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Publication numberUS8182727 B2
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 12/007,668
Publication dateMay 22, 2012
Filing dateJan 14, 2008
Priority dateSep 3, 2004
Also published asCN1743266A, CN100503431C, EP1632457A2, EP1632457A3, EP1632457B1, US20060155009, US20080139699
Publication number007668, 12007668, US 8182727 B2, US 8182727B2, US-B2-8182727, US8182727 B2, US8182727B2
InventorsAkira Magario, Toru Noguchi
Original AssigneeNissin Kogyo Co., Ltd.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Carbon-based material and method of producing the same, and composite material and method of producing the same
US 8182727 B2
Abstract
A method of producing a carbon-based material includes steps (a), (b) and (c). In the step (a), an elastomer and at least a first carbon material is mixed and the first carbon material is dispersed by applying a shear force to obtain a composite elastomer. In the step (b), the composite elastomer is heat-treated to vaporize the elastomer, and a second carbon material is obtained. In the step (c) the second carbon material is heat-treated together with a substance including an element Y to vaporize the substance including the element Y, a melting point of the element Y being low.
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Claims(22)
1. A method of producing a carbon-based material, the method comprising:
(a) mixing an elastomer and at least a first carbon material and dispersing the first carbon material by applying a shear force to obtain a composite elastomer;
(b) heat-treating the composite elastomer to vaporize the elastomer included in the composite elastomer to obtain a second carbon material; and
(c) heat-treating the second carbon material together with a substance including an element Y and having a melting point lower than a melting point of the first carbon material to vaporize the substance including the element Y, to obtain the carbon-based material, wherein
the step (b) is performed in the presence of a substance including an element X such that the element X bonds to a carbon atom of the first carbon material,
the element X is oxygen or nitrogen,
the element Y is magnesium,
the heat treatment temperature in step (c) is equal to or higher than the vaporization temperature of magnesium and is not higher than 570° C., and
the heat treatment of step (c) is carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere.
2. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 1,
wherein the composite elastomer includes the substance including the element X, and
wherein the element X bonds to the carbon atom of the first carbon material by the heat treatment in the step (b).
3. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 1,
wherein the step (b) is performed in an atmosphere containing the substance including the element X so that the element X bonds to the carbon atom of the first carbon material.
4. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 1,
wherein the composite elastomer includes the substance including the element Y.
5. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 1,
wherein, in the step (c), the substance including the element Y is disposed in a heat treatment furnace together with the second carbon material and vaporized by the heat treatment.
6. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 1,
wherein the first carbon material is carbon black.
7. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 1,
wherein the first carbon material is carbon fiber.
8. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 7,
wherein the carbon fiber is carbon nanofiber.
9. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 8,
wherein the carbon nanofibers have an average diameter of 0.5 to 500 nm.
10. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 1,
wherein the elastomer has a molecular weight of 5,000 to 5,000,000.
11. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 1,
wherein at least one of a main chain, a side chain, and a terminal chain of the elastomer includes at least one unsaturated bond or group having affinity to carbon nanofiber and selected from the group consisting of a double bond, a triple bond, and functional groups such as α-hydrogen, a carbonyl group, a carboxyl group, a hydroxyl group, an amino group, a nitrile group, a ketone group, an amide group, an epoxy group, an ester group, a vinyl group, a halogen group, a urethane group, a biuret group, an allophanate group, and a urea group.
12. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 1,
wherein a network component of the elastomer in an uncrosslinked form has a spin-spin relaxation time (T2n) measured at 30° C. by a Hahn-echo method using a pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique of 100 to 3,000 μsec.
13. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 1,
wherein a network component of the elastomer in a crosslinked form has a spin-spin relaxation time (T2n) measured at 30° C. by a Hahn-echo method using a pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique of 100 to 2,000 μsec.
14. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 1,
wherein the elastomer is natural rubber or nitrile butadiene rubber.
15. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 1,
wherein the step (a) is performed by using an open-roll method with a roll distance of 0.5 mm or less.
16. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 15,
wherein two rolls used in the open-roll method have a surface velocity ratio of 1.05 to 3.00.
17. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 1,
wherein the step (a) is performed by using an internal mixing method.
18. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 1,
wherein the step (a) is performed by using a multi-screw extrusion mixing method.
19. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 1,
wherein the step (a) is performed at 0 to 50° C.
20. A method of producing a composite material, the method comprising:
(d) mixing the carbon-based material obtained by the method as defined in claim 1 with a matrix material, wherein the carbon-based material is mixed into a matrix material being aluminum or magnesium.
21. The method of producing a carbon-based material as defined in claim 1, wherein the heat treatment temperature in step (b) is equal to or higher than the vaporization temperature of the elastomer and equal to or lower than 500° C.
22. The method of producing a composite material as defined in claim 20, wherein the composite material has a compressive yield strength mean value greater than or equal to 430 MPa.
Description

This is a Continuation of application Ser. No. 11/214,737 filed Aug. 31, 2005. The entire disclosure of the prior application is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Japanese Patent Application No. 2004-257440, filed on Sep. 3, 2004, is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a carbon-based material and a method of producing the same, and a composite material and a method of producing the same.

A composite material using a carbon material such as carbon fiber, carbon black, graphite, or carbon nanofiber has attracted attention (see JP-A-5-78110, for example). Such a composite material is expected to exhibit improved electric conductivity, heat transfer properties, and mechanical strength due to inclusion of the carbon material such as carbon nanofiber.

However, the carbon material generally exhibits low wettability (affinity) with a matrix material of the composite material and exhibits low dispersibility in the matrix material. In particular, since the carbon nanofibers have strong aggregating properties, it is very difficult to uniformly disperse the carbon nanofibers in a matrix of the composite material. Therefore, it is difficult to obtain a carbon nanofiber composite material having desired properties. Moreover, expensive carbon nanofibers cannot be efficiently utilized.

SUMMARY

A first aspect of the invention relates to a method of producing a carbon-based material, the method comprising:

(a) mixing an elastomer and at least a first carbon material and dispersing the first carbon material by applying a shear force to obtain a composite elastomer;

(b) heat-treating the composite elastomer to vaporize the elastomer included in the composite elastomer to obtain a second carbon material; and

(c) heat-treating the second carbon material together with a substance including an element Y and having a melting point lower than a melting point of the first carbon material to vaporize the substance including the element Y.

A second aspect of the invention relates to a carbon-based material obtained by the above method.

A third aspect of the invention relates to a carbon-based material which is mixed into a matrix material including aluminum or magnesium,

wherein a surface of a carbon material has a first bonding structure and a second bonding structure,

wherein the first bonding structure is a structure in which an element X bonds to a carbon atom of the carbon material,

wherein the second bonding structure is a structure in which an element Y bonds to the element X,

wherein the element X includes at least one element selected from boron, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus, and

wherein the element Y includes at least one element selected from magnesium, aluminum, silicon, calcium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, and zirconium.

A fourth aspect of the invention relates to a carbon-based material,

wherein a surface of a carbon material has a first bonding structure and a second bonding structure, and

wherein the first bonding structure is a structure in which oxygen bonds to a carbon atom of the carbon material, and

wherein the second bonding structure is a structure in which magnesium bonds to the oxygen.

