*** Withdrawn *** US 8188771 B2 Abstract A pulse width modulation (PWM) frequency converter converts an input PWM signal to an output PWM signal having a different frequency while maintaining a substantially equal duty ratio. The PWM frequency converter samples the input PWM signal for a PWM cycle using a sampling clock. A filter module filters the resulting set of one or more PWM parameters to compensate for noise introduced by potential clock mismatch, clock jitter, ambient variations, and other non-deterministic issues, thereby generating filtered PWM parameters. The sampling employed by the filter module compares a difference between the one or more current PWM parameters and previous (or historical) PWM parameters from an earlier sampled PWM cycle to a predetermined change threshold in determining a filtered set of one or more PWM parameters. The filtered set of one or more PWM parameters then is used to generate one or more corresponding PWM cycles of the output signal.
Claims 1. In a pulse width modulation (PWM) frequency converter that receives a first PWM signal and outputs a second PWM signal having a different frequency than the first PWM signal, a method comprising:
sampling a first PWM cycle of the first PWM signal to generate a first set of one or more PWM parameters, the sampling to determine a first value and a second value of the first set of one or more PWM parameters, the first value representative of a number of samples having a select sample value for the first PWM cycle and the second value representative of a total number of samples for the first PWM cycle;
filtering the first set of one or more PWM parameters based on a predetermined change threshold to generate a second set of one or more PWM parameters, the filtering comprising:
filtering the first value based on a change threshold range defined by the predetermined change threshold to generate a third value of the second set of one or more PWM parameters; and
filtering the second value based on the change threshold range to generate a fourth value of the second set of one or more PWM parameters; and
generating a second PWM cycle for the second PWM signal based on the second set of one or more PWM parameters.
2. The method of
determining a duty ratio of the first PWM cycle using the second set of one or more PWM parameters; and
generating the second PWM cycle so as to have a duty cycle substantially equal to the duty ratio determined for the first PWM cycle.
3. The method of
determining a duty value based on a PWM step range of the second PWM signal and a ratio of the third value and the fourth value; and
generating the second PWM cycle based on the duty value.
4. The method of
configuring a sampling frequency such that a truncated or rounded product of the PWM step range and a ratio of the predetermined change threshold to the second value is not greater than one least significant bit (LSB) of a PWM step resolution of the second PWM signal.
5. The method of
driving the second PWM signal to a first state for a first duration, the first duration having a number of cycles of a generation clock equal to the duty value; and
driving the second PWM signal to a second state for a second duration, the second duration having a number of cycles of the generation clock equal to a difference between the PWM step range and the duty value, wherein the second duration precedes or follows the first duration.
6. The method of
filtering the first value based on the change threshold range to generate the third value comprises:
setting the third value equal to the first value in response to determining a difference between the first value and a fifth value is greater than or equal to the predetermined change threshold, wherein the fifth value represents a number of samples having the select sample value for a PWM cycle of the first PWM signal occurring prior to the first PWM cycle; and
setting the third value equal to the fifth value in response to determining the difference between the first value and the fifth value is less than the predetermined change threshold; and
filtering the second value based on the change threshold range to generate the fourth value comprises:
setting the fourth value equal to the second value in response to determining a difference between the second value and a sixth value is greater than or equal to the predetermined change threshold, wherein the sixth value represents a total number of samples for a PWM cycle of the first PWM signal occurring prior to the first PWM cycle; and
setting the fourth value equal to the sixth value in response to determining the difference between the second value and the sixth value is less than the predetermined change threshold.
7. The method of
8. The method of
9. A pulse width modulation (PWM) frequency converter having an input to receive a first PWM signal and an output to provide a second PWM signal having a different frequency than the first PWM signal, the PWM frequency converter comprising:
a sampling module to sample a first PWM cycle of the first PWM signal to generate a first set of one or more PWM parameters, the sampling to determine a first value and a second value of the first set of one or more PWM parameters, the first value representative of a number of samples having a select sample value for the first PWM cycle and the second value representative of a total number of samples for the first PWM cycle;
a filter module to filter the first set of one or more PWM parameters based on a predetermined change threshold to generate a second set of one or more PWM parameters by:
filtering the first value based on a change threshold range defined by the predetermined change threshold to generate a third value of the second set of one or more PWM parameters; and
filtering the second value based on the change threshold range to generate a fourth value of the second set of one or more PWM parameters; and
a PWM generator module to generate a second PWM cycle for the second PWM signal based on the second set of one or more PWM parameters.
