|Publication number||US8160697 B2|
|Application number||US 11/042,911|
|Publication date||Apr 17, 2012|
|Filing date||Jan 25, 2005|
|Priority date||Jan 25, 2005|
|Also published as||US8249702, US8670826, US20060167503, US20090131998, US20120316612, US20120323290|
|Publication number||042911, 11042911, US 8160697 B2, US 8160697B2, US-B2-8160697, US8160697 B2, US8160697B2|
|Inventors||Jay A. Warren, Gust H. Bardy|
|Original Assignee||Cameron Health, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (111), Non-Patent Citations (35), Referenced by (1), Classifications (8), Legal Events (1) |
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Method for adapting charge initiation for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
US 8160697 B2
Adaptive methods for initiating charging of the high power capacitors of an implantable medical device for therapy delivery after the patient experiences a non-sustained arrhythmia. The adaptive methods adjust persistence criteria used to analyze an arrhythmia prior to initiating a charging sequence to deliver therapy.
1. A method of cardiac treatment using an implantable medical device system having implanted electrodes and an energy storage system for storing charge for performing cardiac electrical stimulus, the method comprising:
capturing a first predetermined number of selected cardiac events using the implanted electrodes;
determining whether a threshold proportion of the first predetermined number of selected cardiac events are abnormal;
determining treatment is indicated if the threshold proportion of the first predetermined number of selected cardiac events are abnormal for a second predetermined number of consecutive iterations,
and, if treatment is indicated:
initiating a charging operation for the energy storage system; and
determining whether cardiac rhythm has returned to normal before stimulus is delivered and, if so, increasing the threshold proportion; wherein:
the first predetermined number has an initial value of 24 and the threshold proportion has an initial value of 18/24, and the step of increasing the threshold proportion comprises increasing the first predetermined number to 27 and the threshold proportion to 21/27.
2. The method of claim 1
, further comprising determining if treatment is indicated if:
at least the threshold proportion of the first predetermined number of selected events are abnormal; and
at least the threshold proportion of the predetermined number of selected events is abnormal for at least a threshold number of events out of a preselected number of events.
3. A method of cardiac treatment using an implantable medical device system having implanted electrodes and an energy storage system for storing charge for performing cardiac electrical stimulus, the method comprising:
capturing a predetermined number of selected cardiac events using the implanted electrodes;
observing whether a malignant cardiac condition exists for at least one of the selected cardiac events;
determining whether the malignant cardiac condition persists for at least a threshold duration or threshold number of cardiac events, and, if so:
initiating a charging operation for the energy storage system;
determining whether the malignant cardiac condition has terminated prior to delivery of cardiac stimulus and, if so, extending the threshold duration or increasing the threshold number; and if the malignant cardiac condition has not terminated, delivering cardiac stimulus; wherein:
the step of determining whether the malignant cardiac condition persists includes determining that a threshold percentage of selected cardiac events appear malignant from among a predetermined set of cardiac events for at least a threshold number of consecutive events and determining that a most recently detected cardiac event indicates a malignant cardiac event, and wherein the step of extending the threshold duration or increasing the threshold number includes increasing the threshold number of consecutive events.
The present application is related to copending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/043,012, entitled DEVICES FOR ADAPTING CHARGE INITIATION FOR AN IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER-DEFIBRILLATOR, filed on Jan. 25, 2005, with the present application and now U.S. Pat. App. Pub. No. 2006/0167504A1, published on Jul. 27, 2006. The present application is also related to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/359,072, entitled METHOD FOR ADAPTING CHARGE INITIATION FOR AN IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER-DEFIBRILLATOR, filed on Jan. 23, 2009, which is a continuation application of the present application.
The present invention relates generally to implantable cardiac systems that detect, sense and classify cardiac signals. More particularly, the present invention relates to implantable medical devices that can adapt the initiation of a therapeutic therapy for patients who experience recurring non-sustained arrhythmic episodes.
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a difficult clinical problem for the physician. Its evaluation and treatment are complicated because it often occurs in life-threatening situations that dictate rapid diagnosis and treatment. VT is defined as three or more beats of ventricular origin in succession at a rate greater than 100 beats/minute. The rhythm is frequently regular, but on occasion it may be modestly to wholly irregular. The arrhythmia may be either well-tolerated or associated with grave, life-threatening hemodynamic compromise. The hemodynamic consequences of VT depend largely on the presence or absence or myocardial dysfunction (such as might result from ischemia or infarction) and on the rate of VT.
VT can be referred to as sustained or nonsustained. Sustained VT refers to an episode that lasts at least 30 seconds and generally requires termination by antiarrhythmic drugs, antitachycardia pacing techniques or electrical cardioversion. Nonsustained VT refers to episodes that are longer than three beats but terminate spontaneously generally within 30 seconds.
Implantable cardiac rhythm management devices are an effective treatment in managing irregular cardiac rhythms in particular patients. Implantable cardiac rhythm management devices are capable of recognizing and treating arrhythmias with a variety of therapies. For the reasons stated above, and for other reasons stated below, which will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon reading and understanding the present specification, there is a need in the art for providing a method for adapting the initiation of a therapeutic therapy for those patients who experience recurring non-sustained arrhythmic episodes.
The present invention, in an illustrative embodiment, includes a method of cardiac treatment using an implanted medical device system having implanted electrodes and an energy storage system for storing electric charge for use in cardiac stimulus, the method comprising determining that cardiac stimulus is indicated at a first time, initiating a charging operation for the energy storage system, determining whether the cardiac stimulus is no longer indicated at a second time after the first time but prior to delivery of the indicated cardiac stimulus, and, if the cardiac stimulus is no longer indicated, changing a threshold used to determine whether cardiac stimulus is indicated. The second time may occur prior to completion of the charging operation, and/or after completion of the charging operation. The determining step may be performed repeatedly during the charging operation. If the cardiac stimulus continues to be indicated during the charging operation, the determining step may be performed at least once after the charging operation is completed. If the determining step fails, the method may further include delivering cardiac stimulus.
Another illustrative embodiment includes a method of cardiac treatment using an implantable medical device system having implanted electrodes and an energy storage system for storing charge for performing cardiac electrical stimulus, the method comprising capturing a predetermined number of selected cardiac events using the implanted electrodes, determining whether a threshold proportion of the predetermined number of selected cardiac events are abnormal, and, if treatment is indicated: initiating a charging operation for the energy storage system, and determining whether cardiac rhythm has returned to normal and, if so, increasing the threshold proportion. The threshold proportion may be, at least initially, in the range of 70-80%. The step of increasing the threshold proportion may include increasing the predetermined number. The illustrative method may further comprise determining if treatment is indicated if: at least the threshold proportion of the predetermined number of selected events are abnormal, and at least the threshold proportion of the predetermined number of selected events is abnormal for at least a threshold number of events out of a preselected number of events. If the threshold proportion is increased, the method may also include increasing the threshold number and the preselected number.
Yet another illustrative embodiment includes a method of cardiac treatment using an implantable medical device system having implanted electrodes and an energy storage system for storing charge for performing cardiac electrical stimulus, the method comprising capturing a predetermined number of selected cardiac events using the implanted electrodes, observing whether a cardiac condition exists for at least one of the selected cardiac events, determining whether the cardiac condition persists for at least a threshold duration or threshold number of cardiac events, and, if so: initiating a charging operation for the energy storage system, and determining whether cardiac condition has terminated prior to delivery of cardiac stimulus and, if so, extending the threshold duration or increasing the threshold number.