A fifth aspect of the invention relates to a method of producing a composite material, the method comprising:

(d) mixing the carbon-based material obtained by the above method with a matrix material.

A sixth aspect of the invention relates to a composite material obtained by the above method of producing a composite material.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWING

FIG. 1 schematically shows a mixing method for an elastomer and a carbon material utilizing an open-roll method used in one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 2 is a schematic configuration diagram of a device for producing a composite material by using a pressureless permeation method.

FIG. 3 is a schematic configuration diagram of a device for producing a composite material by using a pressureless permeation method.

FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram showing XPS data on a carbon-based material obtained in an example according to the invention.

FIG. 5 shows EDS data (carbon) on a composite material obtained in an example according to the invention.

FIG. 6 shows EDS data (oxygen) on a composite material obtained in an example according to the invention.

FIG. 7 shows EDS data (magnesium) on a composite material obtained in an example according to the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENT

The invention may provide a carbon-based material exhibiting improved surface wettability, and a method of producing the same. The invention may also provide a composite material in which a carbon material is uniformly dispersed, and a method of producing the same.

An embodiment of the invention provides a method of producing a carbon-based material, the method comprising:

(a) mixing an elastomer and at least a first carbon material and dispersing the first carbon material by applying a shear force to obtain a composite elastomer;

(b) heat-treating the composite elastomer to vaporize the elastomer included in the composite elastomer to obtain a second carbon material; and

(c) heat-treating the second carbon material together with a substance including an element Y and having a melting point lower than a melting point of the first carbon material to vaporize the substance including the element Y.

According to the step (a) of the method according to one embodiment of the invention, free radicals formed in the elastomer shorn by the shear force attack the surface of the first carbon material, whereby the surface of the first carbon material is activated. Therefore, the dispersibility of the first carbon material in the elastomer is improved. When using carbon nanofibers as the first carbon material, an unsaturated bond or group of the elastomer bonds to an active site of the carbon nanofiber, particularly to a terminal radical of the carbon nanofiber, to reduce the aggregating force of the carbon nanofibers, whereby the dispersibility of the carbon nanofibers can be increased.

According to the step (b) of the method according to one embodiment of the invention, the second carbon material having an activated surface is obtained by vaporizing the elastomer by the heat treatment. According to the step (c) of the method according to one embodiment of the invention, the substance including the element Y is vaporized by the heat treatment so that the element Y adheres to the surface of the second carbon material, whereby a carbon-based material exhibiting improved wettability with a matrix material is obtained. Therefore, the carbon-based material obtained by the method according to one embodiment of the invention can be easily utilized for general metalworking such as casting.

The elastomer according to one embodiment of the invention may be a rubber elastomer or a thermoplastic elastomer. When using a rubber elastomer, the elastomer may be in a crosslinked form or an uncrosslinked form. As the raw material elastomer, an uncrosslinked form is used when using a rubber elastomer.

The step (a) of dispersing the carbon material in the elastomer by applying a shear force may be carried out by using an open-roll method with a roll distance of 0.5 mm or less, an internal mixing method, a multi-screw extrusion mixing method, or the like.

An embodiment of the invention provides a carbon-based material,

wherein a surface of a carbon material has a first bonding structure and a second bonding structure, and

wherein the first bonding structure is a structure in which oxygen bonds to a carbon atom of the carbon material, and

wherein the second bonding structure is a structure in which magnesium bonds to the oxygen.

Am embodiment of the invention provides a method of producing a composite material, including (d) mixing the carbon-based material obtained by the method according to the embodiment of the invention with a matrix material.

Since the element Y adheres to the surface of the carbon-based material obtained according to one embodiment of the invention, the carbon-based material exhibits excellent wettability with the matrix material of the composite material. In particular, when using aluminum or magnesium as the matrix of the composite material, if an element which makes up an aluminum alloy or a magnesium alloy is used as the element Y, since the matrix material and the element Y exhibit excellent wettability, the carbon-based material and the matrix material also exhibit excellent wettability. Moreover, the carbon-based material can be dispersed in the matrix metal material due to an improvement of the wettability of the carbon-based material.

Embodiments of the invention are described below in detail with reference to the drawings.

(A) Elastomer

The elastomer may have a molecular weight of 5,000 to 5,000,000, or 20,000 to 3,000,000. If the molecular weight of the elastomer is within this range, since the elastomer molecules are entangled and linked, the elastomer easily enters the space in the aggregated first carbon material (e.g. carbon nanofibers) to exhibit an improved effect of separating the carbon nanofibers. If the molecular weight of the elastomer is less than 5,000, since the elastomer molecules cannot be sufficiently entangled, the effect of dispersing the first carbon material is reduced even if a shear force is applied in the subsequent step. If the molecular weight of the elastomer is greater than 5,000,000, the elastomer becomes too hard so that processing becomes difficult.

A network component of the elastomer in an uncrosslinked form may have a spin-spin relaxation time (T2n/30° C.) measured at 30° C. by a Hahn-echo method using a pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique of 100 to 3,000 μsec, or 200 to 1,000 μsec. If the elastomer has a spin-spin relaxation time (T2n/30° C.) within the above range, the elastomer is flexible and has a sufficiently high molecular mobility. Therefore, when mixing the elastomer and the first carbon material, the elastomer can easily enter the space in the first carbon material due to high molecular motion. If the spin-spin relaxation time (T2n/30° C.) is shorter than 100 μsec, the elastomer cannot have a sufficient molecular mobility. If the spin-spin relaxation time (T2n/30° C.) is longer than 3,000 μsec, since the elastomer tends to flow as a liquid, it becomes difficult to disperse the first carbon material.

A network component of the elastomer in a crosslinked form may have a spin-spin relaxation time (T2n) measured at 30° C. by a Hahn-echo method using a pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique of 100 to 2,000 μsec. The reasons therefor are the same as those described for the uncrosslinked form. Specifically, when crosslinking an uncrosslinked form which satisfies the above conditions by using the method of the invention, the spin-spin relaxation time (T2n) of the resulting crosslinked form almost falls within the above range.

The spin-spin relaxation time obtained by the Hahn-echo method using the pulsed NMR technique is a measure which indicates the molecular mobility of a substance. In more detail, when measuring the spin-spin relaxation time of the elastomer by the Hahn-echo method using the pulsed NMR technique, a first component having a shorter first spin-spin relaxation time (T2n) and a second component having a longer second spin-spin relaxation time (T2nn) are detected. The first component corresponds to the network component (backbone molecule) of the polymer, and the second component corresponds to the non-network component (branched component such as terminal chain) of the polymer. The shorter the first spin-spin relaxation time, the lower the molecular mobility and the harder the elastomer. The longer the first spin-spin relaxation time, the higher the molecular mobility and the softer the elastomer.

As the measurement method in the pulsed NMR technique, a solid-echo method, a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method, or a 90-degree pulse method may be applied instead of the Hahn-echo method. However, since the elastomer according to the invention has a medium spin-spin relaxation time (T2), the Hahn-echo method is most suitable. In general, the solid-echo method and the 90-degree pulse method are suitable for measuring a short spin-spin relaxation time (T2), the Hahn-echo method is suitable for measuring a medium spin-spin relaxation time (T2), and the CPMG method is suitable for measuring a long spin-spin relaxation time (T2).

