Publication number | US8213607 B2 |

Publication type | Grant |

Application number | US 11/550,779 |

Publication date | Jul 3, 2012 |

Filing date | Oct 18, 2006 |

Priority date | Oct 18, 2006 |

Fee status | Lapsed |

Also published as | US20080095370, WO2008049046A2, WO2008049046A3 |

Publication number | 11550779, 550779, US 8213607 B2, US 8213607B2, US-B2-8213607, US8213607 B2, US8213607B2 |

Inventors | Gregory G. Rose, Philip M. Hawkes |

Original Assignee | Qualcomm Incorporated |

Export Citation | BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan |

Patent Citations (15), Non-Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (6), Classifications (13), Legal Events (4) | |

External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet | |

US 8213607 B2

Abstract

A stream stretcher is provided for securely expanding a key stream to match the length of a data block to be encrypted and/or decrypted. A key stream is obtained having a length of L_{Z }bits. A length L_{D }corresponding to a data block to be encrypted/decrypted is obtained, where L_{D}>L_{Z}. L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits are recursively generated by combining at least two bits of the key stream. The L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits are appended to the key stream to generate a stretched key stream. The data block may then be encrypted/decrypted with the stretched key stream. The at least two bits are selected to have offsets that form a full positive difference set.

Claims(34)

1. A method for stretching a key stream, comprising:

obtaining a key stream having a length of L_{Z }bits by a hardware stream stretcher, where L_{Z }is a positive integer;

obtaining a length L_{D }corresponding to a data block by the hardware stream stretcher, where L_{D }is a positive integer and L_{D}>L_{Z};

generating L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream by the hardware stream stretcher;

appending the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits to the key stream by the hardware stream stretcher to generate a stretched key stream; and

encrypting the data block with the stretched key stream,

wherein generating L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream includes

obtaining a first offset O**1** such that 0<O**1**<L_{Z}; and

generating the new bits such that a new bit S_{k}=Z_{i}⊕Z_{(i+O1) mod Lz}, where L_{Z}≦k<2L_{Z}, 0≦i<L_{Z}, Z_{i }represents a bit in the key stream and S_{k }represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

2. The method of claim 1 wherein the data block includes compressed data.

3. The method of claim 1 wherein appending the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits to the key stream includes interleaving the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits into the key stream.

4. The method of claim 1 further comprising:

repeating the obtaining, generating, and appending functions with another data block to generate another stretched key stream; and

decrypting another data block with the another stretched key stream.

5. The method of claim 1 further comprising:

generating the key stream of length L_{Z }such that L_{Z}≧L_{D}+L_{K}−H(P), where H(P) is an entropy value of the data block, and L_{K }is the length of an initialization key for generating the key stream.

6. The method of claim 1 further comprising:

determining whether length L_{Z }is greater than length L_{D}.

7. The method of claim 1 wherein the first L_{Z }bits of the stretched key stream are copied from the key stream such that S_{i}=Z_{i}, where 0≦i<L_{Z}, where Z_{i }represents a bit in the key stream and S_{i }represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

8. The method of claim 1 further comprising:

obtaining a second offset O**2** such that 0<O**2**<L_{Z }such that O**1**≠O**2**; and

generating the new bits such that a new bit S_{g}=Z_{i}⊕Z_{(i+O1) mod Lz}, where 2L_{Z}≦g <3L_{Z}, and 0≦i<L_{Z}.

9. The method of claim 8 wherein the offsets are selected such that the first offset O**1** and second offset O**2** are part of a full positive difference set.

10. The method of claim 1 wherein generating L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream includes

obtaining the first offset O**1** and a second offset O**2** such that O**1**≠O**2**, 0<O**1**<L_{Z }and 0<O**2**<L_{Z}; and

generating the new bits such that a new bit S_{k}=Z_{i}⊕Z_{(i+O1) mod Lz}⊕Z_{(i+O2) mod Lz}, where L_{Z}≦k<2L_{Z}, 0≦i<L_{Z}, Z_{i }represents a bit in the key stream and S_{k }represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

11. The method of claim 10 further comprising:

obtaining a third offset O**3** and a fourth offset O**4** such that O**3**≠O**4**, 0<O**3**<L_{Z }and 0<O**4**<L_{Z}; and

generating the new bits such that a new bit S_{g}=Z_{i}⊕Z_{(i+O2) mod Lz}⊕Z_{(i+O4) mod Lz}, where 2L_{Z≦g<}3L_{Z}, and 0≦i<L_{Z}.

12. The method of claim 11 wherein the offsets are selected such that the pair-wise differences between any two offsets are distinct.