10. The PWM frequency converter of
determining a duty ratio of the first PWM cycle using the second set of one or more PWM parameters; and
generating the second PWM cycle so as to have a duty cycle substantially equal to the duty ratio determined for the first PWM cycle.
11. The PWM frequency converter of
determining a duty value based on a PWM step resolution of the second PWM signal and a ratio of the third value and the fourth value; and
generating the second PWM cycle based on the duty value.
12. The PWM frequency converter of
driving the second PWM signal to a first state for a first duration, the first duration having a number of cycles of a generation clock equal to the duty value; and
driving the second PWM signal to a second state for a second duration, the second duration having a number of cycles of the generation clock equal to a difference between the PWM step resolution and the duty value, wherein the second duration precedes or follows the first duration.
13. The PWM frequency converter of
the filter module is to filter the first value to generate the third value by:
setting the third value equal to the first value in response to determining a difference between the first value and a fifth value is greater than or equal to the predetermined change threshold, wherein the fifth value represents a number of samples having the select sample value for a PWM cycle of the first PWM signal occurring prior to the first PWM cycle; and
setting the third value equal to the fifth value in response to determining the difference between the first value and the fifth value is less than the predetermined change threshold; and
the filter module is to filter the second value based on the change threshold range to generate the fourth value by:
setting the fourth value equal to the second value in response to determining a difference between the second value and a sixth value is greater than or equal to the predetermined change threshold, wherein the sixth value represents a total number of samples for a PWM cycle of the first PWM signal occurring prior to the first PWM cycle; and
setting the fourth value equal to the sixth value in response to determining the difference between the second value and the sixth value is less than the predetermined change threshold.
14. The PWM frequency converter of
15. In a pulse width modulation (PWM) frequency converter that receives a first PWM signal and outputs a second PWM signal having a higher frequency than the first PWM signal, a method comprising:
sampling a first PWM cycle of the first PWM signal to determine a first value and a second value, the first value representative of a number of samples having a select sample value for the first PWM cycle and the second value representative of a′ total number of samples for the first PWM cycle;
sampling a second PWM cycle of the first PWM signal that occurs subsequent to the first PWM cycle to determine a third value and a fourth value, the third value representative of a number of samples having the select sample value for the second PWM cycle and the fourth value representative of a total number of samples for the second PWM cycle;
filtering the third value based on the first value and a predetermined change threshold to generate a fifth value;
filtering the fourth value based on the second value and the predetermined change threshold to generate a sixth value; and
generating a PWM cycle of the second PWM signal based on the fifth value and the sixth value.
16. The method of
determining a duty value based on a PWM step range of the second PWM signal and a ratio of the fifth value and the sixth value; and
generating the PWM cycle for the second PWM signal based on the duty value.
17. The method of
filtering the third value to generate the fifth value comprises:
setting the fifth value equal to the third value in response to determining a difference between the third value and the first value is greater than or equal to the predetermined change threshold; and
setting the fifth value equal to the first value in response to determining the difference between the third value and the first value is less than the predetermined change threshold; and
filtering the fourth value to generate the sixth value comprises:
setting the sixth value equal to the fourth value in response to determining a difference between the fourth value and the second value is greater than or equal to the predetermined change threshold; and
setting the sixth value equal to the second value in response to determining the difference between the fourth value and the second value is less than the predetermined change threshold.
