|Publication number||US8178780 B2|
|Application number||US 12/825,011|
|Publication date||May 15, 2012|
|Filing date||Jun 28, 2010|
|Priority date||Dec 27, 2007|
|Also published as||CN101911212A, CN101911212B, DE602007008595D1, EP2075801A1, EP2075801B1, US20110030987, WO2009083343A2, WO2009083343A3|
|Publication number||12825011, 825011, US 8178780 B2, US 8178780B2, US-B2-8178780, US8178780 B2, US8178780B2|
|Inventors||Olof Hjortstam, Rongsheng Liu, Albert Jaksts, Leif A. Pettersson|
|Original Assignee||Abb Research Ltd.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Non-Patent Citations (6), Classifications (7), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present application is a continuation of pending International patent application PCT/EP2008/066209 filed on Nov. 26, 2008 which designates the United States and claims priority from European patent application 07124090.7 filed on Dec. 27, 2007, the content of which is incorporated herein by reference.
The present invention relates to an electric insulation material for an electric device, an electric device comprising the electric insulation material and a transformer.
In high voltage apparatuses such as high voltage transformers, it is common that the insulation system comprises a fiber based insulation impregnated with an insulating liquid, for example a cellulose based insulation drenched in oil or other dielectric liquid, or insulation based on a thermoplastic polymer, such as polyethylene, with low or essentially closed porosity.
Cellulose based pressboard insulation barriers are normally used in the design of oil filled high voltage (HV) transformers. The purpose of the barriers is to prevent pre-breakdown events such as PD (partial discharge) and electric discharges that may occur on the surface and propagate along the insulation, so called streamers, to develop into breakdown of the insulation system. Normally, a pressboard barrier is designed to be thick enough to prevent an impacting streamer from puncturing the barrier. However, a streamer that does not puncture the barrier may propagate along its surface. A streamer can propagate with different speeds, as a slow mode streamer (2-3 km/s) or a fast event (more than 10 km/s, up to several hundred km/s). For typical transformer designs, a fast propagating streamer along a surface is much more risky than a slow propagating streamer. An example of this is if a transformer is exposed to a lightning impulse of high voltage. Since the duration of the pulse is short (in the order of 50 is) the speed of the propagation strongly affects the likelihood for a full breakdown.
Furthermore, it is known that a fast event occurs for lower voltages along a pressboard surface, compared to what happens in pure oil, see enclosed
From the above it is clear that it would be desirable to find means to suppress the onset of fast event along a pressboard surface.
As additional literature explaining how a streamer propagates in oil, it is hereby referred to “A Model for the Initiation and Propagation of Electrical Streamers in Transformer Oil and Transformer Oil Based Nanofluids”, Francis O'Sullivan, PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, May 2007.
The object of the present invention is to provide an electric insulation material that is suitable for use in electric devices comprising one or several electrical conductors and an electric insulation material arranged around the conductor or between the conductors and which insulation material is impregnated with a dielectric insulation liquid, and which material has the capability to suppress the onset of fast events. In particular, it is the object of the present invention to offer a high voltage transformer where the risk for occurrence of streamers and fast events are reduced.
The object of the present invention is achieved by means of an electric insulation material in that the electric insulation material comprises a main layer that is provided with a surface layer that has a dielectric constant that is lower than the dielectric constant of the main layer, an electric device in that it comprises an electric insulation material, and a transformer in that an electric insulation material is used as an insulation barrier in regions with high electrical stress. Accordingly, an electric insulation material for an electric device comprising one or several electrical conductors and an electric insulation material arranged around the conductor or between the conductors and which insulation material is impregnated with a dielectric insulation liquid, characterized in that the electric insulation material comprises a main layer that is provided with a surface layer that has a dielectric constant that is lower than the dielectric constant of the main layer.
By coating a main layer with a layer of material with a dielectric constant that is lower than that of the main layer, the lower value of the dielectric constant at the surface, where it is in contact with the dielectric insulation liquid, would reduce the image force and it should therefore suppress transition to fast event. This type of layered material would suppress the streamer propagation along the surface without any significant changes to the good puncture inhibition properties, in for example the pressboard barrier of a transformer.