13. The method of claim 10 further comprising

obtaining a plurality of different offsets between 0 and L_{Z}; and

generating other new bits based on one or more bits in the key stream identified by one or more of the plurality of offsets; and

appending the other new bits to the key stream.

14. The method claim 1 wherein generating L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream includes

obtaining the first offset O**1** and a second offset O**2** such that O**1**≠O**2**, 0<O**1**<L_{Z }and 0<O**2**<L_{Z}; and

generating the new bits such that a new bit S_{k+Lz}=S_{k}⊕S_{k+O1}⊕S_{k+O2}, where 0≦k<L_{D}−L_{Z}, where L_{Z}≦k<2L_{Z}, 0≦i<L_{Z}, and S_{k+Lz }represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

15. The method claim 1 wherein generating L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream includes

combining at least two different segments of the key stream to generate multiple new bits in one operation.

16. A hardware device comprising:

a hardware stream cipher generator configured to generate a key stream of length L_{Z}, where L_{Z }is a positive integer; and

a hardware stream stretcher coupled to the stream cipher generator, the stream stretcher configured to obtain the key stream,

obtain a length L_{D }corresponding to a data block, where L_{D }is a positive integer and L_{D}>L_{Z},

generate L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream, append the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits to the key stream to generate a stretched key stream, and

an encryption device configured to receive the stretched key stream and combine it with the data block to encrypt data in the data block, wherein the hardware stream stretcher is further configured to obtain a first offset O**1** such that 0<O**1**<L_{Z}; and

generate the new bits such that a new bit S_{k}=Z_{i⊕Z} _{(i+01) mod Lz}, where L_{Z}≦k<2L_{Z}, 0≦i<L_{Z}, Z_{i }represents a bit in the key stream and S_{k }represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

17. The device of claim 16 further comprising:

a decryption device configured to receive the stretched key stream and combine it with the data block to decrypt data in the data block.

18. The device of claim 16 wherein the stream cipher generator generates the key stream of length L_{Z }such that L_{Z}≧L_{D}+L_{K}−H(P), where H(P) is an entropy value of the data block, and L_{K }is the length of an initialization key for the stream cipher generator.

19. The device of claim 16 wherein the stream stretcher is configured to

copy the key stream into the stretched key stream such that S_{i}=Z_{i}, where 0≦i<L_{Z}, where Z_{i}, represents a bit in the key stream and S_{i}, represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

20. The device of claim 16 wherein the stream stretcher is configured to

obtain a first offset O**1** and a second offset O**2** such that O**1**≠O**2**, 0<O**1**<L_{Z }and 0<O**2**<L_{Z}; and

generate the new bits such that a new bit S_{k}=Z_{i}⊕Z_{(i+01) mod Lz}⊕Z_{(i+02) mod Lz}, where L_{Z}≦k<2L_{Z}, 0≦i<L_{Z}, Z_{i }represents a bit in the key stream and S_{k }represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

21. The device of claim 16 wherein the stream stretcher is configured to

obtain a first offset O**1** and a second offset O**2** such that O**1**≠O**2**, 0<O**1**<L_{Z }and 0<O**2**<L_{Z}; and

generate the new bits such that a new bit S_{k+Lz}=S_{k}⊕S_{k+01}⊕S_{k+02}, where 0≦k<L_{D}−L_{Z}, where L_{Z}≦k<2L_{Z}, 0≦i<L_{Z}, and S_{k+Lz }represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

22. The device of claim 16 wherein combining at least two bits of the key stream, the stream stretcher is configured to

obtain the at least two bits of the key stream so that their distance to each other are part of a full positive difference set.

23. The device of claim 16 wherein appending the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits to the key stream includes interleaving the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits into the key stream.

24. A hardware device comprising:

hardware means for obtaining a key stream of length L_{Z}, where L_{Z }is a positive integer;

hardware means for obtaining a length L_{D }corresponding to a data block, where L_{D }is a positive integer and L_{D}>L_{Z};

hardware means for generating L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream;

hardware means for appending the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits to the key stream to generate a stretched key stream; and

means for encrypting the data block with the stretched key stream, wherein

the hardware means for generating L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream includes:

hardware means for obtaining a first offset O**1** such that 0<O**1**<L_{Z}; and

hardware means for generating the new bits such that a new bit S_{k}=Z_{i}⊕Z_{(i+O1) mod LZ}, where L_{Z}≦k<2L_{Z}, 0≦i<L_{Z}, Z_{i }represents a bit in the key stream and S_{k }represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

25. The device of claim 24 further comprising:

means for decrypting the data block with the stretched key stream.