Another illustrative embodiment includes a method of operating an implantable electrical device disposed for providing cardiac stimulus to a patient's heart, the method comprising observing electrical activity in a patient's thorax to discern cardiac function, using the discerned cardiac function to establish a metric related to the patient's cardiac function, determining whether treatment is indicated by comparing the metric to a threshold, preparing to deliver treatment by charging an energy storage means coupled to the operational circuitry, observing whether treatment continues to be indicated, and: if treatment continues to be indicated, discharging energy from the energy storage means to the patient, or, if treatment is no longer indicated, changing the threshold. The metric may be related to a proportion of cardiac events that are abnormal within a set of cardiac events, and/or the metric may be related to a duration of time or a number of sensed cardiac events in which a malignant cardiac condition is detected.
Yet another illustrative embodiment includes a method of operation for an implantable medical device having an energy storage system for storing and delivering therapeutic cardiac stimulus, the method comprising observing cardiac function using implanted electrodes by capturing signals from the implanted electrodes and analyzing the captured signals using operational circuitry associated with the implantable medical device, determining whether electrical cardiac stimulus is likely indicated using a first metric; if so, verifying that electrical cardiac stimulus is indicated using a second metric; if so, initiating a charging operation for the energy storage system; after initiating the charging operation, at least once checking that one of the first metric or the second metric continues to indicate electrical cardiac stimulus, and, if not, modifying a threshold used for comparison with either: the first metric in the determining step, and/or the second metric in the verifying step, to cause the threshold to become more rigorous. The checking step may be performed at least once during the charging operation. The checking step may also be performed at least once after the charging operation is completed.
Another illustrative embodiment includes a method of operating an implantable medical device, the method comprising observing a first threshold to determine whether a patient in which the medical device is implanted likely needs cardiac stimulus, and, if so, observing a second threshold to determine whether the cardiac stimulus is currently indicated, and, if so, initiating a charging sequence for an energy storage system configured for stimulus delivery to the patient; if not, returning to the step of observing the first threshold. The method may include, if the charging sequence is initiated, performing the following steps if the charging sequence is completed: observing a third threshold to determine whether cardiac stimulus is currently indicated; and if so, delivering cardiac stimulus to the patient using implanted electrodes; if not, observing the first threshold to determine whether the patient likely needs cardiac stimulus. If the patient still likely needs cardiac stimulus, the method may include returning to the step of observing the third threshold, or if the patient no longer likely needs cardiac stimulus, adjusting at least one of the first threshold and the second threshold. The method may further include observing whether the first threshold remains crossed during a time period between initiation and completion of the charging sequence and: if so, continuing the charging sequence until completion; or, if not, stopping the charging sequence and changing at least one of the first threshold and the second threshold.
Yet another illustrative embodiment includes a method of cardiac treatment using an implanted medical device system having implanted electrodes and an energy storage system for storing electric charge for use in cardiac electrical stimulus, the method comprising A) determining whether an abnormal event threshold is crossed, the abnormal event threshold being crossed if a specified number of abnormal events occur within a selected number of most recent detected cardiac events, and, if so: determining whether the abnormal event threshold has been exceeded for a threshold number of most recent events and observing whether a most recent events is abnormal, and, if so, initiating a charge sequence for the energy storage system. Once the charge sequence is complete, the method may further include B) determining whether a most recent event is abnormal and, if so, delivering therapeutic energy to the patient; and if not, determining whether the abnormal event threshold remains exceeded when measured from a most recent event; and: if so, waiting for a next cardiac event and again performing step B); or if not, raising the threshold number of most recent events and returning to step A). The method may further include determining whether the abnormal event threshold continues to be crossed while the charge sequence is being performed. Another illustrative embodiment includes a method of operating an implanted medical device system having implanted electrodes and an energy storage system for storing electric charge for use in cardiac electrical stimulus, the method comprising observing a cardiac rate for a patient, and if the cardiac rate exceeds a predetermined rate threshold, performing the above method.
Another illustrative embodiment includes a method of operation for an implanted medical device having implanted electrodes, an energy storage system for storing and delivering cardiac stimulus to a patient, and operational circuitry for operating the device, the method comprising capturing a number of cardiac events, determining whether a first cardiac event, along with a set of previously captured cardiac events, indicates a malignant cardiac condition and, if so, flagging the first cardiac event, observing whether a threshold number of cardiac events within a set of cardiac events have been flagged; if so, initiating a charging sequence for charging the energy storage system in preparation for delivery of electrical cardiac stimulus. The illustrative method further includes, after the charging sequence is initiated, at least once observing whether treatment of the patient continues to be indicated due to a malignant cardiac condition; and, if treatment is no longer indicated, modifying the size of the threshold number and/or the set of cardiac events.
Another illustrative embodiment includes a method including implanting an implantable electrical device in the patient, wherein the device is configured to operate as noted in any the above illustrative embodiments.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIGS. 1A-1B illustrate, respectively, representative subcutaneous and transvenous implantable cardiac treatment systems;
FIG. 2 shows an illustrative method for delivering therapy;
FIG. 3 depicts a charge initiation scheme in accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention;
FIGS. 4A-4C depict heart rhythm sections where each individual cardiac event is characterized;
FIG. 5 depicts a charge initiation sequence where an illustrative cardiac rhythm management device is unable to sense during charging;
FIG. 6 depicts a charge initiation sequence where an illustrative cardiac rhythm management device is able to sense during charging; and
FIG. 7 illustrates a dual testing approach for charging and therapy delivery decisions.
The following detailed description should be read with reference to the drawings, in which like elements in different drawings are numbered identically. The drawings, which are not necessarily to scale, depict selected embodiments and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. Those skilled in the art will recognize that many of the examples provided have suitable alternatives that may be utilized.
The present invention is generally related to implantable cardiac treatment systems that provide therapy for patients who are experiencing particular arrhythmias including, for example, ventricular tachycardia. The present invention is directed toward therapy delivery architectures for use in cardiac rhythm devices, as well as devices incorporating such architectures. In particular, the present invention is suited for implantable cardiac treatment systems capable of detecting and treating harmful arrhythmias.
To date, implantable cardiac treatment systems have been either epicardial systems or transvenous systems such as the transvenous system implanted generally as shown in FIG. 1B. However, as further explained herein, the present invention is also adapted to function with a subcutaneous implantable cardiac treatment system as shown in FIG. 1A.
FIG. 1A illustrates a subcutaneously placed implantable cardiac treatment system, in particular, an implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD) system. In this illustrative embodiment, the heart 10 is monitored using a canister 12 coupled to a lead system 14. The canister 12 may include an electrode 16 thereon, while the lead system 14 connects to sensing electrodes 18, 20, and a coil electrode 22 that may serve as a shock or stimulus delivery electrode as well as a sensing electrode. The system may be implanted subcutaneously as illustrated, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,647,292 and 6,721,597, the disclosures of which are both incorporated herein by reference. By subcutaneous placement, it is meant that electrode placement does not require insertion of an electrode into a heart chamber, in or on the heart muscle, or the patient's vasculature.