At least one of the main chain, side chain, and terminal chain of the elastomer includes an unsaturated bond or a group having affinity to the first carbon material, particularly to a terminal radical of the carbon nanofiber, or the elastomer has properties of readily producing such a radical or group. The unsaturated bond or group may be at least one unsaturated bond or group selected from a double bond, a triple bond, and functional groups such as α-hydrogen, a carbonyl group, a carboxyl group, a hydroxyl group, an amino group, a nitrile group, a ketone group, an amide group, an epoxy group, an ester group, a vinyl group, a halogen group, a urethane group, a biuret group, an allophanate group, and a urea group.

The carbon nanofiber generally has a structure in which the side surface is formed of a six-membered ring of carbon atoms and the end is closed by introduction of a five-membered ring. However, since the carbon nanofiber has a forced structure, a defect tends to occur, so that a radical or a functional group tends to be formed at the defect. In one embodiment of the invention, since at least one of the main chain, side chain, and terminal chain of the elastomer includes an unsaturated bond or a group having high affinity (reactivity or polarity) to the radical of the carbon nanofiber, the elastomer and the carbon nanofiber can be bonded. This enables the carbon nanofibers to be easily dispersed by overcoming the aggregating force of the carbon nanofibers. When mixing the elastomer and the first carbon material such as the carbon nanofibers, free radicals produced by breakage of the elastomer molecule attack the defects of the carbon nanofibers to produce free radicals on the surfaces of the carbon nanofibers.

As the elastomer, an elastomer such as natural rubber (NR), epoxidized natural rubber (ENR), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile rubber (NBR), chloroprene rubber (CR), ethylene propylene rubber (EPR or EPDM), butyl rubber (IIR), chlorobutyl rubber (CIIR), acrylic rubber (ACM), silicone rubber (Q), fluorine rubber (FKM), butadiene rubber (BR), epoxidized butadiene rubber (EBR), epichlorohydrin rubber (CO or CEO), urethane rubber (U), or polysulfide rubber (T); a thermoplastic elastomer such as an olefin-based elastomer (TPO), poly(vinyl chloride)-based elastomer (TPVC), polyester-based elastomer (TPEE), polyurethane-based elastomer (TPU), polyamide-based elastomer (TPEA), or styrene-based elastomer (SBS); or a mixture of these elastomers may be used. In particular, a highly polar elastomer which readily produces free radicals during mixing of the elastomer, such as natural rubber (NR) or nitrile rubber (NBR), is preferable. An elastomer having a low polarity, such as ethylene propylene rubber (EPDM), may also be used in the invention, since such an elastomer also produces free radicals by setting the mixing temperature at a relatively high temperature (e.g. 50 to 150° C. for EPDM).

The composite elastomer according to one embodiment of the invention may be directly used as an elastomer material in the form of a crosslinked elastomer, an uncrosslinked elastomer, or a thermoplastic polymer.

(B) First Carbon Material

As the first carbon material, a carbon allotrope may be used. For example, the first carbon material may be selected from carbon fiber, carbon black, amorphous carbon, graphite, diamond, fullerene, and the like. The carbon fiber used herein includes carbon nanofiber. When using carbon black, since the carbon black is inexpensive and many grades are commercially available, the carbon black can be relatively easily utilized. A nanomaterial such as a minute carbon material (e.g. carbon nanofiber or fullerene) achieves a high reinforcement effect with a small amount of addition.

The amount of the first carbon material to be added may be determined depending on the type and the application of the carbon-based material.

As the carbon black used in the invention, carbon black of various grades produced by using various raw materials may be used. The carbon black may be in a state of either elementary particles (primary particles) or an aggregate in which the elementary particles are fused and connected (agglomerate). However, carbon black having a comparatively high structure in which the aggregate is grown is preferable when used as a reinforcement filler.

The carbon black used in the invention has an average elementary particle diameter of preferably 100 nm or less, and still more preferably 50 nm or less. The volume effect and the reinforcing effect are increased as the size of the carbon black particle becomes smaller. In practical application, the average particle diameter is preferably 10 to 30 nm.

The size of the carbon black particle is also indicated by the nitrogen adsorption specific surface area. In this case, the nitrogen adsorption specific surface area is 10 m2/g or more, and preferably 40 m2/g or more as the nitrogen adsorption specific surface area (m2/g) measured according to JIS K 6217-2 (2001) “Carbon black for rubber industry—Fundamental characteristics—Part 2: Determination of specific surface area—Nitrogen adsorption methods—Single-point procedures”.

The reinforcing effect of the carbon black used in the invention is affected by the degree of structure of the aggregate in which the elementary particles are fused. The reinforcing effect is increased by adjusting the DBP absorption to 50 cm3/100 g or more, and preferably 100 cm3/100 g or more. This is because the aggregate forms a higher structure as the DBP absorption is greater.

As the carbon black used in the invention, carbon black of grades such as SAF-HS (N134, N121), SAF (N110, N115), ISAF-HS (N234), ISAF (N220, N220M), ISAF-LS (N219, N231), ISAF-HS (N285, N229), HAF-HS (N339, N347), HAF (N330), HAF-LS (N326), T-HS (N351, N299), T-NS (N330T), MAF (N550M), FEF (N550), GPF (N660, N630, N650, N683), SRF-HS-HM (N762, N774), SRF-LM (N760M, N754, N772, N762), FT, HCC, HCF, MCC, MCF, LEF, MFF, RCF, and RCC, and conductive carbon black such as Tokablack, HS-500, acetylene black, and Ketjenblack may be used.

When the first carbon material is carbon fiber, particularly carbon nanofiber, the composite elastomer according to one embodiment of the invention preferably includes the carbon nanofibers in an amount of 0.01 to 50 wt %.

The carbon nanofibers preferably have an average diameter of 0.5 to 500 nm. In order to increase the strength of the composite elastomer, the average diameter of the carbon nanofibers is still more preferably 0.5 to 30 nm. The carbon nanofiber may be either a linear fiber or a curved fiber.

As examples of the carbon nanofiber, a carbon nanotube and the like can be given. The carbon nanotube has a single-layer structure in which a graphene sheet of a hexagonal carbon layer is closed in the shape of a cylinder, or a multi-layer structure in which the cylindrical structures are nested. Specifically, the carbon nanotube may be formed only of the single-layer structure or the multi-layer structure, or may have the single-layer structure and the multi-layer structure in combination. A carbon material having a partial carbon nanotube structure may also be used. The carbon nanotube may be called a graphite fibril nanotube.

A single-layer carbon nanotube or a multi-layer carbon nanotube is produced to a desired size by using an arc discharge method, a laser ablation method, a vapor-phase growth method, or the like.

In the arc discharge method, an arc is discharged between electrode materials made of carbon rods in an argon or hydrogen atmosphere at a pressure slightly lower than atmospheric pressure to obtain a multi-layer carbon nanotube deposited on the cathode. When a catalyst such as nickel/cobalt is mixed into the carbon rod and an arc is discharged, a single-layer carbon nanotube is obtained from soot adhering to the inner side surface of a processing vessel.

In the laser ablation method, a target carbon surface into which a catalyst such as nickel/cobalt is mixed is irradiated with strong pulse laser light from a YAG laser in a noble gas (e.g. argon) to melt and vaporize the carbon surface to obtain a single-layer carbon nanotube.