26. The device of claim 24 wherein length L_{Z}≧L_{D}+L_{K}−H(P), where H(P) is an entropy value of the data block, and L_{K }is the length of an initialization key for generating the key stream.

27. The device of claim 24 further comprising:

means for obtaining the at least two bits of the key stream so that their distance to each other is part of a full positive difference set.

28. A non-transitory machine-readable medium having tangibly stored thereon one or more instructions for stretching a key stream, which when executed by a processor causes the processor to:

obtain the key stream having a length of L_{Z},

obtain a length L_{D }corresponding to a data block, where L_{D }is a positive integer,

generate L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream,

append the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits to the key stream to generate a stretched key stream, and

encrypt the data block with the stretched key stream, the medium further having having tangibly stored thereon one or more instructions which when executed by the processor causes the processor to:

obtain a first offset O**1** such that 0<O**1**<L_{Z}; and

generate the new bits such that a new bit S_{k }is a function of Z_{i }and Z_{i+O1}, where L_{Z}≦k<2L_{Z}, 0≦i<L_{Z}, Z_{i }represents a bit in the key stream and S_{k }represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

29. The non-transitory machine-readable medium of claim 28 further having tangibly stored thereon one or more instructions which when executed by a processor causes the processor to:

decrypt the data block with the stretched key stream.

30. The non-transitory machine-readable medium of claim 28 further having tangibly stored thereon one or more instructions which when executed by a processor causes the processor to:

obtain a second offset O**2** such that 0<O**2**<L_{Z }and O**1**≠O**2**; and

generate the new bits such that a new bit S_{k }is a function of Z_{i}, Z_{i+O1}, and Z_{i+02 }where L_{Z}≦k<L_{D}, 0≦i<L_{D}, Z_{i }represents a bit in the key stream and S_{k }represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

31. The non-transitory machine-readable medium of claim 30 wherein the first offset O**1** and second offset O**2** are part of a full positive difference set.

32. A hardware processing device comprising

a hardware processing circuit configured to obtain the key stream having a length of L_{Z},

obtain a length L_{D }corresponding to a data block, where L_{D }is a positive integer and L_{D}>L_{Z},

generate L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream, append the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits to the key stream to generate a stretched key stream, and encrypt the data block with the stretched key stream, wherein the hardware processing circuit is further configured to obtain a first offset O**1** such that 0<O**1**<L_{Z}; and

generate the new bits such that a new bit S_{k}=Z_{i}⊕Z_{(i+O1) mod Lz}, where L_{Z}≦k<2L_{Z}, 0≦i<L_{Z}, Z_{i }represents a bit in the key stream and S_{k }represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

33. The processing device of claim 32 wherein the processing circuit is further configured to

obtain one or more offsets used to select the at least two bits of the key stream, the one or more offsets forming a full positive difference set.

34. The processing device of claim 32 wherein the processing circuit is further configured to

obtain a plurality of different offsets between 0 and L_{Z};

generate other new bits based on one or more bits in the key stream identified by one or more of the plurality of offsets; and

append the other new bits to the key stream.

Description

1. Field

Various embodiments pertain to digital data compression and particularly to a method for securely extending a key stream to encrypt high-entropy data.

2. Background

There are a number of applications that use very high data throughput and secure encryption. One example is Digital Cinema where a high-value content stream is encrypted at high speeds (e.g., hundreds of megabits per second). The encryption operation is expensive in terms of computation, hardware assistance, and/or processing resources. There are obvious advantages to reducing the operational cost of encryption. Many security implementations either accept the penalty of more expensive encryption or settle for using an inferior (i.e., less secure) encryption algorithm. For example, the expense of encryption can be reduced by computing a weaker encryption key, but this, risks exposes the encrypted information.

Stream cipher implementations are configured to generate a key stream with which a data stream is encrypted (e.g., each data bit is encrypted by a key stream bit). However, due to the hardware and/or processing costs of generating the key stream, the number of bits generated by the key stream during a period of time may be limited to N bits/second (e.g., 10 Kbits/second). Thus, the amount of data that can be securely encrypted in some encryption schemes is limited to N bits/second.

To increase the amount of data that can be encrypted during a period of time, or for other reasons, some applications may compress the data prior to encryption. Even with compression, the length of data to be encrypted in a particular time period may occasionally exceed the length of the key stream that can be generated. For example, time-sensitive applications, such as digital cinema, may generate a key stream at N bits/second (10 Kbits/second) and use it to synchronously encrypt up to N bits/second of compressed data. However, in some instances, the compressed data may exceed N bits/second. That is, the compression algorithm may not be able to compress certain data sufficiently. Since the compressed data length generated during a particular period of time exceeds the key stream length for the same period of time, the data cannot be securely encrypted.

