|Publication number||US8174341 B2|
|Application number||US 12/325,748|
|Publication date||May 8, 2012|
|Filing date||Dec 1, 2008|
|Priority date||Dec 1, 2008|
|Also published as||US20100134215|
|Publication number||12325748, 325748, US 8174341 B2, US 8174341B2, US-B2-8174341, US8174341 B2, US8174341B2|
|Inventors||Jae Seung Lee, Serdar H. Yonak|
|Original Assignee||Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (15), Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (21), Classifications (7), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention relates to metamaterials, such as tunable metamaterials.
Metamaterials include composite materials comprising conductive elements and dielectric materials. Metamaterial prompters typically depend on structural features of the conducting materials. However, tunable metamaterials would be very useful for numerous applications.
An example metamaterial comprises a substrate, such as a dielectric substrate, and a plurality of resonators supported on the substrate. The resonators may be electrically coupled inductor-capacitor (ELC) resonators. In some examples of the present invention, each resonator comprises first and second conducting segments. At least one adjustable capacitor is located between the first and second conducting segments, and further, at least one bias capacitor is located between the conducting segments. An electrical potential (which may be termed a bias potential) applied between the first and second conducting segments can then be used to adjust the capacitance of the adjustable capacitor. For example, the adjustable capacitor may include a material having an electrically tunable permittivity, such as a ferroelectric, for example barium strontium titanate (BST).
A bias capacitor may be provided so as to electrically isolate the first and second conducting segments from each other, for an applied direct voltage. A metamaterial may comprise a plurality of ELC resonators supported by dielectric substrate. The bias capacitors may have the same capacitance for all resonators disposed on the substrate. However, in other examples the value of the bias capacitors varies with spatial position, for example having a linear or other dependence on spatial position, so as to give a gradient index even with no field applied, and the gradient index may then be adjusted using the bias potential.
In some examples, the first and second conducting segments have a generally “E” shaped form, having three generally parallel arms. The E shapes are arranged face to face, and capacitors are located between the proximate metal strips. For example, the first and second conducting segments may be separated by a bias capacitor between the central arm of each E-shape, with adjustable capacitors between the other (outer) arms of the E shapes. However, other configurations are possible, for example using two bias capacitors and one adjustable capacitor.
Examples of the present invention are not limited to resonators on a planar substrate. Examples also include resonators aligned in other directions, for example within three dimensional metamaterial designs. For example metamaterials may comprise configurations of electrically conducting rods, and/or other conducting shapes, with bias capacitors and adjustable capacitors being arranged between the rods or other conducting shapes. Also, substrates may be curved and/or flexible.
Examples of the present invention include a metamaterial comprising a substrate, in particular a planar dielectric substrate. The substrate may be a polymeric material, for example a liquid crystal polymer, or other dielectric material such as an oxide, glass, ceramic, and the like. A plurality of resonators may be disposed on at least one side of the substrate, for example in a generally square array pattern. Each resonator may include first and second conducting segments, at least one adjustable capacitor between the first and second conducting segments, and at least one bias capacitor between the first and second conducting segments. An electric potential applied between the first and second segments induces an adjustment of the capacitance of the adjustable capacitor, whereas the capacitance of the bias capacitor is substantially unaltered by the electric potential.
The first and second conducting segments, together with capacitive elements, may form at least one resonant loop structure. The equivalent circuit at operational frequencies may comprise an inductive component and a capacitive component. The capacitive component may be varied by an electric potential through adjustment of the adjustable capacitor. The capacitive component of the equivalent circuit may include contributions from the adjustable capacitor and a bias capacitor, giving an adjustable variation of resonant frequency.
