|Publication number||US8211835 B2|
|Application number||US 12/887,181|
|Publication date||Jul 3, 2012|
|Filing date||Sep 21, 2010|
|Priority date||Sep 24, 2009|
|Also published as||CA2715236A1, US20110071058|
|Publication number||12887181, 887181, US 8211835 B2, US 8211835B2, US-B2-8211835, US8211835 B2, US8211835B2|
|Inventors||Paul R. Howard, Curtis L. Boney, Shawn McCleskey Rimassa, Syed A. Ali|
|Original Assignee||Schlumberger Technology Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (50), Non-Patent Citations (45), Classifications (24), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/245,513, filed Sep. 24, 2009.
This invention relates generally to composition and method for treating a well penetrating a subterranean formation. More specifically, the invention relates to environmentally friendly treatment fluids and associated methods of use for slickwater application.
Some statements may merely provide background information related to the present disclosure and may not constitute prior art.
The recent increase of shale gas development in a number of areas around the world has heightened public awareness and concern regarding hydraulic fracturing. Shale gas development entails fracturing operations using large volumes of water (generally 3 to 5 million gallons per well), and small amounts of chemical additives to fracture the horizontal wells. While general descriptions of the constituents of these additives and their purposes are publicly available, the precise additive compositions are kept proprietary by the service companies. Much of the public residing in the shale gas basins is unfamiliar with oil and gas drilling and production activities, creating a perception of industry “secrecy” surrounding additive compositions and leading the public to distrust service companies. As a result, various non-governmental organizations and public interest groups have been working to raise the alarm about potential groundwater contamination and possible chemical exposure.
Especially, in the United States, on Jun. 9, 2009, legislation was introduced in both houses of the United States Congress to amend section 1421(d) of the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 USC300h(d)). This legislation was introduced by Diana DeGette, D-Colo., Maurice Hinchey, D-N.Y., and Jared Polis, D-Colo., in the U.S. House of Representatives and by Sen. Bob Casey, D-Pa., and Sen. Chuck Schumer, D-N.Y., in the Senate. The House and Senate bills are both referred to as the “Fracturing Responsibility and Awareness of Chemicals (FRAC) Act”, and propose repealing the 2005 Energy Policy Act exemption of hydraulic fracturing from UIC regulation under the SDWA. As such, the bills would require disclosure to regulatory and emergency medical staff of the chemical constituents utilized in the hydraulic fracturing process.
Thus, there are unfulfilled needs for environmentally friendly treatment fluids in the hydraulic fracturing.
The present disclosure covers the use of a set of environmentally improved products to make a slickwater fluid which has no solvent, or hazardous material in it. The composition includes a friction reducer, a biocide, a scale inhibitor, and optionally a clay stabilizer.
At the outset, it should be noted that in the development of any such actual embodiment, numerous implementation-specific decisions must be made to achieve the developer's specific goals, such as compliance with system related and business related constraints, which will vary from one implementation to another. Moreover, it will be appreciated that such a development effort might be complex and time consuming but would nevertheless be a routine undertaking for those of ordinary skill in the art having the benefit of this disclosure. The description and examples are presented solely for the purpose of illustrating the embodiments of the invention and should not be construed as a limitation to the scope and applicability of the invention. While the compositions of the invention are described herein as comprising certain materials, it should be understood that the composition could optionally comprise two or more chemically different materials. In addition, the composition can also comprise some components other than the ones already cited.
In the summary of the invention and this description, each numerical value should be read once as modified by the term “about” (unless already expressly so modified), and then read again as not so modified unless otherwise indicated in context. Also, in the summary of the invention and this detailed description, it should be understood that a concentration range listed or described as being useful, suitable, or the like, is intended that any and every concentration within the range, including the end points, is to be considered as having been stated. For example, “a range of from 1 to 10” is to be read as indicating each and every possible number along the continuum between about 1 and about 10. Thus, even if specific data points within the range, or even no data points within the range, are explicitly identified or refer to only a few specific data points, it is to be understood that inventors appreciate and understand that any and all data points within the range are to be considered to have been specified, and that inventors have disclosed and enabled the entire range and all points within the range.
The following definitions are provided in order to aid those skilled in the art in understanding the detailed description of the invention.