FIG. 1B illustrates a transvenous ICD system. The heart 30 is monitored and treated by a system including a canister 32 coupled to a lead system 34 including atrial electrodes 36 and ventricular electrodes 38. A number of configurations for the electrodes may be used, including placement within the heart, adherence to the heart, or disposition within the patient's vasculature.
The present invention may be embodied by operational circuitry including select electrical components provided within the canister 2 (FIG. 1A) or canister 11 (FIG. 1B). In such embodiments, the operational circuitry may be configured to enable the methods to be performed. In some similar embodiments, the present invention may be embodied in readable instruction sets such as a program encoded in machine or controller readable media, wherein the readable instruction sets are provided to enable the operational circuitry to perform the analysis discussed in the described embodiments. Further embodiments may include a controller or microcontroller adapted to read and execute the described methods.
The cardiac rhythm management device, whether subcutaneous or transvenous, senses cardiac signals from the patient's heart. The manner in which the data is collected and the type of data collected is dependent on the cardiac rhythm management device being used. Moreover, the cardiac rhythm management device may be programmed to, or may automatically adapt to, optimally detect a particular form of data which is sought by the cardiac rhythm management device.
FIG. 2 shows an illustrative method for delivering therapy. As shown, the method includes a first step of observing cardiac function, as shown at 50. The method determines whether treatment is indicated, as shown at 52. Treatment may be indicated by a number of different methods, for example, by reliance upon any number of characteristics or features of the sensed cardiac function. For the illustrative method, treatment may be indicated by the use of a defined threshold. The threshold utilized may take any number of forms depending upon the device's functionality. For example, the threshold may relate to cardiac event rates, cardiac event intervals, lack of cardiac events (asystole or fibrillation), cardiac event morphology (QRS width being an example), or event-to-event correlation.
If treatment is indicated, the method goes on to begin a charging operation, as shown at 54. The initiation of the charge is stored in an associated energy system (sometimes a capacitor or bank of capacitors). During and/or after the charging operation is completed, the method then includes the step of determining whether treatment is still indicated, as shown at 56. If treatment is still indicated when charging is complete (and/or at intermediate times during charging, if so enabled) then the therapy is delivered as shown at 58. If step 56 is performed while charging is occurring, then charging may continue until charging is completed. If treatment is no longer indicated when step 56 is performed, then the method includes changing the threshold, as shown at 60. In an illustrative embodiment, the threshold may be changed to make the threshold more rigorous for satisfying. By making the threshold more rigorous, it is believed that it is less likely that a charge initiation will commence (step 52) without ultimately delivering a therapy (step 58).
The following illustrative example, encompassing FIGS. 3 and 4A-4C, with further illustration shown in FIGS. 5-6, is a relatively complete example. It should be understood that the claims which follow recite parts of the illustrative methods shown, and that not all steps or aspects of the illustrative example are necessary to the invention. Instead, the relatively complete example shown in FIGS. 3-6 is aiding the understanding of those of skill in the art.
FIG. 3 depicts a charge initiation method in accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention. The illustrative cardiac rhythm management device detects cardiac information, as shown at 70, which includes raw signal data from the patient. This raw signal data may be preprocessed by the device, if so required or desired. Preprocessing steps may include smoothing of the detected data, differentiation, filtering and/or other preprocessing methodologies known in the art.
Detected data, whether preprocessed or raw, is then classified as being either a cardiac event (a heartbeat) or not a cardiac event (extraneous noise). This classification may merely be an initial determination. In particular embodiments, sensed events may then be secondarily examined in an additional waveform appraisal phase. The waveform appraisal phase further appraises the sensed cardiac events and substantiates the classification of those detected signals as true cardiac events. Illustrative details of an example waveform appraisal method are disclosed in detail in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/858,598, filed Jun. 1, 2004 and entitled METHOD AND DEVICES FOR PERFORMING CARDIAC WAVEFORM APPRAISAL, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,248,921, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.
Whether from the raw or appraised cardiac data, the illustrative cardiac rhythm management device may then calculate a patient's representative cardiac rate, as shown at 72. In one embodiment, the cardiac rate is calculated from the average R-R interval between four (4) consecutive sensed cardiac events. Other methods known in the art for calculating a patient's cardiac rate may also be utilized.
The illustrative cardiac rhythm management device then assesses whether the cardiac rate is tachyarrhythmic, as shown at 74. Cardiac rates in excess of 100 bpm are defined as tachyarrhythmias in adults. For most patients, however, a higher cardiac rate threshold is more indicative of a pathologic tachyarrhythmia. Some illustrative embodiments of the invention account for this inconsistency with patients by permitting a physician to adjust the cardiac rate threshold to meet the needs of a particular patient. For example, a physician may adjust the cardiac rate threshold to 120 bpm, instead of 100 bpm, to indicate tachyarrhythmia. This attribute is particularly beneficial for children, who generally have higher pathologic tachyarrhythmic thresholds (around 180 bpm) than adults.
When a patient's cardiac rate is below the tachyarrhythmic threshold, the illustrative cardiac rhythm management device takes no further action other than to continue monitoring the patient's cardiac rate. However, in instances where a patient's cardiac rate does exceed the threshold, the illustrative device then further evaluates the individual cardiac events giving rise to the tachyarrhythmic rate. In particular, the illustrative device first employs an X out of Y counter, as shown at 76.
The individual cardiac events giving rise to a tachyarrhythmic rate are hereinafter defined as “malignant cardiac events” and are the X constituent in the counter. The Y constituent for the counter comprises the total number of cardiac events being evaluated (whether malignant or non-malignant). In a preferred embodiment, the cardiac rhythm management device requires eighteen (18) malignant cardiac events out of twenty-four (24) total detected events to prompt the cardiac rhythm management device to initiate a second level of evaluation, as shown by the decision at 78. Alternative X out of Y quotients may also be used with the present invention.
If the X out of Y counter requirement is not met, then the device continues to monitor the patient's cardiac rate until the X out of Y counter requirement is satisfied, if ever. Once the counter requirement is satisfied, the device evaluates the persistence of the malignant cardiac events, as shown at 80.
The persistence condition of the illustrative embodiment is a gate-keeper step. As the gate-keeper, the persistence condition is the last condition that must be satisfied prior to the illustrative device initiates the charging of its capacitors for therapy delivery, as shown at 82. It is believed that the persistence condition will reduce the number of unnecessary device charge initiations. This is particularly true for those patients who suffer from non-sustained ventricular arrhythmias. Reducing inappropriate charges increases the longevity of the device's batteries and ultimately the longevity of the device itself. This subsequently benefits the patient by reducing the frequency of device replacements.
The illustrative persistence condition evaluates a cardiac rhythm's persistence in satisfying the X out of Y counter requirement. Specifically, the persistence condition evaluates two questions relating to the X out of Y counter:
- (1) Is the X out of Y counter requirement satisfied sequentially for a defined ‘x’ number of times?
- (2) Does the last cardiac event in the final X out of Y counter requirement indicate a malignant cardiac event?
In an illustrative embodiment, the persistence condition is (at least initially) satisfied when the X out of Y counter requirement is satisfied sequentially for two (2) times. Examples illustrating the persistence condition are depicted in FIGS. 4A-4C.
FIGS. 4A-4C depict heart rhythm sections where each individual cardiac event is characterized. More specifically, the FIGS. depict a sequence 90 of cardiac events where the “M” symbol represents a malignant cardiac event and the “E” symbol represents a non-malignant cardiac event.