An example metamaterial comprises a substrate and a plurality of resonators supported by the substrate, each resonator including a first conducting segment and a second conducting segment, there being at least one adjustable capacitor and at least one bias capacitor located between the first and second conducting segments. In some examples, the first conducting segment, second conducting segment, bias capacitor, and adjustable capacitor are substantially coplanar and may be formed by patterning a metal film supported by the substrate. In some examples, a single process step may be used to form the resonator structure, including a bias capacitor and the electrodes of an adjustable capacitor, and a second process step is used to deposit a voltage-dependent permittivity medium between the electrodes of the adjustable capacitor. Bias lines may be configured to allow a bias potential to be applied between the first and second conducting segments, so as to vary the capacitance of the adjustable capacitor due to the voltage-dependent permittivity.
Examples of the present invention include thin film based split resonator tunable metamaterials. Resonators are electrically split (for DC signals) into first and second conducting segments, comprising planar thin films of electrical conductor such as a patterned metal film. A simple bias feed network can be used to apply an electrical potential across an adjustable capacitor within each tunable resonator.
An example metamaterial includes a plurality of resonators, for example electrically coupled inductor-capacitor (ELC) resonators. Some or all of the resonators may be active resonators, having electromagnetic properties that may be modified using an applied electric field. For example, an active resonator may comprise a thin film voltage controlled capacitor. The resonant frequency of an active resonator may be tuned as a function of applied electric field. Variation of the resonant frequency allows change in effective refractive index at an operating frequency.
Examples of the present invention include tunable metamaterials having a simple bias potential feed network. Bias lines connected to each resonator may be configured so as to not substantially interfere with electromagnetic wave transmission through the metamaterial. For example, the bias lines may be orthogonal to the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave.
Each resonator may comprise a plurality of conducting segments, and at least two conducting segments of the resonator are electrically isolated from each other using a bias capacitor. Application of a bias potential between the conducting segments isolated from each other by the bias capacitor allows control of an adjustable capacitor, for example an adjustable capacitor comprising a material having a voltage tunable permittivity, such as a ferroelectric, for example a titanate, such as barium strontium titanate (BST).
For example, a resonator may comprise first and second conducting segments, electrically isolated from each other using a bias capacitor. The first and second conducting segments can be used as electrodes for application of an electric field across an electrically tunable medium within an adjustable capacitor. In some examples, a central arm of a resonator includes a bias capacitor, and outer arms include voltage-adjustable capacitors.
In some examples of the present invention, the bias capacitor is a planar interdigitated capacitor. For example, a resonator can be fabricated using a planar bias capacitor and at least one planar adjustable capacitor. This allows simplification of the fabrication of the resonator. For example, the conducting elements of the metamaterial may be generally planar, and may be deposited in a single processing step. The conducting elements may be formed from a single conducting sheet, for example by etching or other patterning process. A voltage tunable material may be deposited in a second process step, and may be generally coplanar with the conducting segments.
A bias capacitor may be an interdigitated capacitor, comprising interlocking comb-shaped forms provided by portions of the first and second conducting segments. For example, the first and second conducting segments may be separated by an airgap that follows a square-wave type path between interdigitated electrodes formed by opposed ends of portions of the first and second conducting segments.
In a conventional ELC resonator structure, there is typically at least one capacitor. However, an electrically conducting track runs from one side of the capacitor to the other. Hence, application of an electric field across the adjustable capacitor cannot easily be achieved using the conducting portions of the metamaterial, and external electrodes may be required. Further, the use of external electrodes complicate the fabrication of the device and may complicate the arrangement of a bias feed network used to apply an electric potential across the voltage tunable medium of the adjustable capacitor. However, in examples of the present invention, conducting segments present as part of the resonator or arm may also be used as electrodes for application of an electric potential across the adjustable capacitor. A bias feed network, for example comprising pairs of bias feed lines, may be used to electrically interconnect conducting segments of adjacent unit cells. For example, a column of unit cells may be electrically interconnected using first and second bias lines so as to allow application of an electric potential across all tunable elements within that column. In some examples, a bias line may be used to provide a bias potential to the first conducting segment, and the second conducting segment may be connected to ground or an opposite potential.
