysteresis results from adsorbed water on the substrate; in addition, coatings which displace water from the nanotubes reduce the hysteresis. Consequently, there is a decrease in hysteresis here as well, as the PM remains intact as a layer contacting the nanotubes. Moreover, the width of the remaining hysteresis is similar for all three conditions, which indicates that the amount of PM coverage is similar. This conclusion was confirmed in randomly selected spots that were imaged by AFM.
Lastly, The shift of the threshold voltage in the devices results from the electrostatic field associated with the bacteriorhodopsin electric dipole. This field induces charge in the nanotubes, thus shifting the Fermi level. The position of the Fermi level is measured by the threshold voltage, and there is an relationship between the threshold voltage in various device configurations and the quantity of charge induced in the nanotubes. In this example, with a typical nanotube diameter of 2 nm, every 1 μm of nanotube length has a capacitance to the gate, Cbg, of about 15 aF. The induced charge, ΔQ, is given by ΔQ=CbgΔV, where ΔV is the threshold shift. Thus, the +1.1 V shift caused, by mixed-orientation PM deposition corresponds to an induced charge of 16 aC/μm of nanotube length. Note that this dipole effect is important to the second embodiment type of this example, the nanoelectronic capacitance sensor.
Thus, by demonstrating these three device parameters, it is shown that the nanobioelectronics integration is successful. First, the NTN-FETs' transistor functionality is preserved. Second, the PM remains intact as a layer, and the bacteriorhodopsin membrane proteins retain their electric dipoles. Third, the deposited PM is demonstrated to contact the NTN-FETs directly and to interact with their electrical properties.
The examples of
The answer will be different for the two different orientations, reflecting the position of the dipoles closer to one side of the PM. For the cytoplasmic orientation, with ΔVcp=+2.2 V, we calculate dcp=1.9 nm. For the extracellular orientation, with ΔVec=−0.4 V, we have dec=4.4 nm. Since the sum of these distances, 6.3 nm, is comparable to the membrane bilayer thickness of 5 nm, we conclude that this simple model is reasonable. Note, in particular, that since the ratio between ΔVcp and ΔVec is 5.5, the electrostatic model indicates that dcp is 2.3 times smaller than dec. Thus, our data contribute additional details about the asymmetry of the bacteriorhodopsin charge distribution.
Purple membrane (PM) was isolated from Halobacterium salinarum, and a suspension of PM in water was prepared at a rhodopsin concentration of 1 mM. Before coating the NTN-FETs, the suspension was freshly mixed with a shaker and warmed to 27° C. A drop of suspension was placed on a chip, and the chip was covered with a blank piece of silicon substrate. The assembly was kept in a chamber at 50% RH for 5 minutes, after which the NTN-FET was blown dry. This procedure was repeated three times to produce films of mixed-orientation PM coating the nanotube network. The film thicknesses were measured by AFM to be 5 nm, which corresponds to monolayers of PM. To produce oriented films, a voltage of ±3 V was applied between the two chips while they were exposed to the suspension. After the deposition of the membranes, the devices were air-dried for several hours at 40% RH. Electrical properties were measured before deposition and after air-drying, by applying a fixed source-rain bias voltage between contacts on the network and measuring the source-drain current as a function of gate voltage. The membrane suspension and the chips were kept in dark enclosures throughout the experiment to ensure that the bacteriorhodopsin was in its dark-adapted state.
Model of an Integrated Nanobioelectronic Device.
We use a simple electrostatic model in which the rhodopsin molecules above a nanotube form a line of constant dipole density. Those in the rest of the PM (
Let us suppose that the rhodopsin dipole is a point dipole embedded within the PM at a distance dcp from the cytoplasmic side and dec from the extracellular side, as illustrated in
The following publications are incorporated by reference: Bradley et al., Flexible Nanotube Electronics, Nano Letters 2003 3, 1353-55; Bradley, K., et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2003, 91, 218301; Gabriel, J-C. P., Large Scale Production Of Carbon Nanotube Transistors: A Generic Platform For Chemical Sensors, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 2003, 762, Q.12.7.1-Q.12.7.7; and Star, A., et al., Nano Letters 2003, 3, 459.
Devices having aspects of the invention can be used to interrogate cell membranes or cellular events. In particular, it is well known that when bacteriophage disrupt the bacterial membrane, a large ionic gradient occurs. Again, this type of biochemical disruption in the proximity of the CNT capacitance plate can be measured and used as a bacterial species identifier. Note in this regard examples of
Functionalization includes at least one cell membrane bi-layer 306 applied to the nanotube layer in the manner described above. The cell membrane may be derived from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic source organisms, or may be synthetically simulated using natural or artificial lipid layers. The cell membrane responds to at least one analyte of interest in the media 307 so as to produce a measurable change in the capacitance (measurement circuitry not shown). In certain embodiments, the analyte effects a change in the properties of nanostructure (e.g., nanotube(s)) 301 by direct interaction with the membrane bi-layer or nanotubes. In alternative embodiments a cell wall receptor or other functional bio-structure 308 has specific activity to respond to analyte 308, for example by ligand binding (e.g., virus analyte attachment, and the like), so as to produce a detectable change in the properties of nanotubes 301. Note that the techniques described above permit convenient orientation of cell membranes having a dipole moment.