Thus, a way is needed to securely and efficiently encrypt data that is longer than the generated key stream.

A method is provided for stretching a key stream. A key stream is obtained having a length of L_{Z }bits, where L_{Z }is a positive integer. A length L_{D }corresponding to a data block is also obtained, where L_{D }is a positive integer, L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits are recursively generated by combining at least two bits of the key stream. The L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits are then appended to the key stream to generate a stretched key stream. Appending the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits to the key stream may include interleaving the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits into the key stream. The first L_{Z }bits of the stretched key stream may be copied from the key stream such that S_{i}=Z_{i}, where 0≦i<L_{Z}, where Zx represents a bit in the key stream and Sx represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

The data block may be encrypted with the stretched key stream, wherein the data block includes compressed data. Man alternative implementation, the data block may be decrypted with the stretched key stream.

In one example, the key stream of length L_{Z }is generated such that L_{Z}≧L_{D}+L_{K}−H(P), where H(P) is an entropy value of the data block, and L_{K }is the length of an initialization key for generating the key stream. The method may include determining whether length L_{Z }is greater than length L_{D}.

In one example, generating L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream includes (1) obtaining a first offset O**1** such that 0<O**1**<L_{Z}; and/or (2) generating the new bits such that a new bit S_{k}=Z_{i }⊕ Z_{(i+O1) mod Lz}, where L_{Z}≦k<2L_{Z}, 0≦i<L_{Z}, Zx represents a bit in the key stream and Sx represents a bit in the stretched key stream. Additionally, a second offset O**2** maybe obtained such that 0<O**2**<L_{Z }such that O**1**≠O**2**. The new bits are then generated such that a new bit S_{g}=Z_{i }⊕ Z_{(i+O1) mod Lz}, where 2L_{Z}≦g<3L_{Z}, and 0≦i<L_{Z}. The offsets may be selected such that the first offset O**1** and second offset O**2** are part of a full positive difference set

In another example, generating L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream includes (1) obtaining a first offset O**1** and a second offset O**2** such that O**1**≠O**2**, 0<O**1**<L_{Z }and 0<O**2**<L_{Z}; and/or (2) generating die new bits such that a new bit S_{k}=Z_{i }⊕ Z_{(i+O1) mod Lz }⊕ Z_{(i+O2) mod Lz}, where L_{Z}≦k<2L_{Z}, 0≦i<L_{Z}, Zx represents a bit in the key stream and Sx represents a bit in the stretched key stream. This method may further include (3) obtaining a third offset O**3** and a fourth offset O**4** such that O**3**≠O**4**, 0<O**3**<L_{Z }and 0<O**4**< L_{Z}; and/or (4) generating the new bits such that anew bit S_{g}=Z_{i }⊕ Z_{(i+O2) mod Lz }⊕ Z_{(i+O4) mod Lz}, where 2L_{Z}≦g<3L_{Z}, and 0≦i<L_{Z}. The offsets may be selected such that the pair-wise differences between any two offsets are distinct,

In yet another example, a plurality of different offsets is obtained between 0 and L_{Z}. The new bits are generated based on one or more bits in the key stream identified by one or more of the plurality of offsets. The new bits are then appended to the key stream.

In another example, generating L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream includes (1) obtaining a first offset O**1** and a second offset O**2** such that O**1**≠O**2**, 0<O**1**<L_{Z }and 0<O**2**<L_{Z}, and/or (2) generating the new bits such that a new bit S_{k+Lz}=S_{k }⊕ S_{k+O1}⊕ S_{k+O2}, where 0≦k=L_{D}−L_{Z}, where L_{Z}≦k<2L_{Z}, 0≦i<L_{Z}, Zx represents a bit in the key stream and Sx represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

In an alternative example, generating L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream includes combining at least two different segments of the key stream to generate multiple new bits in one operation.

A device is also provided comprising (1) a stream cipher generator configured to generate a key stream of length L_{Z}, where L_{Z }is a positive integer, and/or (2) a stream stretcher coupled to the stream cipher generator. The stream stretcher may be configured to,(a) obtain the key stream, (b) obtain a length L_{D }corresponding to a data block, where L_{D }is a positive integer, (c) generate L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream, and/or (d) append the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits to the key stream to generate a stretched key stream.