In the vapor-phase growth method, a carbon nanotube is synthesized by thermally decomposing hydrocarbons such as benzene or toluene in a vapor phase. As specific examples of the vapor-phase growth method, a floating catalyst method, a zeolite-supported catalyst method, and the like can be given.

The carbon material may be provided with improved adhesion to and wettability with the elastomer by subjecting the carbon material to a surface treatment such as an ion-injection treatment, sputter-etching treatment, or plasma treatment before mixing the carbon material into the elastomer.

(C) Element Y

The element Y bonds to the surface of the second carbon material to improve the wettability between the carbon-based material and the matrix material. A carbon material generally exhibits poor wettability with a metal material such as aluminum and magnesium. However, the wettability is improved by using the carbon-based material having the element Y on the surface. A particulate substance including the element Y may be mixed and dispersed in the elastomer in advance so that the first carbon material is more favorably dispersed when mixing the first carbon material into the elastomer. In this case, in the step (a), the substance including the element Y may be mixed into the elastomer before mixing the first carbon material, or may be mixed into the elastomer together with the first carbon material.

The substance including the element Y preferably has an average particle diameter greater than the average diameter of the first carbon material used. The average particle diameter of the substance including the element Y is 500 μm or less, and preferably 1 to 300 μm. The shape of the substance including the element Y is not limited to spherical. The substance including the element Y may be in the shape of a sheet or scale insofar as turbulent flows occur around the substance including the element Y during mixing.

The substance including the element Y is preferably a metal or semimetal having a melting point lower than the melting point of the first carbon material, and still more preferably a low-melting-point (high-vapor-pressure) metal or semimetal having a melting point of 1000° C. or less. If the melting point of the substance including the element Y satisfies the above condition, the substance including the element Y can be vaporized by the heat treatment in the step (b) without damaging the carbon material.

When the carbon-based material is mixed into an aluminum or magnesium matrix material, the element Y preferably includes at least one element selected from magnesium, aluminum, silicon, calcium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, and zirconium. Therefore, the substance including the element Y may include at least one element Y selected from these elements. These elements are used as elements which make up an aluminum alloy or a magnesium alloy. These elements easily bond to aluminum or magnesium, and can stably exist in a state in which the elements bond to aluminum or magnesium. As the element Y, magnesium, zinc, or aluminum, which exhibits particularly excellent bonding properties with magnesium or aluminum as the matrix material, may be used. In particular, when oxygen bonds to the surface of the first carbon material as the element X, it is preferable to use magnesium as the element Y since magnesium easily bonds to oxygen. Therefore, the carbon-based material thus obtained has a first bonding structure and a second bonding structure on the surface of the carbon material, the first bonding structure being a structure in which the element X bonds to the carbon atom of the carbon material and the second bonding structure being a structure in which the element Y bonds to the element X. In particular, when the first bonding structure is a structure in which oxygen bonds to the carbon atom of the carbon material, it is preferable that the second bonding structure be a structure in which magnesium bonds to oxygen.

The above description illustrates the case of mixing the substance including the element Y with the elastomer in the step (a). However, the invention is not limited thereto. It suffices that the substance including the element Y be subjected to the heat treatment in the step (c) together with the second carbon material. For example, the substance including the element Y may be disposed in a heat treatment furnace together with the second carbon material and vaporized by the heat treatment in the step (c). In this case, the substance including the element Y may not be particulate.

In the invention, magnesium or aluminum used as the matrix material includes an alloy containing magnesium or aluminum as the major component.

(D) Step (a) of Mixing Carbon Material into Elastomer and Dispersing Carbon Material by Applying Shear Force

The step (a) of dispersing the carbon material in the elastomer by applying a shear force may be carried out by using an open-roll method, an internal mixing method, a multi-screw extrusion mixing method, or the like.

In one embodiment of the invention, an example using an open-roll method with a roll distance of 0.5 mm or less is described below as the step of mixing the substance including the element Y and the first carbon material into the elastomer.

FIG. 1 is a diagram schematically showing the open-roll method using two rolls. In FIG. 1, a reference numeral 10 indicates a first roll, and a reference numeral 20 indicates a second roll. The first roll 10 and the second roll 20 are disposed at a predetermined distance d of preferably 1.0 mm or less, and still more preferably 0.1 to 0.5 mm. The first and second rolls are rotated normally or reversely. In the example shown in FIG. 1, the first roll 10 and the second roll 20 are rotated in the directions indicated by the arrows. When the surface velocity of the first roll 10 is indicated by V1 and the surface velocity of the second roll 20 is indicated by V2, the surface velocity ratio (V1/V2) of the first roll 10 to the second roll 20 is preferably 1.05 to 3.00, and still more preferably 1.05 to 1.2. A desired shear force can be obtained by using such a surface velocity ratio. When causing an elastomer 30 to be wound around the second roll 20 while rotating the first and second rolls 10 and 20, a bank 32 of the elastomer is formed between the rolls 10 and 20. After the addition of a substance including the element Y to the bank 32, the elastomer 30 and the substance including the element Y are mixed by rotating the first and second rolls 10 and 20. After the addition of a first carbon material 40 to the bank 32 in which the elastomer 30 and the substance including the element Y are mixed, the first and second rolls 10 and 20 are rotated. After reducing the distance between the first and second rolls 10 and 20 to the distance d, the first and second rolls 10 and 20 are rotated at a predetermined surface velocity ratio. This causes a high shear force to be applied to the elastomer 30, so that the aggregated first carbon material is separated by the shear force so that portions of the first carbon material are removed one by one and become dispersed in the elastomer 30. The shear force caused by the rolls causes turbulent flows to occur around the substance including the element Y dispersed in the elastomer. These complicated flows cause the first carbon material to be further dispersed in the elastomer 30. If the elastomer 30 and the first carbon material 40 are mixed before mixing the substance including the element Y, since the movement of the elastomer 30 is restrained by the first carbon material 40, it becomes difficult to mix the substance including the element Y. Therefore, it is preferable to mix the substance including the element Y before adding the carbon material 40 to the elastomer 30.

In the step (a), free radicals are produced in the elastomer shorn by the shear force and attack the surface of the first carbon material, whereby the surface of the first carbon material is activated. When using natural rubber (NR) as the elastomer, the natural rubber (NR) molecule is cut while being mixed by the rolls to have a molecular weight lower than the molecular weight before being supplied to the open rolls. Since radicals are produced in the cut natural rubber (NR) molecule and attack the surface of the first carbon material during mixing, the surface of the first carbon material is activated.

In the step (a), the elastomer and the first carbon material are mixed at a relatively low temperature of preferably 0 to 50° C., and still more preferably 5 to 30° C. in order to obtain as high a shear force as possible. In the case of using the open-roll method, it is preferable to set the roll temperature at the above-mentioned temperature. The distance d between the first and second rolls 10 and 20 is set to be greater than the average particle diameter of the substance including the element Y even when the distance is minimized. This enables the first carbon material 40 to be uniformly dispersed in the elastomer 30.