In FIG. 4A, nineteen (19) malignant events are shown in twenty-four (24) cardiac events. According to an 18 out of 24 counter requirement, the section of cardiac events depicted satisfies the X out of Y counter requirement. Since the counter requirement is satisfied, the device may then evaluate the persistence condition. In doing so, the device flags this X out of Y counter as the first success for evaluating the persistence condition.
FIG. 4B similarly depicts the sequence 90 of twenty-four (24) cardiac events in FIG. 4A, but additionally includes a newly sensed twenty-fifth (25) cardiac event that is malignant, forming another sequence 92B of twenty-four (24) cardiac events. With the addition of the new cardiac event, the cardiac rhythm management device again evaluates the X out of Y counter requirement. Now, the last sequence 92B of twenty-four (24) cardiac events includes twenty (20) malignant events. Thus, the X out of Y counter requirement is again satisfied and the device flags this successive X out of Y counter. The illustrative device's operational circuitry then evaluates the persistence condition. The first inquiry of the persistence condition is satisfied because two sequential X out of Y counter requirements were met. Additionally, the second inquiry of the persistence condition is satisfied because the last cardiac event in the second and final X out of Y counter requirement was a malignant event. As a result, the illustrative device's operational circuitry then initiates the charging of the device's capacitors for therapy delivery.
FIG. 4C also depicts the sequence 90 of twenty-four (24) cardiac events in FIG. 4A, but instead includes a newly sensed twenty-fifth (25) cardiac event that is normal, or at least non-malignant, forming another sequence 92C of twenty-four (24) cardiac events. When the cardiac rhythm management device again evaluates the X out of Y counter requirement, it observes that the last sequence 92B of twenty-four (24) cardiac events include eighteen (18) malignant events. Thus, the X out of Y counter requirement is again satisfied and the device flags this successive X out of Y counter. The illustrative device's operational circuitry then evaluates the persistence condition. The first inquiry of the persistence condition is satisfied because two sequential X out of Y counter requirements were met. However, the second inquiry of the persistence condition fails. Specifically, the last cardiac event in the second and final X out of Y counter requirement was not a malignant event. Thus, the device refrains from charge initiation.
Once the gate-keeping function of the persistence condition is satisfied, the device begins to charge its capacitors. FIGS. 5 and 6 depict two alternative scenarios for charging. FIG. 5 depicts a charge initiation sequence where an illustrative cardiac rhythm management device is unable to sense during charging. More specifically, once the device initiates its charging cycle, as shown at 100, the device cannot sense, as shown during time period 102. The method resumes once the device charge is completed, as shown at 104. Since the illustrative cardiac rhythm management device cannot sense during charging, the device must wait until the capacitors are fully charged before the operational circuitry may resume sensing. Immediately following charge completion 104, however, the device reconfirms that therapy delivery is necessary as shown at 106.
In one embodiment, the reconfirmation process is deemed successful if two consecutive malignant events occur within six (6) contiguous cardiac events, with the six (6) events being the most recent events available for evaluation. If the conditions set forth in the reconfirmation process 106 are satisfied, then the capacitors are again charged to their fullest (if necessary) as shown at 108, and therapy is delivered to the patient, as shown at 110.
Alternatively, if the reconfirmation process 106 fails, the device again employs an X out of Y counter requirement, as shown at 112, and must again satisfy the persistence condition, as shown at 114. If at any time the persistence condition and the reconfirmation process are satisfied, then the capacitors are again charged to their fullest, as shown at 108, and therapy is delivered to the patient, as shown at 110. However, if the patient converts to a normal sinus rhythm after charging (or otherwise fails the X out of Y counter requirement), then the parameters set for the persistence condition are modified, as shown at 116, and the capacitors are bled of their charge, as shown at 118.
In addition to being a gate-keeper, the persistence condition is also adaptive to the particular needs of a patient. If a patient frequently suffers from non-sustained tachyarrhythmias, the persistence conditions may be adjusted to help eliminate premature charge initiations. In one embodiment, the first inquiry is further defined to account for this adaptability:
- (1) Is the X out of Y counter requirement satisfied sequentially for (3*n)+2 times, where n is an integer with limits between 0 and 5, and further wherein n starts at 0 and increases one integer with each aborted charge initiation?
The second inquiry remains the same. With this expanded definition, the persistence condition's first inquiry requires:
- two (2) sequential X out of Y counter requirements satisfied if the device has never aborted a charge initiation;
- five (5) sequential X out of Y counter requirements satisfied if the device has aborted a charge initiation once;
- eight (8) sequential X out of Y counter requirements satisfied if the device has aborted a charge initiation twice;
- eleven (11) sequential X out of Y counter requirements satisfied if the device has aborted a charge initiation three times
- fourteen (14) sequential X out of Y counter requirements satisfied if the device has aborted a charge initiation four times; and
- seventeen (17) sequential X out of Y counter requirements satisfied if the device has aborted a charge initiation five times.
In all other aspects, the illustrative persistence condition operates as described in detail above with reference to FIGS. 3 and 4A-4C.
FIG. 6 illustrates a portion of the charge initiation sequence where the operational circuitry can sense cardiac events while the device is charging. Cardiac events that are sensed during charging are evaluated and assessed similarly to those being sensed when the device is not charging or otherwise preparing to deliver therapy. Therefore, the cardiac rhythm management device may calculate a cardiac rate and evaluate the frequency of malignant events during the charging cycle. As such, after the device initiates its charging, as shown at 130, the device begins monitoring the X out of Y requirement, as shown at 132. If at any time during the device's charge cycle the patient converts to a normal sinus rhythm after charging (or otherwise fails the X out of Y counter requirement), then the device stops charging, as shown at 134. Additionally, the capacitors are bled of their charge and the parameters set for the persistence condition are modified, as shown at 136, by applying the expanded definition for the first inquiry described above. The method then returns to detection and rate calculation, as shown at 138. Alternatively, if the patient remains in a tachyarrhythmic state throughout the charge cycle, then the device reconfirms that therapy delivery is necessary through the reconfirmation process, following a method similar to that shown in FIG. 5, as indicated at 140.
In the above illustrative embodiment shown in FIGS. 3-6, the term “malignant event” was defined as an event indicative of a tachyarrhythmic rate. In other embodiments, any detected cardiac event that, upon analysis, is indicative of a malignant condition (i.e. a cardiac condition requiring intervention) may be considered a malignant event. An example of a malignant event satisfying other criteria may be an event or series of events having a morphology (for example, shape, QRS width, consecutive event correlation waveform analysis, etc.) indicative of a malignant arrhythmia. Some examples of analysis for providing such determinations are shown in copending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/856,084, filed May 27, 2004 and entitled METHOD FOR DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN VENTRICULAR AND SUPRAVENTRICULAR ARRHYTHMIAS, published as U.S. Pat. App. Pub. No. US 2004-0254613 A1, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.
In alternative embodiments, several portions of the method may be modified. For example, the X out of Y count requirement may be changed to use different parameters (instead of 18 out of 24, other ratios may be used). In yet another embodiment, rather than an X out of Y counter requirement, a group of cardiac events may be analyzed to determine a group correlation waveform score. If the correlation is sufficiently low, it may be determined that cardiac function is erratic to a degree indicating a need for therapeutic delivery. In yet another modification, the persistence conditions themselves may also change. For example, the persistence condition may require longer or shorter analytical periods, consideration of morphology, noise considerations, or the like.