In one implementation, the device may also include an encryption device configured to receive the stretched key stream and combine it with the data block to encrypt data in the data block. In an alternative implementation the device may include a decryption device configured to receive the stretched key stream and combine it with the data block to decrypt data in the data block

The stream cipher generator may generate the key stream of length L_{Z }such that L_{Z}≧L_{D}+L_{K}−H(P), where H(P) is an entropy value of the data block, and L_{K }is the length of an initialization key for the stream cipher generator. The stream stretcher may also be configured to copy the key stream into the stretched key stream such that S_{i}=Z_{i}, where 0≦i<L_{Z}, where Zx represents a bit in the key stream and Sx represents a bit in the stretched key stream. In combining at least two bits of the key stream, the stream stretcher may be configured to obtain the at least two bits of the key stream so that their distance to each other are part of a full positive difference set Additionally, appending the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits to the key stream includes interleaving the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits into the key stream.

In one example, the stream stretcher maybe configured to (a) obtain a first offset O**1** such that 0<O**1**<L_{Z}; and/or (b) generate the new bits such that a new bit S_{k}=Z_{i }⊕ Z_{(i+O1) mod Lz}, where L_{Z}≦k<2L_{Z}, 0≦i<L_{Z}, Zx represents a bit in the key stream and Sx represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

In another example, the stream stretcher may be configured to (a) obtain a first offset O**1** and a second offset O**2** such that O**1**≠O**2**, 0<O**1**<L_{Z }and 0<O**2**<L_{Z}; and/or (b) generate the new bits such that a new bit S_{k}=Z_{i }⊕ Z_{(i+O1) mod Lz }⊕ Z_{(i+O2) mod Lz}, where L_{Z}≦k<2L_{Z}, 0≦i<L_{Z}, Z_{x }represents a bit in the key stream and S_{x }represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

In yet another example, the stream stretcher may be configured to (a) obtain a first offset O**1** and a second offset O**2** such that O**1**≠O**2**, 0<O**1**<L_{Z }and 0<O**2**< L_{Z}; and/or (b) generate the new bits such that anew bit S_{k+Lz}=S_{k }⊕ S_{k+O1}⊕ S_{k+O2}, where 0≦k<L_{D}−L_{Z}, where L_{Z}≦k<2L_{Z}, 0≦i<L_{Z}, Z_{x }represents a bit in the key stream and S_{x }represents a bit in the stretched key stream.

Yet another device is provided comprising: (a) means for obtaining a key stream of length L_{Z}, where L_{Z }is a positive integer; (b) means for obtaining a length L_{D }corresponding to a data block, where L_{D }is a positive integer; (c) means for generating L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream; and/or (d) means for appending the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits to the key stream to generate a stretched key stream. Additionally, the device may include means for encrypting the data block with the stretched key stream. Alternatively, the device may include means for decrypting the data block with the stretched key stream. Length L_{Z }is such that L_{Z}≦L_{D}+L_{K}−H(P), where H(P) is an entropy value of the data block, and L_{K }is the length of an initialization key for generating the key stream.

A machine-readable medium is also provided having one or more instructions for stretching a key stream, which when executed by a processor causes the processor to: (1) obtain the key stream having a length of L_{Z}, (2) obtain a length L_{D }corresponding to a data block, where L_{D }is a positive integer, (3) generate L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream, and/or (4) append the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits to die key stream to generate a stretched key stream.

The machine-readable medium may further include one or more instructions which when executed by a processor causes the processor to encrypt or decrypt the data block with the stretched key stream. One or more instructions may also the processor to: (1) obtain a first offset: O**1** such that 0<O**1**<L_{Z}; (2) generate the new bits such that a new bit S_{k }is a function of Z_{i }and Z_{i+O1}, where L_{Z}≦k<1L_{Z}, 0≦i<L_{Z}, Zx represents a bit in the key stream and Sx represents a bit in the stretched key stream; (3) obtain a second offset O**2** such that 0<O**2**<L_{Z }and O**1**≠O**2**; and/or (4) generate the new bits such that a new bit S_{k }is a function of Z_{i}, Z_{i+O1}, and Z_{i+O2 }where L_{Z}≦k<L_{D}, 0≦i<L_{D}, Zx represents a bit in the key stream and Sx represents a bit in the stretched key stream. The first offset O**1** and second offset O**2** may be part of a full positive difference set.

A processing device is also provided, comprising a processing circuit configured to (1) obtain the key stream having a length of L_{Z}, (2) obtain a length L_{D }corresponding to a data block, where L_{D }is a positive integer, (3) generate L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream, and/or (4) append the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits to the key stream to generate a stretched key stream. The processing circuit may be further configured to obtain one or more offsets used to select the at least two bits of the key stream, the one or more offsets forming a full positive difference set.