Since the elastomer according to one embodiment of the invention has the above-described characteristics, specifically, the above-described molecular configuration (molecular length), molecular motion, and chemical interaction with the carbon material, dispersion of the first carbon material is facilitated. Therefore, a composite elastomer exhibiting excellent dispersibility and dispersion stability (first carbon material rarely reaggregates) can be obtained. In more detail, when mixing the elastomer and the first carbon material, the elastomer having an appropriately long molecular length and a high molecular mobility enters the space in the first carbon material, and a specific portion of the elastomer bonds to a highly active site of the first carbon material through chemical interaction. When a high shear force is applied to the mixture of the elastomer and the first carbon material in this state, the first carbon material moves accompanying the movement of the elastomer, whereby the aggregated first carbon material is separated and dispersed in the elastomer. The dispersed first carbon material is prevented from reaggregating due to chemical interaction with the elastomer, whereby excellent dispersion stability can be obtained.

Moreover, since a predetermined amount of the substance including the element Y is included in the elastomer, a shear force is also applied in the direction in which the carbon material is separated due to a number of complicated flows such as turbulent flows of the elastomer occurring around the substance including the element Y. Therefore, even carbon nanofibers with a diameter of about 30 nm or less or carbon nanofibers in the shape of a curved fiber move in the flow direction of each elastomer molecule bonded to the carbon nanofibers due to chemical interaction, whereby the carbon nanofibers are uniformly dispersed in the elastomer.

In the step of dispersing the first carbon material in the elastomer by applying a shear force, the above-mentioned internal mixing method or multi-screw extrusion mixing method may be used instead of the open-roll method. In other words, it suffices that this step apply a shear force to the elastomer sufficient to separate the aggregated first carbon material.

A composite elastomer obtained by the step of mixing and dispersing the substance including the element Y and the first carbon material in the elastomer (mixing and dispersing step) may be crosslinked using a crosslinking agent and formed thereafter, or may be formed without crosslinking the composite elastomer. As the forming method, a compression forming process, an extrusion forming process, or the like may be used. The compression forming process includes forming the composite elastomer, in which the substance including the element Y and the first carbon material are dispersed, in a pressurized state for a predetermined time (e.g. 20 min) in a forming die having a desired shape and set at a predetermined temperature (e.g. 175° C.).

In the mixing and dispersing step of the elastomer and the first carbon material, or in the subsequent step, a compounding ingredient usually used in the processing of an elastomer such as rubber may be added. As the compounding ingredient, a known compounding ingredient may be used. As examples of the compounding ingredient, a crosslinking agent, vulcanizing agent, vulcanization accelerator, vulcanization retarder, softener, plasticizer, curing agent, reinforcing agent, filler, aging preventive, colorant, and the like can be given.

(E) Composite Elastomer Obtained by Above-Described Method

In the composite elastomer according to one embodiment of the invention, the first carbon material is uniformly dispersed in the elastomer as the matrix. In other words, the elastomer is restrained by the first carbon material. The mobility of the elastomer molecules restrained by the first carbon material is small in comparison with the case where the elastomer molecules are not restrained by the first carbon material. Therefore, the first spin-spin relaxation time (T2n), the second spin-spin relaxation time (T2nn), and the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of the carbon fiber composite material according to one embodiment of the invention are shorter than those of the elastomer which does not contain the first carbon material. In particular, when mixing the first carbon material into the elastomer containing the substance including the element Y, the second spin-spin relaxation time (T2nn) becomes shorter than that of an elastomer including only the first carbon material. The spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of the crosslinked form changes in proportion to the amount of the first carbon material mixed.

In a state in which the elastomer molecules are restrained by the first carbon material, the number of non-network components (non-reticulate chain components) may be reduced for the following reasons. Specifically, when the molecular mobility of the entire elastomer is decreased by the first carbon material, since the number of non-network components which cannot easily move is increased, the non-network components tend to behave in the same manner as the network components. Moreover, since the non-network components (terminal chains) easily move, the non-network components tend to be adsorbed on the active sites of the first carbon material. It is considered that these phenomena decrease the number of non-network components. Therefore, the fraction (fnn) of components having the second spin-spin relaxation time becomes smaller than that of the elastomer which does not contain the first carbon material. In particular, when mixing the first carbon material into the elastomer containing the substance including the element Y, the fraction (fnn) of components having the second spin-spin relaxation time is further reduced in comparison with the elastomer containing only the first carbon material.

Therefore, the composite elastomer according to one embodiment of the invention preferably has values measured by the Hahn-echo method using the pulsed NMR technique within the following range.

Specifically, it is preferable that, in the uncrosslinked form, the first spin-spin relaxation time (T2n) measured at 150° C. be 100 to 3,000 μsec, the second spin-spin relaxation time (T2nn) measured at 150° C. be absent or 1,000 to 10,000 μsec, and the fraction (fnn) of components having the second spin-spin relaxation time be less than 0.2.

The spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) measured by the Hahn-echo method using the pulsed NMR technique is a measure which indicates the molecular mobility of a substance in the same manner as the spin-spin relaxation time (T2). In more detail, the shorter the spin-lattice relaxation time of the elastomer, the lower the molecular mobility and the harder the elastomer. The longer the spin-lattice relaxation time of the elastomer, the higher the molecular mobility and the softer the elastomer.

The composite elastomer according to one embodiment of the invention preferably has a flow temperature, determined by temperature dependence measurement of dynamic viscoelasticity, 20° C. or more higher than the flow temperature of the raw material elastomer. In the composite elastomer according to one embodiment of the invention, the substance including the element Y and the carbon material are uniformly dispersed in the elastomer. In other words, the elastomer is restrained by the first carbon material as described above. In this state, the elastomer exhibits molecular motion smaller than that of the elastomer which does not contain the first carbon material, whereby the flowability is decreased. The composite elastomer according to one embodiment of the invention having such flow temperature characteristics shows a small temperature dependence of dynamic viscoelasticity to exhibit excellent thermal resistance.

(F) Step (b) of Heat-Treating Composite Elastomer to Produce Second Carbon Material

The second carbon material, in which the first carbon material is dispersed around the substance including the element Y, can be produced by the step (b) of heat-treating the composite elastomer to vaporize the elastomer included in the composite elastomer. The second carbon material activated by the step (a) is produced by the step (b) of vaporizing the elastomer. Since the surface of the second carbon material has been activated by free radicals of the elastomer molecules shorn by the step (a), the surface of the second carbon material can easily bond to the substance including the element Y in the step (c), for example.

The heat treatment conditions may be arbitrarily selected depending on the type of the elastomer used. The heat treatment temperature is set at a point equal to or higher than the vaporization temperature of the elastomer and lower than the vaporization temperature of the first carbon material.

The step (b) is performed in the presence of a substance including the element X so that the second carbon material in which the element X bonds to the carbon atom of the first carbon material can be obtained. For example, the composite elastomer may include the substance including the element X, and the element X may be caused to bond to the carbon atom of the first carbon material by the heat treatment in the step (b). Or, the step (b) may be performed in an atmosphere containing the substance including the element X so that the element X is caused to bond to the carbon atom of the first carbon material, for example.

The element X is an element which easily bonds to the carbon material via a covalent bond and is a light element with a valence of preferably two or more. The element X may include at least one element selected from boron, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus. The element X is preferably oxygen or nitrogen. In particular, since oxygen is present in air, oxygen can be easily used in the heat treatment in the step (b). Moreover, oxygen easily reacts with the activated first carbon material such as a radical of carbon nanofiber. Therefore, it is preferable to use oxygen as the element X. Moreover, since oxygen easily bonds to a metal material such as magnesium, the second carbon material to which oxygen bonds can easily bond to the metal or semimetal element Y.