In some embodiments, other conditions may be modified after a patient has spontaneously recovered from a non-sustained tachyarrhythmia or other malignant condition. For instance, rather than altering the persistence condition, the X of Y counter requirement may be changed. More specifically, if an illustrative method begins with an 18 out of 24 counter requirement, the X out of Y counter requirement may extend to a larger number, higher percentage, or other requirement. For example, the 18 out of 24 counter requirement may adjust to 20 out of 24 and/or 21 out of 27. This change may be further incremented with each successive non-sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia. For example, after the first aborted charge, the 18 out of 24 counter requirement becomes 21 out of 27, which becomes 24 out of 30 on the second aborted charge and 27 out of 33 on the third aborted charge. In alternative illustrative embodiments, more than one rule for a given persistence condition may be changed at the same time.
Some embodiments may make use of a pure rate-driven shocking determination which does not make use of the X out of Y counter requirement. For example, if the cardiac rate observed to initiate the method shown in FIG. 3 (the query “tachyarrhythmic rate?”) exceeds a predetermined threshold, it may be determined that therapy is appropriate. Then, at a later time (e.g., during charging of the illustrative device's energy storage system or after charging is complete) the rate may be checked again. Re-checking the conditions giving rise to a decision to deliver therapy at a later time may reveal that stimulus is no longer indicated. In response, a system may raise the threshold cardiac rate for shocking, or may extend a relevant time period in which such a threshold cardiac rate must be held to initiate charging.
FIG. 7 illustrates a dual testing approach for charging and therapy delivery decisions. The method begins by observing the patient's cardiac function, as shown at 200. The method then determines, as shown at 202, whether treatment is likely indicated. If treatment is not indicated, the method returns to observing cardiac function as shown at 200, where the method waits until a next cardiac event is sensed for evaluation.
If treatment is likely indicated at 202, the method next verifies that treatment is needed, as shown at 204, using a different metric than that used in step 202. One method of separating out these two steps is to observe event intervals to determine whether treatment is likely indicated (step 202) and, if so, to perform further analysis (possibly combining noise and average interval analysis) to verify that the event intervals do indeed indicate malignancy. Other first and second steps (202, 204) may be performed without deviating from the scope of the invention.
Yet another example of a first and second tier for analysis is a system wherein multiple vector views are available, for example as shown in copending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/901,258, filed Jul. 27, 2004 and entitled MULTIPLE ELECTRODE VECTORS FOR IMPLANTABLE CARDIAC TREATMENT DEVICES, published as U.S. Pat. App. Pub. No. US 2005-0049644 A1, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. For example, a first sensing vector may be used for the first determination that treatment is likely indicated at 202. Additionally, a second, different sensing vector may then be used to verify that treatment is indicated at 204.
If treatment is likely indicated at 202 and a need for treatment is verified at 204, the method next includes the step of initiating the charging operation of the associated energy storage device or system (often a capacitor or group of capacitors), as shown at 206. The method next goes to a charge instruction block 208 which includes steps that are performed if the device/system is able to perform sensing and analysis operations during charging of the system's energy storage device. If sensing and analysis operations cannot be performed during charging, the method goes directly to step 214, which is explained below.
In the charge instruction block 208, the method determines whether the energy storage system is completed charging, as shown at 210. If not, the method includes observing whether treatment is still likely indicated, as shown at 212. The metric for determining whether treatment is still likely indicated in step 212 may be that of either of steps 202 or 204, or may be a yet a different metric. If treatment is still likely indicated, the method continues charging at 210 and iterates this loop until charging is complete. Once charging is complete, the method determines whether a need for treatment can be verified again, as shown at step 214. As with step 212, a metric previously used in one of steps 202, 204, or 212 may be used in step 214, or a new metric may be chosen. If the last verification step 214 is successful, then therapy is delivered as shown at 216.
If verification step 214 fails, then the stored energy may be non-therapeutically discharged, as shown at 218, in any suitable manner. Alternatively, if desired, the capacitors may continue to hold charge for a predetermined time period to assure that re-charging is not needed. One suitable manner for discharge is to use the stored energy to perform diagnostic or maintenance type functions for the device or, if the device is used for pacing, to use the energy to provide pacing energy.
Next, a threshold is adjusted, as shown at 220. Several thresholds may be adjusted, but preferably adjustment is performed on a threshold used in at least one of the preliminary steps 202, 204 that are used to make a determination that charging should be initiated at step 206. The threshold may be made more rigorous such that a decision to initiate charging at 206 becomes more difficult. The method then returns to observing cardiac function as shown at 200.
Returning to step 212, in the charge instruction block 208, if treatment is no longer likely indicated at step 212, the method terminates charging, as shown at 222, and discharges the energy storage in any suitable manner, as shown at 224. The method then goes to step 220 and adjusts a threshold as before.
As used herein, the term metric may indicate any suitable measurement or result from an analytical procedure. Example metrics include event rates, X out of Y counter ratios, and correlation results. Further metrics include a time period in which a condition (such as a cardiac tachyarrhythmia) persists or a how often an X out of Y counter is flagged.
A threshold may be rendered more rigorous in response to an aborted charge initiation. Thus, at least ostensibly, subsequent tachyarrhythmic events must be more sustainable to cross an adjusted threshold for initiating the device's charging cycle. Examples of adjustable thresholds include metrics such as event rate, X out of Y counter ratios, number of time intervals during which a malignant condition is detected, and the number of X out of Y counter flags set.