The processing circuit may also be further configured to (1) obtain a plurality of different offsets between 0 and L_{Z}, (2) generate other new bits based on one or more bits in the key stream identified by one or more of the plurality of offsets; and/or (3) append the other new bits to the key stream.

In the following description, specific details are given to provide a thorough understanding of the embodiments. However, it will be understood by one of ordinary skill in the art that the embodiments may be practiced without these specific details. For example, circuits may not be shown in block diagrams in order not to obscure the embodiments in unnecessary detail.

Also, it is noted that, the embodiments maybe described as a process that is depicted as a flowchart, a flow diagram, a structure diagram, or a block diagram. Although a flowchart may describe the operations as a sequential process, many of the operations can be performed in parallel or concurrently. In addition, the order of the operations may be re-arranged. A process is terminated when its operations are completed. A process may correspond to a method, a function, a procedure, a subroutine, a subprogram, etc. When a process corresponds to a function, its termination corresponds to a return of the function to the calling function or the main function.

Moreover, a storage medium may represent one or more devices for storing data, including read-only memory (ROM), random access memory (RAM), magnetic disk storage mediums, optical storage mediums, flash memory devices, and/or other machine readable mediums for storing information. The term “machine readable medium” includes, but is not limited to portable or fixed storage devices, optical storage devices, wireless channels, and various other mediums capable of storing, containing or carrying instruction(s) and/or data.

Furthermore, embodiments may be implemented by hardware, software, firmware, middleware, microcode, or a combination thereof. When implemented in software, firmware, middleware, or microcode, the program code or code segments to perform the necessary tasks may be stored in a machine-readable medium such as a storage medium or other storage means. A processor may perform the necessary tasks. A code segment may represent a procedure, a function, a subprogram, a program, a routine, a subroutine, a module, a software package, a class, or a combination of instructions, data structures, or program statements. A code segment may be coupled to another code segment or a hardware circuit by passing and/or receiving information, data, arguments, parameters, or memory contents. Information, arguments, parameters, data, and the like, may be passed, forwarded, or transmitted via a suitable means including memory sharing, message passing, token passing, and network transmission, among others.

One feature stretches a key stream by inserting or appending bits to the key stream to obtain a key stream sufficiently long to securely encrypt a data stream. This method allows the data to be encrypted by expanding the output of a secure stream cipher.

Another feature provides an algorithm that generates new bits to be inserted into a key stream based certain bits already in the key stream.

In digital cinema, video frames may have a variable length. A frame may be compressed prior to being encrypted, by an encryption key stream for transmission and/or storage. In some instances, the compressed frame may exceed the length of the generated key stream. To securely encrypt the video frame, the key stream is stretched to obtain a cipher block of sufficient length (i.e., at least as long as the compressed video frame).

**102** is fed to a stream cipher generator **104** to generate a computationally secure pseudorandom key stream cipher Zi **106** at a maximum rate of N bits/second, where M is a positive number. Plaintext data Pi **112** to be encrypted is generated at a greater rate of M bits/second, where M>N. That is, the length L_{D }of plaintext data Pi **112** is greater than the length L_{Z }of the generated, key stream cipher Zi **106** for a particular time period. Thus, key stream cipher Zi **106** cannot securely encrypt data Pi **112**.

Typically, a data stream to be encrypted is broken into data blocks, each data block being of fixed or Variable length up to L_{D }bits long. Ideally, a stream cipher is used to generate a key stream having a length of L_{D }bits (i.e., the key stream cipher is the same length as the data block to be encrypted). Assuming that the stream cipher is secure and has an initialization key K of length L_{K }knowing some of the bits of the key stream does not reveal any of the other bits. That is, without knowing the initialization key K, the key stream cipher appears to have maximum entropy L_{D }and appears random, although in reality its entropy is only L_{k}. The most effective way to break this encryption is by brute force attack, i.e., enumerating the possible keys. However, a brute force attack assumes that the data, when decrypted using a trial key, can be recognized as being correct. If the data being decrypted was completely random (in which case the entropy H(P)=L_{D}) the attack will, fail, because it will not be possible to determine just which decryption result is correct. One disadvantage of generating a key stream cipher L_{D }bits long is that it takes significant processing resources to generate the key stream cipher.