Hence, some examples of the present invention simplify resonator structure design, and allow tuning of a metamaterial using a single layer of electrically conducting elements. There is no need for additional layers of electrodes for application of tuning fields.
The use of an interdigitated bias capacitor allows fabrication of a planar capacitor that allows functioning of the unit cell but at the same time electrically isolates first and second conducting segments. The interdigitated capacitor may be configured so as to not significantly compromise the performance of the metamaterial.
The orientation of the bias lines may be configured to be generally orthogonal to the electric field components of incident electromagnetic radiation. In such a configuration, the bias lines may have little effect on transmitted or reflected radiation.
In some examples of the present invention, conducting elements are formed as metal films, such as copper films, on a dielectric substrate. The metamaterial may be fabricated using conventional printed circuit board application methods. A tunable material, such as a ferroelectric material, may be deposited so as to be also generally co-planar with the conducting elements. Hence, the metamaterial has a generally planar configuration and no structure, beyond the thickness of deposited layers is required in the direction orthogonal to the substrate surface. Hence, the use of a planar interdigitated split ELC resonator allows a simple process to be used at fabrication, and further allows bias lines to a voltage source and ground connection to not disturb electromagnetic wave propagation through the metamaterials.
For evaluation of these structures using computer simulations, the substrate was taken to be a Pyrex™ substrate. However, any suitable substrate may be used, for example any dielectric medium such as a polymer, in particular a low loss RF polymer such as a liquid crystal polymer.
Hence, in this example the resonator comprises two thin film adjustable capacitors, comprising BST, the adjustable capacitors located proximate each side of the resonator structure in the outer arms. An interdigitated capacitor 24 in the central arm of the resonator provides electrical isolation of the first and second conducting segments. Proximate each corner of the unit cell illustrated, bias lines connect to the adjacent unit cell. The bias lines can be configured to be orthogonal to the plane of electric field polarization direction so there is little disturbance to waive propagation.
It is also possible to configure bias connection lines to run in an orthogonal direction to that shown, if desired.
In some examples, a baseline gradient in unit cell parameters may be obtained by varying the value of the bias capacitor over the extent of the metamaterial.
Further Discussion of Bias Capacitors
The bias capacitor may be any capacitor that need not have adjustable properties. The bias capacitor in some examples may be a simple in plane capacitor between adjacent conducting elements. If the bias capacitor is planar, this may facilitate fabrication of the metamaterial.
The use of interdigitated capacitors allows fabrication of planar capacitances having a larger capacitance than those possible without interdigitation. An interdigitated bias capacitor may be substantially invisible to RF signals propagating through the metamaterial. The use of interdigitation allows a more compact capacitor to be fabricated, but any generally planar form may be used. In some examples of the present invention, the bias capacitor need not be interdigitated.
The bias capacitor can be used to allow application of a direct flow across elements, whereas the bias capacitor has little effect on propagation of RF fields.
Further Discussion of Adjustable Capacitors
The adjustable capacitor may be any voltage adjustable capacitor. Voltage tuning may be obtained through application of bias potentials through bias lines such as those shown in
Adjustable capacitors also include capacitors having at least one electrode or other structure that is deformable by an electric field, such as a MEMS capacitor. Adjustable capacitors also include semiconductor devices, such as varactor diodes.
An example ferroelectric tunable material is barium strontium titanate, which has an electric field tunable permittivity. A bias potential may be applied across a capacitance gap of an electrically-coupled LC resonator, over a distance which may be less than 1 mm, and in some cases less than 100 microns. The direction of the applied electric field potential may be parallel to the surface of a planar substrate.
Other ferroelectric materials may be used, such as lead scandium tantalate (PST), other tantalates, lead zirconium titanate (PZT), lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate, other titanates, other perovskites, other inorganic ferroelectrics, and polymer ferroelectrics such as polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), other ferroelectrics, and combinations and derivatives of any such ferroelectric(s).