Numerous characteristics and advantages of the invention covered by this document have been set forth in the foregoing description. It will be understood, however, that this disclosure is, in many aspects, only illustrative. Changes may be made in details, particularly in matters of shape, size and arrangement of parts without exceeding the scope of the invention. The invention's scope is defined, of course, in the language in which the claims are expressed.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3653387||May 8, 1970||Apr 4, 1972||Cardiac Electronics Inc||Protector circuit for cardiac apparatus|
|US3710374||Aug 17, 1970||Jan 9, 1973||Wester Instr Inc||Dual-slope and analog-to-digital converter wherein two analog input signals are selectively integrated with respect to time|
|US3911925||May 23, 1974||Oct 14, 1975||Tillery Jr Joe B||Ear trimming forceps|
|US4030509||Sep 30, 1975||Jun 21, 1977||Mieczyslaw Mirowski||Implantable electrodes for accomplishing ventricular defibrillation and pacing and method of electrode implantation and utilization|
|US4157720||Sep 16, 1977||Jun 12, 1979||Greatbatch W||Cardiac pacemaker|
|US4164946||May 27, 1977||Aug 21, 1979||Mieczyslaw Mirowski||Fault detection circuit for permanently implanted cardioverter|
|US4184493||Feb 15, 1978||Jan 22, 1980||Mieczyslaw Mirowski||Circuit for monitoring a heart and for effecting cardioversion of a needy heart|
|US4191942||Jun 8, 1978||Mar 4, 1980||National Semiconductor Corporation||Single slope A/D converter with sample and hold|
|US4210149||Apr 17, 1978||Jul 1, 1980||Mieczyslaw Mirowski||Implantable cardioverter with patient communication|
|US4223678||May 3, 1978||Sep 23, 1980||Mieczyslaw Mirowski||Arrhythmia recorder for use with an implantable defibrillator|
|US4248237||Mar 9, 1978||Feb 3, 1981||Needle Industries Limited||Cardiac pacemakers|
|US4254775||Jul 2, 1979||Mar 10, 1981||Mieczyslaw Mirowski||Implantable defibrillator and package therefor|
|US4291707||Apr 30, 1979||Sep 29, 1981||Mieczyslaw Mirowski||Implantable cardiac defibrillating electrode|
|US4300567||Feb 11, 1980||Nov 17, 1981||Mieczyslaw Mirowski||Method and apparatus for effecting automatic ventricular defibrillation and/or demand cardioversion through the means of an implanted automatic defibrillator|
|US4314095||Apr 30, 1979||Feb 2, 1982||Mieczyslaw Mirowski||Device and method for making electrical contact|
|US4375817||Dec 22, 1980||Mar 8, 1983||Medtronic, Inc.||Implantable cardioverter|
|US4402322||Mar 25, 1981||Sep 6, 1983||Medtronic, Inc.||Pacer output circuit|
|US4407288||Mar 16, 1981||Oct 4, 1983||Mieczyslaw Mirowski||Implantable heart stimulator and stimulation method|
|US4424818||Feb 18, 1982||Jan 10, 1984||Medtronic, Inc.||Electrical lead and insertion tool|
|US4450527||Jun 29, 1982||May 22, 1984||Bomed Medical Mfg. Ltd.||Noninvasive continuous cardiac output monitor|
|US4548209||Feb 6, 1984||Oct 22, 1985||Medtronic, Inc.||Energy converter for implantable cardioverter|
|US4567900||Jun 4, 1984||Feb 4, 1986||Moore J Paul||Internal deployable defibrillator electrode|
|US4595009||Sep 30, 1985||Jun 17, 1986||Medtronic, Inc.||Protection circuit for implantable cardioverter|
|US4602637||Jan 11, 1984||Jul 29, 1986||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Heart pacemaker system|
|US4603705||May 4, 1984||Aug 5, 1986||Mieczyslaw Mirowski||Intravascular multiple electrode unitary catheter|
|US4693253||Mar 23, 1981||Sep 15, 1987||Medtronic, Inc.||Automatic implantable defibrillator and pacer|
|US4727877||Aug 12, 1986||Mar 1, 1988||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for low energy endocardial defibrillation|
|US4750494||Jun 24, 1987||Jun 14, 1988||Medtronic, Inc.||Automatic implantable fibrillation preventer|
|US4765341||Aug 25, 1983||Aug 23, 1988||Mieczyslaw Mirowski||Cardiac electrode with attachment fin|
|US4768512||May 13, 1986||Sep 6, 1988||Mieczyslaw Mirowski||Cardioverting system and method with high-frequency pulse delivery|
|US4779617||Oct 6, 1986||Oct 25, 1988||Telectronics N.V.||Pacemaker noise rejection system|
|US4800883||Apr 2, 1986||Jan 31, 1989||Intermedics, Inc.||Apparatus for generating multiphasic defibrillation pulse waveform|
|US4830005||Jul 23, 1987||May 16, 1989||Siemens-Pacesetter, Inc.||Disposable in-package load test element for pacemakers|
|US4830006 *||Jun 17, 1986||May 16, 1989||Intermedics, Inc.||Implantable cardiac stimulator for detection and treatment of ventricular arrhythmias|
|US4944300||Jan 12, 1990||Jul 31, 1990||Sanjeev Saksena||Method for high energy defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation in humans without a thoracotomy|
|US4949719 *||Apr 26, 1989||Aug 21, 1990||Ventritex, Inc.||Method for cardiac defibrillation|
|US5000189||Nov 15, 1989||Mar 19, 1991||Regents Of The University Of Michigan||Method and system for monitoring electrocardiographic signals and detecting a pathological cardiac arrhythmia such as ventricular tachycardia|
|US5044374||Jul 7, 1989||Sep 3, 1991||Medtronic, Inc.||Medical electrical lead|
|US5105810||Jul 24, 1990||Apr 21, 1992||Telectronics Pacing Systems, Inc.||Implantable automatic and haemodynamically responsive cardioverting/defibrillating pacemaker with means for minimizing bradycardia support pacing voltages|
|US5105826||Oct 26, 1990||Apr 21, 1992||Medtronic, Inc.||Implantable defibrillation electrode and method of manufacture|
|US5109842||Sep 24, 1990||May 5, 1992||Siemens Pacesetter, Inc.||Implantable tachyarrhythmia control system having a patch electrode with an integrated cardiac activity system|
|US5117824 *||Nov 14, 1990||Jun 2, 1992||Medtronic, Inc.||Apparatus for monitoring electrical physiologic signals|
|US5129392||Dec 20, 1990||Jul 14, 1992||Medtronic, Inc.||Apparatus for automatically inducing fibrillation|
|US5133353||Apr 25, 1990||Jul 28, 1992||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Implantable intravenous cardiac stimulation system with pulse generator housing serving as optional additional electrode|
|US5144946||Aug 5, 1991||Sep 8, 1992||Siemens Pacesetter, Inc.||Combined pacemaker substrate and electrical interconnect and method of assembly|
|US5184615 *||Mar 8, 1991||Feb 9, 1993||Telectronics Pacing Systems, Inc.||Apparatus and method for detecting abnormal cardiac rhythms using evoked potential measurements in an arrhythmia control system|
|US5184616||Oct 21, 1991||Feb 9, 1993||Telectronics Pacing Systems, Inc.||Apparatus and method for generation of varying waveforms in arrhythmia control system|
|US5191901||Aug 29, 1991||Mar 9, 1993||Mieczyslaw Mirowski||Controlled discharge defibrillation electrode|
|US5193535||Aug 27, 1991||Mar 16, 1993||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for discrimination of ventricular tachycardia from ventricular fibrillation and for treatment thereof|
|US5203348||Jun 6, 1990||Apr 20, 1993||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Body implantable tissue stimulating electrode assembly|
|US5215081||Dec 14, 1990||Jun 1, 1993||Telectronics Pacing Systems, Inc.||Method and device for measuring subthreshold defibrillation electrode resistance and providing a constant energy shock delivery|
|US5215098||Aug 12, 1991||Jun 1, 1993||Telectronics Pacing Systems, Inc.||Data compression of cardiac electrical signals using scanning correlation and temporal data compression|
|US5217021||Jul 30, 1991||Jun 8, 1993||Telectronics Pacing Systems, Inc.||Detection of cardiac arrhythmias using correlation of a cardiac electrical signals and temporal data compression|