When using oxygen as the element X, the atmosphere used for the heat treatment in the step (b) may contain oxygen. When using nitrogen as the element X, the step (b) may be carried out in an ammonium gas atmosphere. When using boron or phosphorus as the element X, the substance including the element X may be mixed into the elastomer before the step (b). In this case, the substance including the element X may be mixed during mixing in the step (a), for example.

In the step (b) according to one embodiment of the invention, the composite elastomer obtained by the step (a) is disposed in a heat treatment furnace, and the atmosphere inside the furnace is heated to the vaporization temperature of the elastomer (e.g. 500° C.). The elastomer is vaporized by heating and the surface of the first carbon material activated by the step (a) bonds to the element X included in the atmosphere inside the furnace or in the elastomer, whereby the surface-treated second carbon material can be produced. Since the surface of the second carbon material has been activated by free radicals of the elastomer molecules shorn by the step (a), the surface of the second carbon material can easily bond to oxygen present in the atmosphere inside the furnace, for example. Since the surface of the second carbon material thus obtained has been oxidized and activated, the second carbon material easily bonds to the metal or semimetal element Y. In addition, since the surface of the second carbon material has been activated by the reaction with the radicals of the elastomer, the surface of the second carbon material easily bonds to the element Y even if the element X is not used.

(G) Step (c) of Heat-Treating Second Carbon Material Together with Substance Including Element Y to Vaporize Substance Including Element Y

The carbon-based material according to the invention can be produced by the step (c) of heat-treating the second carbon material obtained by the step (b) together with the substance including the element Y having a melting point lower than the melting point of the first carbon material to vaporize the substance including the element Y.

The heat treatment temperature in the step (c) is set at a point higher than the heat treatment temperature in the step (b), equal to or higher than the vaporization temperature of the substance including the element Y, and lower than the vaporization temperature of the first carbon material. The heat treatment in the step (c) may be performed at the same time as the step (b) by setting the heat treatment temperature in the step (b) at a point equal to or higher than the vaporization temperature of the substance including the element Y, or the step (b) may be performed in the process of increasing the temperature from room temperature to the heat treatment temperature in the step (c).

When the second carbon material obtained by the step (b) and the substance including the element Y are heated to a temperature equal to or higher than the vaporization temperature of the substance including the element Y in a heat treatment furnace, the substance including the element Y is vaporized so that the element Y bonds to the surface of the second carbon material or the element Y bonds to the element X bonded to the surface of the second carbon material to obtain the carbon-based material according to the invention.

The substance including the element Y may be mixed into the composite elastomer in advance by mixing the substance including the element Y and the elastomer in the step (a) as stated above, or may not be mixed into the composite elastomer. When the substance including the element Y is not mixed into the composite elastomer in advance, the substance including the element Y may be disposed in a heat treatment furnace in the step (c) in addition to the second carbon material. The element Y vaporized by the heat treatment bonds to the element X bonded to the surface of the second carbon material. In the step (c), a desired carbon-based material can be obtained by disposing the second carbon material in the presence of the substance including the element Y which has been vaporized.

The vaporized element Y easily bonds to the element X on the surface of the second carbon material so that a compound of the element X and the element Y is produced. The element X prevents direct bonding between the element Y and the first carbon material. For example, when the element Y is aluminum, if the first carbon material directly bonds to aluminum, a substance which easily reacts with water, such as Al4C3, is produced. Therefore, it is preferable to perform the step (b) of causing the element X to bond to the surface of the first carbon material before the step (c) of vaporizing the material Y.

The surface of the carbon-based material (e.g. carbon nanofiber) thus obtained has a structure in which the carbon atom of the carbon nanofiber bonds to the element X and the element X bonds to the element Y. Therefore, the surface of the carbon-based material (e.g. carbon nanofiber) has a structure in which the surface is covered with the compound layer (e.g. oxide layer) of carbon and the element X and is also covered with the reaction product layer of the element X and the element Y (e.g. magnesium). The surface structure of the carbon-based material may be analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) or energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) analysis.

(H) Step (d) of Obtaining Composite Material by Using Carbon-Based Material

In the step (d) according to one embodiment of the invention, the carbon-based material obtained according to the above-described embodiment is mixed with a matrix material to produce a composite material in which the carbon material is dispersed in the matrix material.

As the matrix material, a metal used in a general casting process may be selected. In particular, light metals such as aluminum and an aluminum alloy and magnesium and a magnesium alloy are preferable.

In the step (d), various forming methods such as methods described below may be employed.

(d-1) Powder Forming Method

A powder forming step of the composite material according to one embodiment of the invention may be performed by powder forming the carbon-based material obtained by the above-described step (c). In more detail, the carbon-based material obtained according to the above-described embodiment is compressed in a die after mixing with the matrix material, and sintered at the sintering temperature of the matrix material (e.g. 550° C. when the matrix material is aluminum) to obtain a composite material, for example.

The powder forming according to one embodiment of the invention is the same as powder forming in a metal forming process and involves powder metallurgy. The powder forming according to one embodiment of the invention not only includes the case of using a powder raw material, but also includes the case of using a raw material formed in the shape of a block by compression-preforming the carbon-based material. As the powder forming method, a general sintering method, a spark plasma sintering (SPS) method using a plasma sintering device, or the like may be employed.

The carbon-based material and particles of the matrix material may be mixed by dry blending, wet blending, or the like. When using wet blending, it is preferable to mix (wet-blend) the matrix material with the powder of the carbon-based material in a solvent. Even when the carbon-based material maintains the external shape of the composite elastomer due to bonding between the elements Y, since the bonding force between the elements Y is small, the carbon-based material can be easily ground. Therefore, since the carbon-based material which is ground to powder such as particles or fibers can be used when dry blending or wet blending the carbon-based material, the carbon-based material is easily utilized for metalworking.

The composite material produced by such powder forming is obtained in a state in which the carbon-based material is dispersed in the matrix material. The particles of the matrix material used in the step (d) may be formed of a material containing the element Y or a material which does not contain the element Y. A composite material having desired properties can be produced by adjusting the mixing ratio of the carbon-based material to the matrix material.

(d-2) Casting Method

A casting step of the composite material may be performed by mixing the carbon-based material obtained according to the above-described embodiment into the matrix material such as a molten metal, and casting the mixture in a die having a desired shape, for example. In the casting step, a metal mold casting method, a diecasting method, or a low-pressure casting method, in which a molten metal is poured into a die made of steel, may be employed. A method classified into a special casting method, such as a high-pressure casting method in which a molten metal is caused to solidify at a high pressure, a thixocasting method in which a molten metal is stirred, or a centrifugal casting method in which a molten metal is cast into a die by utilizing centrifugal force, may also be employed. In these casting methods, a molten matrix material is caused to solidify in a die in a state in which the carbon-based material is mixed into the molten matrix material to form a composite material.