Instead of generating a key stream cipher L_{D }bits long, one feature provides for generating a key stream cipher **106** L_{Z }bits long (where L_{Z}<L_{D}) and then using stream stretcher **108** to expand the key stream cipher Z_{i } **106** into a stretched key stream S_{i } **110** L_{D }bits long. Thus, the stream cipher generator **104** generates a smaller key stream cipher Z_{i } **106**, of length L_{Z }bits, which is then expanded to generate stretched key stream S_{i } **110**, of length L_{D }bits, to be used for encryption of plaintext data Pi **112**,

A characteristic of many applications, such as digital cinema, is that the data to be encrypted is highly compressed, and consequently has a high entropy rate. The high entropy rate of the data allows this method to be secure up to limits determined by the entropy rate and the key length of the stream cipher.

Of course, in practice, even heavily compressed data may still contain redundancy. The redundancy is simply R=L_{D}−H(P). The amount of entropy left when some of the data is known is often called the equivocation, and is similarly measured in bits. The entropy rate is the ratio of the entropy of the data to the length in bits, that is H(P)/L_{D}.

Thus, stream stretcher **108** is configured to effectively and efficiently mix key stream Z_{i } **106** bits in generating stretched stream S_{i } **110**. If the mixing and stretching function of stream stretcher **108** is good enough, a high entropy rate in the plaintext data Pi **112** effectively protects the-stretching function used by stream stretcher **108**. So long as the combined entropy of the plaintext data Pi **112** and stretched key stream Si **110** is significantly greater than the length L_{D }of the data block, it will not be possible to break the stretched key stream Si **110** to recover the plaintext data Pi **112**. “Significantly greater” means that the combined effective entropy of the stretched key stream Si **110** and the plaintext data Pi **112** should exceed the data block length L_{D }by at least fee length L_{K }of the stream cipher's initialization key K **102**, then the most effective attack will still be the brute force attack against the stream cipher itself. Restated mathematically, a good stretching function for stream stretcher **108** is secure if:

*H*(*P*)+*L* _{Z} *≧L* _{D} *+L* _{K } (Equation 1) or

*L* _{Z} *≧L* _{D} *+L* _{K} *−H*(*P*) (Equation 2),

If the entropy rate of the plaintext data Pi **112** is low, an attack may become possible, because relationships (i.e., redundancy) between bits of the plaintext data Pi **112** may reveal bits of the stretched key stream Si **110**. That is, a simple relationship between bits in stretched key stream Si **110** would allow recovery of all of the key stream Si **110**, and hence of all of the plaintext data Pi **112**. Moreover, if the stretching performed by stream stretcher **108** is too simple, it might be possible for some subset of the plaintext data Pi **112** bits to be used to derive some subset of the stretched key stream Si **110** bits, partially breaking the encryption. In the above description, the entropy rate was assumed to be evenly distributed among the bits of the plaintext data block, but in reality this is rarely the case. For example, compression of audio data using discrete cosine transformation leaves some bits, i.e., the most significant bits of the coefficients, relatively more predictable than others.

Stream stretcher **108** takes the key stream cipher Zi **106** and outputs a stretched stream Si **110** of length M, where M is greater than the key stream Zi length N. The stretched key stream Si **110** is then used to encrypt **114** the data Pi **112** by using some simple and reversible operation to generate and output encrypted data Ci **116**. For example, a XOR operation may be used to encrypt the plaintext data Pi **112** on a bit-by-bit basis such that ciphertext C_{i } **116** is generated by C_{i}=P_{1 }⊕ S_{i}.

Rather than using an easily decipherable pattern (e.g., 00000 or 0101 or 1111) to pad or stretch the key stream cipher Zi **106**, the bits in key stream Zi **106** are combined to generate new bits to stretch the key stream Zi **106** and thereby form stretched key stream Si **110**.

In one implementation, the criteria for a good stretching function include: (1) it efficiently utilizes processing resources to stretch the key stream (e.g., the stretching algorithm is relatively fast and utilizing minimal processing resources), and (2) it mixes input bits well (e.g., so that does not allow the plaintext data encrypted therewith to be easily cracked). The stream stretcher **108** may generate a secure stream cipher (e.g., stretched stream cipher Si **110**) by using nonlinear operations. However it is quite possible to meet these criteria with only linear operations, thereby avoiding the comparatively processor intensive nonlinear operations. For example, turbo codes or general linear coding (e.g., multiplying the Z_{i }vector with a binary L_{Z}×L_{D }matrix, where L_{Z }is the length of the key stream cipher and L_{D }is the length data stream) chosen to mix input bits well to yield the stretched key stream S_{i }would be satisfactory solutions.