Description The present disclosure relates generally to pulse width modulation (PWM) and more particularly to frequency conversion for PWM signals. Pulse width modulation (PWM) signals often are used for precise control of electronic devices, such as electric motors, light emitting diode (LED) backlights, switching-mode power sources, and the like. However, in many instances, the PWM signal has a frequency that can introduce undesirable effects such as electromagnetic interference (EMI), or which can result in artifacts perceptible to a user. For example, the PWM signals used to drive the LED backlight in a display device often have a frequency within the human audible range (0-20 kHz), and thus can be audibly discerned by a viewer. Further, it will be appreciated that a lower-frequency PWM signal can introduce significant droop or ripple in an output voltage controlled or otherwise affected by the frequency of the PWM signal. To address these types of issues, electronic systems often employ some form of frequency conversion for the PWM signal so as to increase or decrease the PWM frequency while maintaining the same PWM duty ratio, thereby reducing or eliminating undesired effects such as EMI and audible noise and decreasing the magnitude of any ripple or droop in any output voltage affected by the PWM signal. In one conventional frequency conversion technique, an analog approach is employed whereby an incoming PWM signal is converted to a varying voltage based on the duty ratio of the incoming PWM signal, which is then used along with a ramp signal and a plurality of reference signals to reproduce the original duty ratio of the incoming PWM signal at a different frequency. However, the noise in the representative voltage and the offsets in the comparators used to compare the representative voltage, the reference voltages, and the ramp signal prevent accurate PWM signal generation for duty ratios, particularly near 0% or near 100%. Moreover, the noise in the input PWM signal to voltage conversion and the offsets in the comparators also result in noise and offset in the generated output PWM signal. The present disclosure may be better understood, and its numerous features and advantages made apparent to those skilled in the art by referencing the accompanying drawings. The use of the same reference symbols in different drawings indicates similar or identical items. In one embodiment, the input PWM signal The sampling module At block At block At block A similar filtering process is used to set the value N_T based on the value N_total. At block As discussed above and in greater detail below, the values N_H and N_T are used to determine the duty ratio for a PWM cycle to be generated for the output signal At block At block For the filtering process applied at blocks As illustrated by PWM signal While a change threshold of three (3) is well-suited in view of the characteristics of the sampling process, thresholds other than the value of three may be implemented without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. However, for larger thresholds, a higher number of samples per PWM cycle is needed to achieve certain performance goals, such as a minimum PWM duty of 0% or a minimum PWM resolution step of 1 LSB. To illustrate, for the output PWM signal At block At block At block In the event that the difference between PWM_Duty_Temp and PWM_Duty The sampling process of blocks The LED driver The feedback controller In the example of A current regulator typically operates more effectively when the input of the current regulator is a non-zero voltage so as to accommodate the variation in the input voltage that often results from the current regulation process of the current regulator. This buffering voltage often is referred to as the “headroom” of the current regulator. As the current regulators The data/timing controller The analog string select module The ADC The control DAC There may be considerable variation between the voltage drops across each of the LED strings In a pulse width modulation (PWM) frequency converter that receives a first PWM signal and outputs a second PWM signal having a different frequency than the first PWM signal, a method is provided. In one aspect, the method includes sampling a first PWM cycle of the first PWM signal to generate a first set of one or more PWM parameters and filtering the first set of one or more PWM parameters based on a predetermined change threshold to generate a second set of one or more PWM parameters. The method further includes generating a second PWM cycle for the second PWM signal based on the second set of one or more PWM parameters. In one embodiment, generating the second PWM cycle comprises determining a duty ratio of the first PWM cycle using the second set of one or more PWM parameters and generating the second PWM cycle so as to have a duty cycle substantially equal to the duty ratio determined for the first PWM cycle. In accordance with one aspect, sampling the first PWM cycle comprises sampling the first PWM cycle to determine a first value and a second value of the first set of one or more PWM parameters, the first value representative of a number of samples having a select sample value for the first PWM cycle and the second value representative of a total number of samples for the first PWM cycle. In this instance, filtering the first set of one or more PWM parameters to generate the second set of one or more PWM parameters can include filtering the first value based on a change threshold range defined by the predetermined change threshold to generate a third value of the second set of one or more PWM parameters and filtering the second value based on the change threshold range to generate a fourth value of the second set of one or more PWM parameters. Generating the second PWM cycle therefore may include determining a duty value based on a PWM step range of the second PWM signal and a ratio of the third value and the fourth value and generating the second PWM cycle based on the duty value. In one embodiment, the method further includes configuring a sampling frequency such that a truncated or rounded product of the PWM step range and a ratio of the predetermined change threshold to the second value is not greater than one least significant bit (LSB) of a PWM step resolution of the second PWM signal. Further, generating the second PWM cycle based on the duty value can include driving the second PWM signal to a first state for a first duration, the first duration having a number of cycles of a generation clock equal to the duty value and driving the second PWM signal to a second state for a second duration, the second duration having a number of cycles of the generation clock equal to a difference between the PWM step range and the duty value, wherein the second