The term “fracturing” refers to the process and methods of breaking down a geological formation and creating a fracture, i.e. the rock formation around a well bore, by pumping fluid at very high pressures, in order to increase production rates from a hydrocarbon reservoir. The fracturing methods otherwise use conventional techniques known in the art.
The term “surfactant” refers to a soluble or partially soluble compound that reduces the surface tension of liquids, or reduces inter-facial tension between two liquids, or a liquid and a solid by congregating and orienting itself at these interfaces.
In a first aspect, an environmentally improved slickwater fracturing fluid is disclosed. The composition comprises: a friction reducer, a biocide, and a scale inhibitor. If the fracturing treatment is being performed with flowback or produced water which already contains sufficient salts to prevent clay swelling, no clay stabilizer is needed. In a further aspect, the composition can comprise a clay stabilizer.
The friction reducer is a solution containing no solvent or surfactant (salt solution, or bi-phasic blend). The friction reducer may be tolerant to divalent ions giving high drag reduction in produced or flowback water. This allows for the use of the inorganic clay stabilizer
The biocide does not contain an inherent poison to mammals (hypochlorous acid or another oxidizer in solution). The biocide is benign and is safer to handle. This could include hypochlorous acid, or bromide solutions. It could also include a mixture of biocides and bacteria growth suppressor.
The scale inhibitor is a solid which is slow dissolving and preferably 100% active. This scale inhibitor will have very low toxicity to mammals or fish. It may be a phosphorous containing material or acrylic acid based.
The clay stabilizer is based on mono or divalent inorganic or organic ions in a liquid form with water.
In one embodiment, the friction reducer is polyacrylamide in salt solution. The friction reducer may be an acrylamide copolymer comprising 1 to 60 mole percent (2-acrylamido-2-hydroxy alkyl) lower trialkyl ammonium salt groups. In an embodiment, the lower trialkyl groups are methyls. The acrylamide copolymer has a molecular weight in the range of 1,000 to 20,000,000, preferably in the range of 5,000-10,000,000; and more preferably in the range of 100,000-5,000,000. The anion of the salt group may be selected from the group consisting of chlorine, bromine and methyl sulfate.
An example of chemistry may be commercial product sold by Nalco under the name ASP-900. The advantage of this product is that the polyacrylamide amps co-polymer is packaged in a salt solution rather than being an invert emulsion. Conventional friction reducers today are in the form of an invert emulsion. The emulsions polymer molecules are held in a water droplet surrounded by an oil continuous phase. Surfactants are added to these typical friction reducers to help the emulsion to invert quickly when the products are diluted in water.
Polyacrylamide in salt solution is environmentally friendly. It contains no solvent or surfactants. The current friction reducer has two advantages over dry polymer technology. First the concentration of polymer (and associated cost) is lower with this friction reducer solution. This leads to less potential polymer damage from the polyacrylamide friction reducer left in the fracture. The second advantage is that the friction reducer solution product is a liquid. It can be added and adjusted quickly and easily at the blender. Solid friction reducers always require more time to hydrate.
Also, polyacrylamine in salt solution allows for the use of an inorganic clay stabilizer.
Polyacrylamide in salt solution gives full drag reduction almost instantaneously in very high salinity brines (flowback and produced water). This occurs because the polymer does not have to invert. It merely expands in solution.
Polyacrylamide in salt solution is extremely efficient in divalent brines. This allows use with clay stabilizer. Emulsion type friction reducers would be slow to hydrate with the divalent ions of the clay stabilizer in the fluid.
Typical concentrations of friction reducer are 0.1 gpt to 1.5 gpt. The preferred range is 0.25 to 0.75 gpt.