|US5230337||Jul 14, 1992||Jul 27, 1993||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Process for implanting subcutaneous defibrillation electrodes|
|US5255692||Sep 4, 1992||Oct 26, 1993||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Subcostal patch electrode|
|US5261400||Feb 12, 1992||Nov 16, 1993||Medtronic, Inc.||A human heart|
|US5271411||Sep 10, 1991||Dec 21, 1993||Colin Electronics Co., Ltd.||Method and apparatus for ECG signal analysis and cardiac arrhythmia detection|
|US5275621 *||Apr 13, 1992||Jan 4, 1994||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for terminating tachycardia|
|US5277190||Apr 7, 1992||Jan 11, 1994||The Board Of Regents Of The University Of Oklahoma||Cycle length variability in nonsustained ventricular tachycardia|
|US5280792||Sep 18, 1992||Jan 25, 1994||The University Of Sydney||Method and system for automatically classifying intracardiac electrograms|
|US5300106||Jun 7, 1991||Apr 5, 1994||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Insertion and tunneling tool for a subcutaneous wire patch electrode|
|US5312441||Apr 13, 1992||May 17, 1994||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for discrimination of ventricular tachycardia from supraventricular tachycardia and for treatment thereof|
|US5313953||Jan 14, 1992||May 24, 1994||Incontrol, Inc.||For monitoring the physiology of the human heart|
|US5331966||Dec 16, 1993||Jul 26, 1994||Medtronic, Inc.||Subcutaneous multi-electrode sensing system, method and pacer|
|US5342402||Jan 29, 1993||Aug 30, 1994||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for detection and treatment of tachycardia and fibrillation|
|US5342407||Jul 13, 1992||Aug 30, 1994||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Body implantable defibrillation system|
|US5351696||Apr 23, 1993||Oct 4, 1994||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for intracardiac electrogram morphologic analysis|
|US5366496||Apr 1, 1993||Nov 22, 1994||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Subcutaneous shunted coil electrode|
|US5370667 *||Jul 20, 1992||Dec 6, 1994||Intermedics, Inc.||Device and method for automatically adjusting tachycardia recognition criteria based on detected parameter|
|US5376103||Mar 19, 1992||Dec 27, 1994||Angeion Corporation||Electrode system for implantable defibrillator|
|US5376104||Feb 2, 1993||Dec 27, 1994||Nihon Kohden Corporation||Defibrillator with electrocardiogram monitor|
|US5385574||Jul 24, 1992||Jan 31, 1995||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Implantable intravenous cardiac stimulation system with pulse generator housing serving as optional additional electrode|
|US5391200||Mar 10, 1994||Feb 21, 1995||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Defibrillation patch electrode having conductor-free resilient zone for minimally invasive deployment|
|US5405363||Jun 21, 1994||Apr 11, 1995||Angelon Corporation||Implantable cardioverter defibrillator having a smaller displacement volume|
|US5411031||Nov 24, 1993||May 2, 1995||Incontrol, Inc.||Implantable cardiac patient monitor|
|US5411539||Aug 31, 1993||May 2, 1995||Medtronic, Inc.||Active can emulator and method of use|
|US5411547||Aug 9, 1993||May 2, 1995||Pacesetter, Inc.||Implantable cardioversion-defibrillation patch electrodes having means for passive multiplexing of discharge pulses|
|US5413591||Jul 22, 1993||May 9, 1995||Angeion Corporation||Current truncated waveform defibrillator|
|US5423326||May 14, 1993||Jun 13, 1995||Drexel University||Apparatus and method for measuring cardiac output|
|US5431693||Dec 10, 1993||Jul 11, 1995||Intermedics, Inc.||Method of verifying capture of the heart by a pacemaker|
|US5439485||Sep 24, 1993||Aug 8, 1995||Ventritex, Inc.||Flexible defibrillation electrode of improved construction|
|US5447519||Mar 19, 1994||Sep 5, 1995||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for discrimination of monomorphic and polymorphic arrhythmias and for treatment thereof|
|US5447521||Oct 12, 1994||Sep 5, 1995||Angeion Corporation||Safety system for an implantable defibrillator|
|US5458623||Mar 4, 1994||Oct 17, 1995||Telectronics Pacing Systems, Inc.||Automatic atrial pacing threshold determination utilizing an external programmer and a surface electrogram|
|US5464431||Mar 27, 1995||Nov 7, 1995||Incontrol, Inc.||Atrial fibrillation detector|
|US5476503||Mar 28, 1994||Dec 19, 1995||Pacesetter, Inc.||Sense array intelligent patch lead for an implantable defibrillator and method|
|US5509923||Dec 21, 1990||Apr 23, 1996||Raychem Corporation||Device for dissecting, grasping, or cutting an object|
|US5509928||Mar 2, 1995||Apr 23, 1996||Pacesetter, Inc.||Internally supported self-sealing septum|
|US5513645 *||Nov 16, 1994||May 7, 1996||Ela Medical S.A.||Holter functions with a zoom feature|
|US5531765||Jul 15, 1994||Jul 2, 1996||Ventritex, Inc.||Method and apparatus for producing configurable biphasic defibrillation waveforms|
|US5531766||Jan 23, 1995||Jul 2, 1996||Angeion Corporation||Implantable cardioverter defibrillator pulse generator kite-tail electrode system|
|US5534019||Dec 9, 1994||Jul 9, 1996||Ventritex, Inc.||Cardiac defibrillator with case that can be electrically active or inactive|
|US5534022||Nov 22, 1994||Jul 9, 1996||Ventritex, Inc.||Lead having an integrated defibrillation/sensing electrode|
|US5545186||Mar 30, 1995||Aug 13, 1996||Medtronic, Inc.||Prioritized rule based method and apparatus for diagnosis and treatment of arrhythmias|
|US5597956||Aug 18, 1995||Jan 28, 1997||Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.||Of an electrostatic servo system|
|US5601607||Jan 23, 1995||Feb 11, 1997||Angeion Corporation||Implantable cardioverter defibrillator housing plated electrode|
|US5603732||Nov 6, 1995||Feb 18, 1997||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Subcutaneous defibrillation electrodes|
|US5607455||May 25, 1995||Mar 4, 1997||Intermedics, Inc.||Method and apparatus for automatic shock electrode enabling|
|US5618287||Mar 17, 1995||Apr 8, 1997||Thomas J. Fogarty||Methods of surgically implanting a defibrillator electrode within a patient|
|US5620477||May 31, 1995||Apr 15, 1997||Ventritex, Inc.||Pulse generator with case that can be active or inactive|
|US5643328||Jul 19, 1996||Jul 1, 1997||Sulzer Intermedics Inc.||Implantable cardiac stimulation device with warning system having elongated stimulation electrode|
|US5645586||Jul 8, 1994||Jul 8, 1997||Ventritex, Inc.||Conforming implantable defibrillator|
|US5658317||Aug 14, 1995||Aug 19, 1997||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Threshold templating for digital AGC|
|US5658319||May 13, 1996||Aug 19, 1997||Angeion Corporation||Implantable cardioverter defibrillator having a high voltage capacitor|
|US5658321||Jun 9, 1995||Aug 19, 1997||Ventritex, Inc.||Conductive housing for implantable cardiac device|
|US5755736 *||Jul 16, 1997||May 26, 1998||Medtronic, Inc.||Prioritized rule based method and apparatus for diagnosis and treatment of arrhythmias|
|US6169923 *||Apr 23, 1999||Jan 2, 2001||Pacesetter, Inc.||Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator with automatic arrhythmia detection criteria adjustment|
|US6879856 *||Mar 21, 2001||Apr 12, 2005||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for detection and treatment of tachycardia and fibrillation|