Functionalization includes, in this example, a lipid monolayer 311 in association with the nanotubes 301. The lipid monolayer 311 may be composed of natural phospholipids, or alternative biomolecules or synthetic groups of comparable properties. Conveniently, native carbon nanotubes have hydrophobic properties which assist in orienting or self-assembling the polar surface groups of the lipids away from the nanotubes 301. Lipid monolayer 311 provides a microenvironment suitable for the functioning of a variety of alternative cell wall receptor or other functional bio-structure 312, which typically have a biomolecular structure suited embedding in a phospholipid monolayer. Receptor or other functional bio-structure 312 has specific activity to respond to an analyte, so as to produce a detectable change in the properties of nanotubes 301.
FIG. 27A—A sample is collected and treated with lysis buffer (e.g., by sterile throat swab). Although shown as a test-tube procedure, the cartridge may include a port for direct introduction of the sample, and incorporate the lysis step. In alternative systems, various bio-sampling devices may be included, such as breath condensers or filters, micro-syringes and the like to obtain a patient sample. Note that the buffer may be selected to optimize the assay. In the event that whole pathogens are to be detected, e.g., by surface groups, and the like, the buffer may preserve this form. Typically, it is desired to lyse and fragment the pathogen, releasing such detectable species as genomic RNA, DNA, single or double stranded polynucleotides, and the like, and/or detectable envelope fragments and the like.
FIG. 27B—The lysed sample loaded into microfluidic cartridge (e.g., by pipette). Also the cartridge may incorporate this step. The cartridge be constructed generally as described above with respect to “hybridization stringency” and the device of
FIG. 27C—The lysed sample is mixed with magnetic bead capture particles. In this example, the beads are preferably supplied conjugated to one or more capture probes optimized for the assay. Optionally additional reagents can be added at this (and/or other) stages to optimize the buffer for the process step, e.g. for hybridization efficiency.
FIG. 27D—The capture probes hybridizes to the capture target sequence on the sample. Note description above under “hybridization stringency”, the cell or chamber temperature and other environmental conditions may be controlled to optimize the hybridization.
FIG. 27E—The magnetic beads with capture probes are immobilized by a magnet, preferably a switchable electromagnet, and unreacted lysed sample rinsed away. Note that beads both with and without hybridized sample are immobilized.
FIG. 27F—The magnetic beads are released (magnet turned off or removed) and flow to a sensor chamber. Note, the chamber transfer and flow pattern is exemplary, and the cartridge architecture may be arranged to perform the steps at different regions without departing from the spirit of the invention.
FIG. 27G—The sensor has detection probes conjugated in association with the nanostructures. A schematic NTFET is shown with the detection probes bound on or through a surface layer, e.g. a polymer layer to prevent non-specific binding, to repel buffer, and the like. The detection probes hybridizes to detection sequence on the sample, so as to immobilize the sample and associated magnetic bead. Note, as with steps 27C and 27D, the stringency conditions may be controlled and adjusted to optimize hybridization and specificity of the detection probe. Magnetic beads without captured sample remain unbound to the detection probes and are preferably rinsed away, so as not to influence the measurement signal. As described above, magnetic bead dipole attraction may be employed to concentrate sample near the sensor.
FIG. 27H—Following the completion of detection probe hybridization step, the environment of the sensor chamber can be optimized for signal acquisition, with parameters selected so as to stabilize the detection hybridization bonds (and preferably also stabilize the capture hybridization bonds) while promoting optimum signal discrimination and sensitivity. This may optionally include temperature adjustment, magnetic or electrical field adjustment, and the like. Optionally the hybridization buffer may be rinsed away and replace with a measurement buffer without disturbing the hybridization bonds or disengaging the bound sample/beads. The measurement signal may then be acquired. The schematic shows a NTFET with gate voltage modulation (enabling a variety of alternative measurement strategies as described herein). Alternatively the sensor may be purely resistive, or may be a capacitive sensor and the like. As described above, magnetic bead dipole effects may be employed to increase signal to noise ratio and sensitivity.
In other alternatives (not shown in
Having thus described preferred embodiments of the methods and devices having aspects of the invention, it should be apparent to those skilled in the art that certain advantages of the within system have been achieved. It should also be appreciated that various modifications, adaptations, and alternative embodiments thereof may be made within the scope and spirit of the present invention.