Electric field tunable materials also include phase change materials, such as chalcogenides including at least one chalcogen as a component. Examples include compounds of sulfur, selenium, and tellurium. Example compounds may include one or more component that is sulfur, selenium, or tellurium. Specific examples include compounds of germanium, antimony and tellurium such as Ge2Sb2Te5 and antimony-selenium compounds such as SbSex. In some examples, the phase change material may remain in a certain form, such as crystalline, amorphous or mixed state, until another control input is used to change the state.
A tunable material may be deposited between the electrodes of an adjustable capacitor using one or more techniques, for example printing, vapor deposition, chemical deposition, physical deposition, and the like. In some examples a tunable element such as a varactor diode may be separately fabricated, and appropriately located and electrically connected to control electrical signals.
In other examples, a bias capacitor and/or adjustable capacitor may comprise a multilayer capacitor, for example an overleaf capacitor. However, some examples of the present invention include metamaterials in which all capacitors are planar structure, and may be generally coplanar, significantly minimizing process steps necessary for fabrication. For example, all capacitor electrodes may be provided by portions of coplanar patterned metal films. A metamaterial may be fabricated with conducting and voltage tunable elements substantially in a single plane supported by a generally planar substrate.
Examples of the present invention may also include multi-layer structures, such as over-leaf capacitors.
Further Discussion of Substrates
Substrates may be dielectric substrates, preferably low loss at the frequency range of operation. Substrates may be planar dielectric substrates. A possible dielectric substrate is Rogers Ultralam™ 3000 series (Rogers Corporation, AZ) printed wiring boards (PWB). Example apparatus may comprise 1-50 layers, for example 20 metal layers, but the number of conducting layers and dielectric substrates is not limited by this example, and may be any number to obtain desired properties.
Substrates may comprise a polymer (such as a liquid crystal polymer), semiconductor (such as silicon, GaAs, and the lice), glass (such as borosilicate glass, such as Pyrex™, in particular Pyrex 7740 borosilicate glass, Corning, Inc., Corning, N.Y.), ceramic or glass-ceramic material, and the like.
Further Discussion of Conducting Patterns
Conducting patterns used to form resonators, bias lines, and the like may comprise electrically conducting films, for example metal films formed on a planar substrate. Conducting segments may be etched or otherwise patterned from a conducting film. Conducting patterns may comprise a metal, such as a noble metal (for example, Pt or Au), a platinum group metal such as Pt, other transition metal, or other metal such as Al. Conducting patterns may comprise conducting alloys, conducting polymers, doped semiconductors, and the like.
Resonators may be arranged in an array with a generally repeating pattern having a unit cell. The unit cell dimension may be in the range 10 microns-1 mm, e.g. 100 microns-1 mm, for example approximately 300-600 microns on a square side. The resonator may have a generally square shape with a side length less than the unit cell dimensions. The track width of the bias lines may be in the range 1 micron-500 microns, for example 10-100 microns. The air gap thickness and electrode separation of the adjustable capacitor may be in the range 0.5 microns-100 microns, for example in the range 1-20 microns. The conductor (e.g. metal) thickness of the conducting patterns may be in the range 0.1-10 microns.
Further Discussions of Applications and Other Aspects
Example apparatus include electrically tunable gradient index lens for millimeter-wave radiation, and may include a plurality of dielectric substrates, each dielectric substrate supporting an array of resonators. The resonators may have a parameter, such as bias capacitor value, that varies as a function of position over the substrate(s). Resonators may be generally ring shaped, square shaped, or otherwise configured. Examples also include millimeter wave sources and receivers, including radar apparatus.
Examples of the present invention include metamaterials (artificial dielectric materials) for use in any millimeter-wave application, for example absorbers, reflectors, beam steering devices, and the like. Lenses and artificial dielectric materials may be manufactured using mm-wave RF substrates such as a liquid crystal polymer (LCP). Examples of the present invention include materials and devices configured for automotive radar, such as 77 GHz operation.