In a second embodiment, the friction reducer is a bi-phase solution. In this case the friction reducer would still be an acrylamide AMP co-polymer to give divalent ion robustness, and the possible second phase in the blend could be a polymer such as guar. More details are explained in U.S. patent application number 2009-0023614, which is incorporated by reference herewith. Some embodiments are based upon two-phase polymer-polymer systems achievable with polymers of interest to the oilfield, e.g. viscosifiers, friction reducers, etc. Some examples of polymers include polymers that are either crosslinked or linear, or any combination thereof. Polymers include natural polymers, derivatives of natural polymers, synthetic polymers, biopolymers, and the like, or any mixtures thereof. An embodiment uses any friction-reducing polymer used in the oil industry to reduce friction pressure losses at high pumping rates, e.g. in slickwater systems. Some non-limiting examples of suitable polymers include: polysaccharides, such as, for example, guar gums, high-molecular weight polysaccharides composed of mannose and galactose sugars, including guar derivatives such as hydropropyl guar (HPG), carboxymethyl guar (CMG), and carboxymethylhydroxypropyl guar (CMHPG), and other polysaccharides such as xanthan, diutan, and scleroglucan; cellulose derivatives such as hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), carboxymethlyhydroxyethyl cellulose (CMHEC), and the like; synthetic polymers such as, but not limited to, acrylic and methacrylic acid, ester and amide polymers and copolymers, polyalkylene oxides such as polymers and copolymers of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol or oxide, and the like. The polymers are preferably water soluble.
In one embodiment, the biocide is hypochlorous acid solution made by electrochemical activation with a pH in the range of 3.5-8.5.
An example of chemistry may be commercial product sold by Benchmark under the name Excelyte™. This is an oxidizer chemical consisting of a dilute solution of hypochlorous acid. This product gives a very effective and rapid bacterial kill. It is non-persistent. It is much less toxic then typical biocides used in the oil industry such as gluteraldehyde or THPS. Typical concentrations in the fluid vary with the amount required. They probably range from 0.5 gpt to 75 gpt. The preferred range is 5 to 50 gpt of this solution.
Electrochemical activation (ECA) is a technology for generating meta-stable substances from water and compounds dissolved in it through electrochemical exposure the weak saline solution is altered temporarily to produce meta-stable solutions without the addition of chemical reagents. As a physical and chemical process, electrochemical activation is a combination of electrochemical and electrophysical influences on water containing ions and molecules of dissolved substances on the surface of the electrode (either anode or cathode) and in conditions of non-equilibrium transfer of a charge by electrons through the “electrode-electrolyte” ceramic membrane.
As a result of chemical activation, water becomes meta-stable (activated) for several hours, possessing increased reactivity which can be used in different physiochemical processes. Water activated at the cathode electrode (catholyte) demonstrates high electron activity and antioxidant properties. Correspondingly, water activated at the anode (anolyte) possesses low electron activity and oxidizing properties.
Electrochemical activation allows for an enhanced alteration of the dissolved gases, acidic, basic and oxidizing properties of water without the addition of chemical regulation, and to synthesize meta-stable chemicals (oxidants and anti-oxidants) from water and substances dissolved in it. The effect of water meta-stability from the ECA process is the basis for its use in conditioning, purification, and decontamination, as well as for transforming water, or diluted electrolyte solutions, into environmentally friendly, anti-microbial, detergent, extractive and other solutions which may be synthesized on-site by special ECA devices.
ECA uses 0.001-1.0% saline solutions, or ordinary tap water, to generate environmentally friendly, highly active solutions of oxidizing anolyte and/or anti-oxidizing catholyte solutions. Anolyte oxidizing solutions have a pH range of 3.5-8.5 and an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of +600 to +1200 mV. The anolyte is the biocide, at concentrations as low as one ppm to free available chlorine (FAC). Anolyte can be generated on-site for the treatment of small to extremely large volumes of water which may be injected, produced or stored during oil and gas field operations. Almost all bacteria, or biological species that occur as contaminants in petroleum field or facility operations, can be destroyed or controlled with a relatively low FAC concentration. Competitively priced anolyte solutions may be produced at the site on a mobile unit, or transported to the work site in bulk after being produced at a central generation facility. The pH of produced solutions may be regulated without the need for acid or caustic buffers, descalers and corrosion inhibitors.
In one embodiment, the scale inhibitor is calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphate or a mixture thereof in frit or glassified material.
An example of chemistry may be commercial product sold by Nalco under the name ASP529. The scale inhibitor used in this package is a dry granular product. This product has the advantage that it is pumped and handled as a solid in the fracturing application. It then slowly dissolves releasing scale inhibitor into the flowback. This product has no solvents or surfactants in it. This is an advantage over liquid scale inhibitors. In the slickwater shale fracturing applications there is very little reservoir water produced. Therefore the concentration of solid scale inhibitor is such to treat scale in the fracturing fluid water as it flows back. Typical concentration of the solid scale inhibitor is 0.05 to 1 ppt. The preferred concentration is 0.1 to 0.5 ppt.