According to an aspect of the invention, the dielectric constant of the surface layer is at least 0.3 below the dielectric constant of the main layer.
It should be noted that when it is referred to the dielectric constant of the insulation material, that would mean the dielectric constant of the impregnated insulation material in the electric device. The dielectric constant of a certain material is influenced by the type of dielectric liquid that it is impregnated with and which is used in the device. One common type of dielectric insulation liquid is mineral oil, which has a dielectric constant (ε) of approximately 2.2. Other possible insulation liquids are esters (ε in the order of 3.0), silicon oil etc.
According to another aspect of the invention, the surface layer has a thickness of at least 10 μm. The thickness of the surface layer should preferably be at least of the same size as a typical streamer diameter. This would in many cases mean a thickness of 10-40 μm, or 20-40 μm. Thicker surface layers are required to ensure robustness against the occasional discharge that may impact the surface, as well as general wear and tear.
In applications where the insulation material is used as an insulation barrier between windings or between winding and earth, such as in a transformer, as an example the thickness of the entire insulation barrier may be in the range of 1-3 millimeters. A suitable surface layer would then have a thickness of 10-1000 μm.
As another example can be described a turret insulation in that region of a transformer where a transformer bushing connects to the transformer. In such an application, the insulation barrier is built as a cylinder with high density pressboard and waved pressboard in alternating layers up to a total insulation thickness ranging from a couple of decimeters up to a meter, sometimes even more. A suitable range
for the thickness of the surface layer would then be 10-5000 μm. When considering the possibility of different applications and also considering practical aspect of achieving the surface layer, a general range of thickness of 40-5000 μm, or 100-5000 μm is a reasonable choice.
According to an aspect of the invention, the main layer comprises a material chosen from the following:
a cellulose based material
a polymeric material
an epoxy resin impregnated material
a rubber material.
An example of a cellulose based material is a high density pressboard. An example of a polymeric material is Nomex, which is a fiber based polymeric material, and an example of an epoxy material is fiber glass reinforced epoxy. When choosing the main material, consideration should be taken to the type of dielectric insulation liquid that is to be used and also the combination with the surface material.
According to an aspect of the invention, the surface layer comprises a material chosen from the following:
a cellulose based material
a polymeric material
an epoxy resin impregnated material
a rubber material.
Examples of cellulose based materials are low density pressboard, waved pressboard, Kraft paper, crepe paper.
With regard to a polymeric material for the surface layer, it, may be chosen from the following: PE-Poly Ethylene, PP-Poly Propylene, PS-Poly Styrene, Fluorinated polymers. Examples of possible Fluorinated polymers are PTFE-Poly Tetraflouroethylene, FEP-Flourinated Ethylene Propylene, PFA-Perflouro Ethylene.
According to the present invention is further defined an electric device comprising one or several electrical conductors and an electric insulation material arranged around the conductor or between the conductors and which insulation material is impregnated with a dielectric insulation liquid, characterized in that it comprises an electric insulation material as defined in any one of the claims defining an electric insulation material.
According to a particular embodiment, the electric device is a high voltage electric apparatus.
The invention is also directed to a transformer, characterized in that an electric insulation material according to any one of the claims related to the electric insulation material, is used as an insulation barrier between regions with high electrical stress. With high electrical stress in usually meant above 105 V/m.
The present invention will now be described in more detail with reference to the enclosed drawings, in which:
As an example, an embodiment of the present invention will now be described, in the form of a pressboard barrier suitable for a high voltage transformer.
The surface layer 3 of the insulation material in the pressboard barrier is made of a low density pressboard, having a typical density of 0.5-1.0 g/cm3. The dielectric constant of this surface layer is lower than for the main layer, preferably in the interval ε=2.1-4.0, even 2.1-3.0. A typical dielectric constant for low density pressboard in mineral oil is approximately 3.0. If, as an alternative, crepe paper is used, the dielectric constant would be around 2.8, and if Kraft paper is used the dielectric constant would be 3.4-3.7.