In some examples of the present invention, beam steering devices may use bias voltages applied across resonators within the metamaterial that vary as a function of position, for example from one column to an adjacent column so as to provide a variable index or gradient index lens. A gradient index lens may be used to modify the direction of a beam, and the beam may be dynamically scanned in one or more planes.
Beam steering devices (or other beam control devices) may be refractive, the beam to be steered passing through the beam steering device, for example from one face to another. Such a configuration is useful for automotive applications, for example adaptive cruise control, parking assistance, hazard recognition systems, and the like.
A control signal may include a plurality of bias potentials applied to rows and/or columns, or in some examples may be as a result of a direct drive scheme in which a potential is directly applied to a first conducting segment relative to second conducting segment connected to a grounded terminal. A two-dimensional variation of effective index may be obtained.
Example metamaterials may comprise a single substrate supporting resonators formed from conducting segments, or may be multilayered structure having a multiple substrates. A multilayer metamaterial may provide a three-dimensional arrangement of unit cells. In such examples it may be possible to obtain a 3D variation of refractive index.
Tunable metamaterials may be used for beam steering of electromagnetic beams, RF applications, phase shifter, adjustable lenses, polarizers, and other optical elements. In this context the term optical element refers to an element used to control electromagnetic radiation. This is not limited to optical wavelengths as the term is sometimes used but may also include IR, terahertz, and other radio wavelengths. The bias lines may comprise parallel conducting stripes, which may also provide a polarizing effect on incident electromagnetic radiation.
Applications include electrically controlled beam steering for radar applications, for example, a metamaterial according to the present invention may be used in an automotive radar. The operating frequency may be approximately 77 gigahertz, or other suitable frequency. In such an application, the resonant frequency of any particular resonator may be selected to be somewhat less than the operational frequency, for example in the range of 40 to 60 gigahertz, so that the metamaterial acts as a positive refractive index material at the operating frequency. Micro-fabrication techniques may be used for fabrication of such metamaterials.
Active metamaterials allow beam steering using a low frequency control signal. A high resolution beam can be created by a lens and this beam can be steered by actively changing an index gradient in the metamaterial lens. Example applications also include collision avoidance radar for an automobile. Other applications include reflectors, absorbers, switchable devices for example transforming from reflectors to absorbers, and other electromagnetic beam control devices such as beam steering devices. Active scanning of a radar beam is possible in one or more planes.
A control signal for a tunable metamaterial may comprise a plurality of bias potentials. The magnitude of bias potentials may be controlled by a control circuit, for example comprising a processor, and may vary with time to allow dynamic control of a radar beam.
Examples of the present invention include metamaterials having planar split ELC resonators. The metamaterial includes a plurality of unit cells each including a resonator electric circuit set upon a dielectric substrate. An example active ELC metamaterial resonator includes a thin film voltage controlled capacitor. The variation of resonant frequency with applied bias voltage allows a controlled change of refractive index of the metamaterial. Bias lines to a voltage source and ground can be configured so as not to disturb electromagnetic wave propagation through the metamaterial.
The invention is not restricted to the illustrative examples described above. Examples described are exemplary, and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. Changes therein, other combinations of elements, and other uses will occur to those skilled in the art. The scope of the invention is defined by the scope of the claims.
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|U.S. Classification||333/219, 333/235|
|Cooperative Classification||H01G5/16, H01G7/06, H01P7/082|
|Dec 2, 2008||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: TOYOTA MOTOR ENGINEERING & MANUFACTURING NORTH AME
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:LEE, JAE SEUNG;YONAK, SERDAR H.;REEL/FRAME:021911/0766
Effective date: 20081113
|May 15, 2012||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION, JAPAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:TOYOTA MOTOR ENGINEERING & MANUFACTURING NORTH AMERICA, INC.;REEL/FRAME:028208/0052
Effective date: 20120427
|Dec 18, 2015||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|May 8, 2016||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|