|US7103404 *||Feb 27, 2003||Sep 5, 2006||Medtronic,Inc.||Detection of tachyarrhythmia termination|
|US7447544 *||Feb 18, 2004||Nov 4, 2008||Pacesetter, Inc.||System and method for controlling the recording of diagnostic medical data in an implantable medical device|
|USRE30387||May 1, 1978||Aug 26, 1980||Medtronic, Inc.||Automatic cardioverting circuit|
|1||Anderson, Mark H. et al., "Performance of Basic Ventricular Tachycardia Detection Algorithms in Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators: Implications for Device Programming," PACE, vol. 20, Dec. 1997, Part I, pp. 2975-2983.|
|2||Bardy, Gust H. et al., "Multicenter Experience with a Pectoral Unipolar Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator," JACC, Aug. 1996, vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 400-410.|
|3||Betts, Tim R. et al, "Inappropriate Shock Therapy in a Heart Failure Defibrillator," PACE, vol. 24, Feb. 2001, pp. 238-240.|
|4||Boriani, Guiseppe et al., "Cardioverter-Defibrillator Oversensing Due to Double Counting of Ventricular Tachycardia Electrograms," International Journal of Cardiology, 66 (1998) pp. 91-95.|
|5||Callans, David J. et al., "Unique Sensing Errors in Third-Generation Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators," JACC, vol. 22, No. 4, Oct. 1993, pp. 1135-1140.|
|6||EPO Office Action (May 8, 2009) and Response/Amendment (Sep. 14, 2009) for related application filed in Europe (EP App. No. 05 855365.2).|
|7||Final Office Action (Sep. 25, 2008); U.S. Appl. No. 10/755,185 (US 2005-0154421 A1-Ousdigian).|
|8||Final Office Action (Sep. 25, 2008); U.S. Appl. No. 10/755,185 (US 2005-0154421 A1—Ousdigian).|
|9||Friedman, Richard A. et al., "Implantable Defibrillators In Children: From Whence to Shock," Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol. 12, No. 3, Mar. 2001, pp. 361-362.|
|10||Gradaus, Rainer et al., "Nonthoracotomy Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Placement in Children: Use of Subcutaneous Array Leads and Abdominally Placed Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators in Children," Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol. 12, No. 3, Mar. 2001, pp. 356-360.|
|11||Gunderson et al.; "An Algorithm to Predict Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Lead Failure"; Journal of the American College of Cardiology; vol. 44, No. 9, pp. 1898-1902; 2004.|
|12||Higgins, Steven L. et al., "The First Year Experience with the Dual Chamber ICD," PACE, Jan. 2000, vol. 23, pp. 18-25.|
|13||IPAU Office Action (Nov. 12, 2010) for related application filed in Australia (AU App. No. 2005325670).|
|14||Jaïs , Pierre et al., "Pacemaker Syndrome Induced by the Mode Switching Algorithm of a DDDR Pacemaker," PACE, vol. 22, Apr. 1999, Part I, pp. 682-685.|
|15||Jones, Gregory K. et al., "Considerations for Ventricular Fibrillation Detection by Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators," American Heart Journal, vol. 127, No. 4, Part 2, Apr. 1994, pp. 1107-1110.|
|16||Kelly, Patricia A. et al., "Oversensing During Ventricular Pacing in Patients with a Third-Generation Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator," JACC, vol. 23, No. 7, Jun. 1994, pp. 1531-1534.|
|17||Leung, Sum-Kin et al., "Apparent Extension of the Atrioventricular Interval Due to Sensor-Based Algorithm Against Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmias," PACE, vol. 17, Mar. 1994, Part I, pp. 321-330.|
|18||Li, Huagui, et al., "The Mean Ventricular Fibrillation Cycle Length: A Potentially Useful Parameter for Programming Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators, " PACE, vol. 21, Sep. 1998, pp. 1789-1794.|
|19||Mirowski, M. et al., "Automatic Detection and Defibrillation of Lethal Arrhythmias-A New Concept," JAMA, vol. 213, No. 4, Jul. 27, 1970, pp. 615-616.|
|20||Nair, Mohan et al., Automatic Arrhythmia Identification Using Analysis of the Atrioventricular Association, Circulation, vol. 95, No. 4, Feb. 18, 1997, pp. 967-973.|
|21||Newman, David et al., Use of Telemetry Functions in the Assessment of Implanted Antitachycardia Device Efficacy, The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 70, Sep. 1, 1992, pp. 616-621.|
|22||Olson, Walter H. et al., "Onset and Stability for Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia Detection in an Implantable Pacer-Cardioverter-Defibrillator," IEEE, (1987) pp. 167-170.|
|23||Schaumann, Anselm et al, "Enhanced Detection Criteria in Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators to Avoid Inappropriate Therapy," The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 78 (5A), Sep. 12, 1996, pp. 42-50.|
|24||Schreieck, Jürgen et al., "Inappropriate Shock Delivery Due to Ventricular Double Detection with a Biventricular Pacing Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator," PACE, vol. 24, Jul. 2001, pp. 1154-1157.|
|25||Schuder, John C. et al., "Experimental Ventricular Defibrillation with an Automatic and Completely Implanted System," Trans. Amer. Soc. Artif. Int. Organs, vol. XVI (1970) pp. 207-212.|
|26||Schuder, John C. et al., "Standby Implanted Defibrillators," Arch Intern. Med, vol. 127, Feb. 1971, p. 317 (single sheet).|
|27||Schuder, John C. et al., "Transthoracic Ventricular Defibrillation in the Dog with Truncated and Untruncated Exponential Stimuli," IEEE Transactions on Bio-Medical Engineering, vol. BME-18, No. 6, Nov. 1971, pp. 410-415.|
|28||Schuder, John C., "Completely Implanted Defibrillator," JAMA, vol. 214, No. 6, Nov. 9, 1970. p. 1123 (single sheet).|
|29||Schuder, John C., "The Role of an Engineering Oriented Medical Research Group in Developing Improved Methods and Devices for Achieving Ventricular Defibrillation: The University of Missouri Experience," PACE, vol. 16, Jan. 1993, pp. 95-124.|
|30||Schwacke, H. et al., "Komplikationen mit Sonden bei 340 Patienten mit einem Implantierbaren Kardioverter/Defibrillator," Z Kardiol (1999)vol. 88, No. 8, pp. 559-565.|
|31||SIPO Office Action Translation (Jun./Jul. 2011), Response/Amendment (Apr. 18, 2011) and Office Action / Translation (Dec. 3, 2010) for related application filed in China (CN App. No. 200580047119.3).|
|32||Theuns, D. et al., "Initial Climical Experience with a New Arrhythmia Detection Algorithm in Dual Chamber Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators," Europace, vol. 3, Jul. 2001, pp. 181-186.|
|33||Tietze U. et al., "Halbleiter-Schaltungstechnik," © Springer-Verlag (Berlin, Germany), (1991), pp. 784-786.|
|34||Valenzuela, Terrence D. et al., "Outcomes of Rapid Defibrillation by Security Officers After Cardiac Arrest in Casinos," The New England Journal of Medicine, Oct. 26, 2000, vol. 343, No. 17, pp. 1206-1209.|
|35||Walters, R.A. et al., "Analog to Digital Conversion Techniques in Implantable Devices," Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, vol. 13 No. 4 (1991) p. 1674-1676.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8670826||Aug 30, 2012||Mar 11, 2014||Cameron Health, Inc.||Methods and devices for adapting charge initiation for an implantable defibrillator|
|Mar 24, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CAMERON HEALTH, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:WARREN, JAY A;BARDY, GUST H;REEL/FRAME:015818/0900;SIGNING DATES FROM 20050228 TO 20050314
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:WARREN, JAY A;BARDY, GUST H;SIGNING DATES FROM 20050228 TO 20050314;REEL/FRAME:015818/0900