The thickness of the surface layer should be at least of the same thickness
as an expected streamer, in the range of 10-1000 μm. In the present case more likely 10-40 μm, or 20-40 μm.
The surface layer may be produced by a coating process, gluing the two pressboard layers together, or any other suitable method, provided that a layer with sufficient thickness is obtained. It is not required that the layers are distinctly separate layers, as long as there is a sufficiently thick surface layer with the required low dielectric constant.
As mentioned above, this type of layered material would suppress the streamer propagation along the surface without any significant changes to the good puncture inhibition properties. In the article referred to above by Lundgaard et al, tests were made with electrodes where the gap between the electrodes was only in the range of 100 mm. The average breakdown voltage Vb, would then occur at a much lower voltage than for the fast event, as can be seen in
The present invention is not limited to the described embodiment, given as example only, but can be modified in various ways by a person skilled in the art within the scope as defined in the appended patent claims. For instance, the invention may also be applied to a cable, a generator a condensator, or HV bushing.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3170027 *||Jan 3, 1962||Feb 16, 1965||Westinghouse Electric Corp||Treated cellulosic insulation and electrical apparatus embodying the same|
|US3246271 *||Apr 16, 1965||Apr 12, 1966||Westinghouse Electric Corp||Paper insulation for transformers|
|US3587168 *||Oct 28, 1968||Jun 28, 1971||Westinghouse Canada Ltd||Method of making insulated electrical apparatus|
|US3611225 *||Jun 24, 1970||Oct 5, 1971||Westinghouse Electric Corp||Electrical inductive apparatus having liquid and solid dielectric means|
|US3710293 *||Mar 30, 1972||Jan 9, 1973||Westinghouse Electric Corp||Insulating member for transformer coils|
|US4109375 *||Nov 22, 1976||Aug 29, 1978||Westinghouse Electric Corp.||Method of making adhesive coated electrical conductors|
|US4204087 *||Apr 21, 1978||May 20, 1980||Westinghouse Electric Corp.||Adhesive coated electrical conductors|
|EP0272497A2||Nov 27, 1987||Jun 29, 1988||Mitsubishi Paper Mills, Ltd.||Low-dielectric constant press board for oil impregnation insulation|
|EP0889485A1||Dec 27, 1996||Jan 7, 1999||Fujikura, Ltd.||Oil-impregnated insulating plastic laminated paper, kraft paper for use in laminated paper and power cable using the same|
|JPS59211208A||Title not available|
|WO2001091135A1||May 15, 2001||Nov 29, 2001||Mcgraw Edison Company||Electrical apparatus with synthetic fiber and binder reinforced cellulose insulation paper|
|1||European Office Action; Application No. EP 07 124 090.7; Mar. 4, 2010; 3 pages.|
|2||European Search Report; Application No. 07124090.7-1214; Jun. 5, 2008; 5 pages.|
|3||International Preliminary Report on Patentability; PCT/EP2008/066209; Mar. 5, 2010; 7 pages.|
|4||International Search Report and Written Opinion of the International Searching Authority; PCT/EP2008/066209; Apr. 8, 2009; 13 pages.|
|5||Lundgaard, et al.; "Propagation of Positive and Negative Streamers in Oil with and without Pressboard Interfaces"; IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 5 No. 3, Jun. 1998; 1 page (abstract).|
|6||O'Sullivan; "A Model for the Initiation and Propagation of Electrical Streamers in Transformer Oil and Transformer Oil Based Nanofluids"; PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, May 2007; 4 pages (abstract only).|
|U.S. Classification||174/25.00R, 174/25.00C|
|Cooperative Classification||H01B3/20, H01B3/52|
|European Classification||H01B3/20, H01B3/52|
|Aug 27, 2010||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ABB RESEARCH LTD., SWITZERLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:HJORTSTAM, OLOF;LIU, RONGSHENG;JAKSTS, ALBERT;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20100611 TO 20100811;REEL/FRAME:024896/0577
|Nov 4, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4