The molten matrix material used in the casting step may be selected from metals used in a general casting process. In particular, the molten matrix material may be appropriately selected from light metals such as aluminum and an aluminum alloy and magnesium and a magnesium alloy, either individually or in combination of two or more, depending on the application. If the metal used as the molten metal is a metal the same as the substance including the element Y bonded to the carbon-based material, or an alloy containing the identical element Y, the wettability with the element Y is increased, whereby the strength of the composite material as the product can be increased. When a material which does not contain the element Y is used as the molten matrix material, a composite material having desired properties can be produced by adjusting the mixing ratio of the carbon-based material to the molten matrix material.

(d-3) Permeation Method

In one embodiment of the invention, a casting step using a pressureless permeation method which causes a molten metal to permeate the carbon-based material is described below in detail with reference to FIGS. 2 and 3.

FIGS. 2 and 3 are schematic configuration diagrams of a device for producing a composite material by using the pressureless permeation method. As the carbon-based material obtained according to the above-described embodiment, a carbon-based material 4 which is compression-preformed in a forming die having a desired shape may be used. In FIG. 2, the carbon-based material 4 (e.g. carbon-based material using carbon nanofibers as first carbon material 40) formed in advance is placed in a sealed container 1. A matrix material ingot such as an aluminum ingot 5 is disposed on the carbon-based material 4. The carbon-based material 4 and the aluminum ingot 5 disposed in the container 1 are heated to a temperature equal to or higher than the melting point of aluminum by using heating means (not shown) provided in the container 1. The heated aluminum ingot 5 is melted to form molten aluminum (molten metal). The molten aluminum permeates the space in the carbon-based material 4.

The carbon-based material 4 according to one embodiment of the invention is formed to have a space which allows the molten aluminum to rapidly permeate the entire carbon-based material 4 by a capillary phenomenon when compression-preforming the carbon-based material 4. If the carbon-based material 4 maintains a certain shape, the carbon-based material 4 may not be compression-preformed. The molten aluminum permeates the carbon-based material 4 so that the carbon-based material 4 is completely filled with the molten aluminum. Then, heating using the heating means of the container 1 is terminated so that the molten metal which has permeated the carbon-based material 4 is cooled and solidified to obtain a composite material 6, as shown in FIG. 3, in which the carbon-based material 4 is uniformly dispersed. The carbon-based material 4 is preferably produced by selecting the element Y which easily bonds to the molten metal.

The atmosphere inside the container 1 may be removed by decompression means 2 such as a vacuum pump connected with the container 1 before heating the container 1. Nitrogen gas may be introduced into the container 1 from inert-gas supply means 3 such as a nitrogen gas cylinder connected with the container 1.

In one embodiment of the invention, the carbon-based material compression-preformed into a desired shape in advance is used. However, the permeation method may be performed by placing the carbon-based material which is ground to particles in a die having a desired shape, and placing the matrix material ingot on the carbon-based material.

The above-described embodiment illustrates the pressureless permeation method. However, a pressure permeation method which applies pressure by utilizing the pressure of an atmosphere such as an inert gas may also be used, for example.

As described above, since the element Y bonds to the surface of the carbon-based material in the composite material, the carbon-based material has improved wettability. Since the carbon-based material has sufficient wettability with the molten matrix material, a homogenous composite material of which the difference of the mechanical properties is decreased over the entire material is obtained.

Examples according to the invention and comparative examples are described below. However, the invention is not limited to the following examples.

EXAMPLES 1 TO 3 AND COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 1

(1) Preparation of Sample

(a) Preparation of Uncrosslinked Sample (Composite Elastomer)

Step 1: Open rolls with a roll diameter of six inches (roll temperature: 10 to 20° C.) were provided with a predetermined amount (100 g) of a polymer substance (100 parts by weight (phr)) shown in Table 1, and the polymer substance was wound around the roll.

Step 2: A substance including the element Y was added to the polymer substance in an amount (parts by weight) shown in Table 1. The roll distance was set at 1.5 mm. The type of the substance including the element Y added is described later.

Step 3: A first carbon material (“CNT” in Table 1) was added to the polymer substance containing the substance including the element Y in an amount (parts by weight) shown in Table 1. The roll distance was set at 1.5 mm.

Step 4: After the addition of the first carbon material, the mixture of the polymer substance and the first carbon material was removed from the rolls.

Step 5: After reducing the roll distance from 1.5 mm to 0.3 mm, the mixture was supplied and tight milled. The surface velocity ratio of the two rolls was set at 1.1. The tight milling was repeatedly performed ten times.

Step 6: After setting the rolls at a predetermined distance (1.1 mm), the mixture subjected to tight milling was supplied and sheeted.

Uncrosslinked samples of composite elastomers of Examples 1 to 3 were thus obtained.

As the substance including the element Y in Examples 1 to 3, magnesium particles (average particle diameter: 50 μm) were used. As the first carbon material in Examples 1 to 3 and the carbon material in Comparative Example 1, carbon nanofibers (CNT) having a diameter (fiber diameter) of about 10 to 20 nm were used.

(b) Preparation of Second Carbon Material

The uncrosslinked sample (composite elastomer) obtained by (a) in each of Examples 1 to 3 was heat-treated for two hours in a heat treatment furnace containing a nitrogen atmosphere at 500° C., a temperature equal to or higher than the vaporization temperature of the elastomer, to vaporize the elastomer to obtain a second carbon material.

(c) Preparation of Carbon-Based Material

The second carbon material obtained by (b) in each of Examples 1 to 3 was heat-treated for one hour in the heat treatment furnace at 570° C., a temperature equal to or higher than the vaporization temperature of the substance including the element Y (magnesium), to vaporize the substance including the element Y (magnesium) to obtain a carbon-based material.

(d) Preparation of Composite Material

10 g of powder of the carbon-based material obtained by (c) in each of Examples 1 to 3 and 500 g of aluminum powder were mixed by using a ball mill. The resulting mixed powder was compression-formed in the shape of a block having dimensions of 30×40×20 mm. After placing an aluminum ingot (purity: 99.85%) on the formed product, the formed product and the aluminum ingot were disposed in a heat treatment furnace containing a nitrogen atmosphere. The atmosphere inside the heat treatment furnace was heated to 750° C. to cause the aluminum ingot to melt and permeate the compression-formed product to obtain a composite material. The carbon nanofiber content of the composite material was 1.6 vol %. As the aluminum powder, aluminum particles having a purity of 99.85% and an average particle diameter of 28 μm were used.

In Comparative Example 1, carbon nanofibers and aluminum powder were mixed by using a ball mill, and aluminum was caused to permeate the formed product in the same manner as described above to obtain a composite material of Comparative Example 1.

(2) Measurement using Pulsed NMR Technique

The uncrosslinked sample was subjected to measurement by the Hahn-echo method using the pulsed NMR technique. The measurement was conducted using “JMN-MU25” manufactured by JEOL, Ltd. The measurement was conducted under conditions of an observing nucleus of 1H, a resonance frequency of 25 MHz, and a 90-degree pulse width of 2 μsec, and a decay curve was determined while changing Pi in the pulse sequence (90° x−Pi−180° x) of the Hahn-echo method. The sample was measured in a state in which the sample was inserted into a sample tube in an appropriate magnetic field range. The measurement temperature was 150° C. The first spin-spin relaxation time (T2n), the second spin-spin relaxation time (T2nn), and the fraction (fnn) of components having the second spin-spin relaxation time were determined for the raw material elastomer and the uncrosslinked sample of the composite elastomer. The first spin-spin relaxation time (T2n) at a measurement temperature of 30° C. was also measured for the raw material elastomer. The measurement results are shown in Table 1. The second spin-spin relaxation time (T2nn) was not detected in Examples 1 to 3. Therefore, the fraction (fnn) of components having the second spin-spin relaxation time was zero.