In one embodiment, the clay stabilizer is a salt such as potassium chloride, choline chloride or sodium chloride in water. In a second embodiment, the clay stabilizer is a mixture of salts made of potassium chloride, sodium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride in water.
It is a mixture of salts for temporary clay stabilization and comes in liquid form. Therefore it is preferred for the high addition rates needed in slickwater fracturing. It also has the advantage of being on a liquid form, and does not require the operational step of mixing dry salt into a liquid concentrate, or into water tanks prior to use on the treatment. The clay stabilizer in this fluid also has the advantage of being less toxic that typical amine based liquid clay stabilizers such as TMAC. Typical concentrations of clay stabilizer are 2 gpt.
In some embodiment, the composition may further include a surfactant. In other embodiment, the composition does not include a surfactant.
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|36||Stimulation of Water Injection Wells in the Los Angeles Basin by Using Sodium Hypochlorite and Mineral Acids—Clementz, D.M., Patterson, D.E., Aseltine, R.J., Young, R.E. Sep. 1982, Journal of Petroleum Technology, pp. 2087-2096.|
|37||Synergistic Inhibition of Microbial Sulfide Production by Combinations of the Metabolic Inhibitor Nitrite and Biocides. Greene, E.A., Brunelle, V., Jenneman, G.E., Voordouw, G. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Dec. 2006, pp. 7897-7901. vol. 72, No. 12. American Society for Microbiology.|
|38||The Effect of Alkalinity on the Use of Hypochlorites-Rideal, E. and Evans, U.R.-Review Journal Society Chemical Industry V40, 1920, pp. 64R-66R. 1921.|
|39||The Effect of Alkalinity on the Use of Hypochlorites—Rideal, E. and Evans, U.R.—Review Journal Society Chemical Industry V40, 1920, pp. 64R-66R. 1921.|
|40||The Use of Chlorine Dioxide in a Late Life Waterflood-Sacco, F.J.-American Chemical Society. Division of Petroleum Chemistry 29:22, 605-606, American Chemical Society, 1984.|
|41||The Use of Chlorine Dioxide in a Late Life Waterflood—Sacco, F.J.—American Chemical Society. Division of Petroleum Chemistry 29:22, 605-606, American Chemical Society, 1984.|
|42||The Use of Hypochiorous Acid Generated by Electrolysis for the Treatment of Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms on Meat Products. Veasey, S.R. And Muriana, P.M. (downloaded Sep. 27, 2010 from: www.ansi.okstate.edu/research/2007rr/veasey-007.pdf) 2007 Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station.|
|43||The Use of Hypochiorous Acid Generated by Electrolysis for the Treatment of Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms on Meat Products. Veasey, S.R. And Muriana, P.M. (downloaded Sep. 27, 2010 from: www.ansi.okstate.edu/research/2007rr/veasey—007.pdf) 2007 Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station.|
|44||Use of Microbiocides in Barnett Shale Gas Well Fracturing Fluids to Control Bacteria Related Problems. Fichter, J. K., Johnson, K., French, K., and Oden, R. NACE International-Corrosion 2008 Conference & Expo.|
|45||Use of Microbiocides in Barnett Shale Gas Well Fracturing Fluids to Control Bacteria Related Problems. Fichter, J. K., Johnson, K., French, K., and Oden, R. NACE International—Corrosion 2008 Conference & Expo.|
|U.S. Classification||507/225, 507/269, 166/308.1, 507/920, 507/235, 166/305.1, 166/308.2, 507/922|
|International Classification||C09K8/588, E21B43/26, C02F5/14|
|Cooperative Classification||C09K8/605, C09K2208/28, C09K8/602, C09K8/88, C09K8/68, C09K8/882, Y10S507/922, Y10S507/92|
|European Classification||C09K8/68, C09K8/88, C09K8/60G, C09K8/60H, C09K8/88A|
|Oct 15, 2010||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SCHLUMBERGER TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION, TEXAS
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|Dec 16, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
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