duration precedes or follows the first duration. In one embodiment, filtering the first value based on the change threshold range to generate the third value includes: setting the third value equal to the first value in response to determining a difference between the first value and a fifth value is greater than or equal to the predetermined change threshold, wherein the fifth value represents a number of samples having the select sample value for a PWM cycle of the first PWM signal occurring prior to the first PWM cycle; and setting the third value equal to the fifth value in response to determining the difference between the first value and the fifth value is less than the predetermined change threshold. In this case, filtering the second value based on the change threshold range to generate the fourth value can include setting the fourth value equal to the second value in response to determining a difference between the second value and a sixth value is greater than or equal to the predetermined change threshold, wherein the sixth value represents a total number of samples for a PWM cycle of the first PWM signal occurring prior to the first PWM cycle and setting the fourth value equal to the sixth value in response to determining the difference between the second value and the sixth value is less than the predetermined change threshold. In another embodiment, sampling the first PWM cycle includes sampling the first PWM cycle to determine a first value and a second value of the first set of one or more PWM parameters, the first value representative of a number of samples having a select sample value for the first PWM cycle and the second value representative of a total number of samples for the first PWM cycle. In this embodiment, filtering the first set of one or more PWM parameters to generate the second set of one or more PWM parameters can include determining a first duty value based on a ratio of the first value and the second value and filtering the first duty value based on a change threshold range defined by the predetermined change threshold to generate a second duty value of the second set of one or more PWM parameters. Filtering the first duty value based on the change threshold range to generate the second value can include setting the second value equal to the first value in response to determining a difference between the first duty value and a third value is greater than or equal to the predetermined change threshold, wherein the third duty value represents a PWM duty ratio of a PWM cycle of the first PWM signal occurring prior to the first PWM cycle and setting the second duty value equal to the third duty value in response to determining the difference between the first duty value and the third duty value is less than the predetermined change threshold. In accordance with another aspect, a pulse width modulation (PWM) frequency converter is provided. The PWM frequency converter has an input to receive a first PWM signal and an output to provide a second PWM signal having a different frequency than the first PWM signal. The PWM frequency converter further includes a sampling module to sample a first PWM cycle of the first PWM signal to generate a first set of one or more PWM parameters, a filter module to filter the first set of one or more PWM parameters based on a predetermined change threshold to generate a second set of one or more PWM parameters, and a PWM generator module to generate a second PWM cycle for the second PWM signal based on the second set of one or more PWM parameters. In a PWM frequency converter that receives a first PWM signal and outputs a second PWM signal having a higher frequency than the first PWM signal, a method is provided in accordance with yet another aspect. The method includes sampling a first PWM cycle of the first PWM signal to determine a first value and a second value, the first value representative of a number of samples having a select sample value for the first PWM cycle and the second value representative of a total number of samples for the first PWM cycle and sampling a second PWM cycle of the first PWM signal that occurs subsequent to the first PWM cycle to determine a third value and a fourth value, the third value representative of a number of samples having the select sample value for the second PWM cycle and the fourth value representative of a total number of samples for the second PWM cycle. The method further includes filtering the third value based on the first value and a predetermined change threshold to generate a fifth value and filtering the fourth value based on the second value and the predetermined change threshold to generate a sixth value. The method additionally includes generating a PWM cycle of the second PWM signal based on the fifth value and the sixth value. In one embodiment, generating the PWM cycle of the second PWM signal includes determining a duty value based on a PWM step range of the second PWM signal and a ratio of the fifth value and the sixth value and generating the PWM cycle for the second PWM signal based on the duty value. Further, filtering the third value to generate the fifth value can include setting the fifth value equal to the third value in response to determining a difference between the third value and the first value is greater than or equal to the predetermined change threshold and setting the fifth value equal to the first value in response to determining the difference between the third value and the first value is less than the predetermined change threshold. Filtering the fourth value to generate the sixth value can include setting the sixth value equal to the fourth value in response to determining a difference between the fourth value and the second value is greater than or equal to the predetermined change threshold and setting the sixth value equal to the second value in response to determining the difference between the fourth value and the second value is less than the predetermined change threshold. The term “another”, as used herein, is defined as at least a second or more. The terms “including”, “having”, or any variation thereof, as used herein, are defined as comprising. The term “coupled”, as used herein with reference to electro-optical technology, is defined as connected, although not necessarily directly, and not necessarily mechanically. Other embodiments, uses, and advantages of the disclosure will be apparent to those skilled in the art from consideration of the specification and practice of the disclosure disclosed herein. The specification and drawings should be considered exemplary only, and the scope of the disclosure is accordingly intended to be limited only by the following claims and equivalents thereof. Non-Patent Citations
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