(3) Measurement of Flow Temperature

The flow temperature was determined for the raw material elastomer and the uncrosslinked sample of the composite elastomer by dynamic viscoelasticity measurement (JIS K 6394). In more detail, the flow temperature was determined by applying a sine vibration (±0.1% or less) to the sample having a width of 5 mm, a length of 40 mm, and a thickness of 1 mm, and measuring the stress and phase difference δ generated by applying the sine vibration. The temperature was changed from −70° C. to 150° C. at a temperature rise rate of 2° C./min. The results are shown in Table 1. In Table 1, the case where the flow phenomenon of the sample was not observed up to 150° C. is indicated as “150° C. or higher”.

(4) XPS Analysis of Carbon-based Material

Table 1 shows XPS analysis results of the carbon-based materials obtained by (c) in Examples 1 to 3 and the carbon nanofibers of Comparative Example 1. In Table 1, the case where the presence of a carbon-oxygen bond was confirmed on the surface of the carbon-based material is indicated as “surface oxidation”, and the case where the presence of a carbon-oxygen bond was not confirmed is indicated as “none”. FIG. 4 shows a schematic diagram of XPS data on the carbon-based material of Example 1. A first line segment 50 indicates a double bond “C═O”, a second line segment 60 indicates a single bond “C—O”, and a third line segment 70 indicates a carbon-carbon bond.

(5) EDS Analysis of Carbon-based Material

Table 1 shows EDS analysis results of the composite materials obtained by (d) in Examples 1 to 3 and the carbon nanofibers of Comparative Example 1. In Table 1, the case where the presence of magnesium was confirmed around the carbon-based material is indicated as “Mg”, and the case where the presence of magnesium was not confirmed is indicated as “none”. FIGS. 5, 6, and 7 show EPS data on the carbon-based material of Example 1. FIGS. 5 to 7 show image data obtained by the EDS analysis. Since the presence or absence of elements is unclear in the black-and-white image, negative-positive inversion processing was performed. The black area in FIG. 5 indicates the presence of carbon, that is, the carbon nanofiber as the first carbon material. The black area in FIG. 6 indicates the presence of oxygen. The black (dark) area in FIG. 7 indicates the presence of magnesium.

(6) Measurement of Compressive Yield Strength of Composite Material

10×10 mm samples with a thickness of 5 mm were prepared from the composite materials obtained by (d) in Examples 1 to 3 and the composite material of Comparative Example 1. The 0.2% yield strength (σ0.2) of the samples when compressing the samples at 0.01 mm/min was measured. The maximum value, minimum value, and mean value (MPa) of the compressive yield strength were determined. The results are shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1
Comparative
Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 1
Raw material elastomer Polymer substance Natural rubber (NR) EPDM Nitrile rubber (NBR)
Polar group Double bond Double bond Nitrile group
Norbornene
Average molecular weight 3,000,000 200,000 3,000,000
T2n (30° C.) (μsec) 700 520 300
T2n (150° C.) (μsec) 5500 2200 1780
T2nn (150° C.) (μsec) 18000 16000 13700
fnn (150° C.) 0.381 0.405 0.133
Flow temperature (° C.) 40 55 80
Amount Polymer (phr) 100 100 100 0
Magnesium (phr) 2 2 2 0
CNT (phr) 10 10 10 100
Composite elastomer Flow temperature (° C.) 150° C. or higher 150° C. or higher 150° C. or higher
(uncrosslinked sample) T2n (150° C.) (μsec) 1850 1760 1230
T2nn (150° C.) (μsec) None None None
fnn (150° C.) 0 0 0
ÄT1 (msec/CNT 1 vol %) 15.9 16.5 14.2
XPS analysis result Oxygen on surface of carbon-based Surface oxidation Surface oxidation Surface oxidation None
material
EDS analysis result Magnesium on surface of carbon- Mg Mg Mg Mg
based material
Compressive yield strength Maximum value (MPa) 460 450 455 75
of composite material Mean value (MPa) 445 430 435 50
Minimum value (MPa) 430 410 420 25

From the results shown in Table 1, the following items were confirmed by Examples 1 to 3 according to the invention. Specifically, the spin-spin relaxation times at 150° C. (T2n/150° C. and T2nn/150° C.) of the uncrosslinked sample (composite elastomer) containing the substance including the element Y and the first carbon material are shorter than those of the raw material elastomer which does not contain the substance including the element Y and the first carbon material. The fraction (fnn/150° C.) of the uncrosslinked sample (composite elastomer) containing the substance including the element Y and the first carbon material is smaller than that of the raw material elastomer which does not contain the substance including the element Y and the first carbon material. These results suggest that the first carbon material is uniformly dispersed in the composite elastomer according to the example.

The flow temperature of the composite elastomer (uncrosslinked sample) containing the substance including the element Y and the carbon-based material is 20° C. or more higher than that of the raw material elastomer. Therefore, it is understood that the composite elastomer has a small temperature dependence of dynamic viscoelasticity and exhibits excellent thermal resistance.

From the XPS analysis results of the carbon-based materials of Examples 1 to 3, it was found that the surface of the second carbon material is oxidized.

From the EDS analysis results of the carbon-based materials of Examples 1 to 3, it was found that oxygen and magnesium exist around the carbon-based material.

It was found that the compressive yield strength of the composite formed products of Examples 1 to 3 is significantly higher in the minimum value and the maximum value than the compressive yield strength of the composite material of Comparative Example 1. While the maximum value and the minimum value of the compressive yield strength of the composite formed products of Examples 1 to 3 differ from the mean value in the range of ±5%, the maximum value and the minimum value of the compressive yield strength of the composite material of Comparative Example 1 differ from the mean value in the range of ±50%. Therefore, it was found that the composite materials of Examples 1 to 3 are entirely homogenous.

It was found that the homogenous composite materials, in which the carbon-based materials of Examples 1 to 3 are uniformly dispersed in aluminum as the matrix material, were obtained. It was also found that the wettability between the carbon-based material and aluminum was improved as indicated by the significant increase in the compressive yield strength.

Although only some embodiments of the present invention have been described in detail above, those skilled in the art will readily appreciate that many modifications are possible in the embodiments without materially departing from the novel teachings and advantages of this invention. Accordingly, all such modifications are intended to be included within scope of this invention.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification264/122, 164/97, 264/175, 264/241, 148/538, 428/408, 264/118, 264/140, 264/345, 264/80, 523/210, 524/495
International ClassificationB22D19/14, B29C59/00
Cooperative ClassificationC04B2235/5436, C04B2235/96, C04B2235/5264, C04B35/62876, C04B35/62878, C04B35/6261, C04B35/52, C22C49/14, B82Y30/00, C22C47/02, Y10T428/30, C04B2235/5288, C01B31/00, C22C1/1005, C04B2235/401
European ClassificationC04B35/52, C22C47/02, C04B35/628F10, C22C1/10A, C22C49/14, C04B35/628F12, C01B31/00, C04B35/626A6, B82Y30/00