A more efficient solution is provided In which each bit of stretched key stream Si **110** bits depends on at least two (2) bits of (unstretched) key stream Zi **106**, thereby providing good mixing of bits in stretched key stream Si **110**. This solution ensures that knowledge of a particular bit of plaintext data Pi **112** does not, by Itself, reveal useful information about other bits of the plaintext data Pi **112**, or of stretched key stream Si **110**.

In various Implementations, the functions illustrated by the block diagram in

_{Z }bits **200**. This key stream Z may be obtained from a stream cipher that generates L_{Z }bits within relevant period of time. The length L_{Z }may be chosen based on an expected amount of entropy in the data to be encrypted so as to guarantee the security of the encrypted data. A length L_{D }of a data block to be encrypted is also obtained **202**. A comparison is made to determine whether L_{Z}<L_{D } **204**. If L_{Z}≧L_{D}, the data block is simply encrypted with key stream Z **206** (e.g., XORing one bit from the data block with a corresponding bit in the key stream Z).

Otherwise, if L_{Z}<L_{D}, then L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits are recursively generated by combining at least two bits Of the key stream Z **208**. The L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits are appended to or interleaved into the key stream Z to generate a stretched key stream S **210**. That is, the new bits maybe (1) appended to the beginning or end of the key stream, (2) inserted, between the beginning and end of the key stream, and/or (3) interleaved evenly or unevenly (e.g., sporadically, randomly, or pseudo-randomly) among the bits of the key stream. “Recursively” means that a new bit is generated based on two or more preceding bits of the key stream Z and/or stretched key stream S. The data block may then be encrypted with the stretched key stream S **212**.

This method may also be implemented by obtaining a plurality of different offsets between 0 and L_{Z}. These offsets are associated with particular bits in the key stream. New bits are generated based on one or more of the plurality of offsets. That is, the bits in the key stream associated with the one or more of the plurality of offsets are used to generate the new bits. The new bits are then appended to the key stream.

**4**, and **5** illustrate just a few of the ways in which the new bits may be generated to securely stretch a key stream.

**302** of pseudorandom values is generated. The key stream Z **302** is L_{Z }bits long for a given time period. The first L_{Z }bits of stretched key stream Z **304** are copied from key stream S **304** directly (i.e. S_{i}=Z_{i}, for 0≦i<L_{Z}).

If more bits are needed to securely encrypt a data stream (e.g., the data stream is L_{D }bits long, where L_{D}>L_{Z}), a first offset O**1** is selected between two bits (e.g., Z_{0 }and Z_{1}), where 1<O**1**<L_{Z}. Two bits that are offset by O**1** bits from each other are combined to generate up to L_{Z }new bits for stretched key stream S **304**. For example, where O**1** is selected to be one bit long, a first new bit S_{Lz }is generated by combining key stream bits Z_{0 }and Z**1**, e.g., by a XOR operation. Similarly, a second new bit S_{Lz+1 }is generated by combining key stream bits Z_{1 }and Z_{2}. Thus, for each new bit generated, a different pair of key stream Z **302** bits are used having an offset O**1**. Thus, new bits are added to stretched key stream S such that S_{k}=Z_{i }⊕ Z_{(i+O1) mod Lz}, where L_{Z}≦k<2L_{Z }and 0≦i<L_{Z}. Note that if insufficient bits are available in key stream Z to generate new bits for the stretched key stream, one implementation utilizes some of the newly generated bits instead. For example, new stretched key stream bit S_{2Lz−1 }may be generated from Z_{Lz−1 }and S_{Lz}, where Z_{Lz−1 }and S_{Lz }are offset by O**1** bits and S_{Lz }is a newly generated bit.

If more than an additional L_{Z }bits are needed, a second offset O_{2 }bits long is selected, where offset O**2** is distinct from offset O**1**. This second offset O**2** is used similar to offset O**1** to generate tip to L_{Z }new bits for stretched key stream S. For example, if offset O**2** is selected to be five bits, then S_{2Lz }is generated by combining Z_{0 }and Z_{3 }and S_{2Lz+1 }is generated by combining Z_{1 }and Z_{4}. Thus, for each new bit generated, a different pair of key stream Z **302** bits is used having an offset O**2**.

Consequently, the stretched key stream S is represented as

S_{i}=Z_{i}, where 0≦i<L_{Z }

*S* _{k} *=Z* _{i } *⊕ Z* _{(i+O1)mod }where *L* _{Z} *≦k<*2*L* _{Z }and 0≦*i<L* _{Z }

*S* _{j} *=Z* _{i } *⊕ Z* _{(i+O2)mod Lz}, where 2*L* _{Z} *≦j<*3*L* _{Z }and 0≦*i<L* _{Z}.

New bits are added to stretched key stream S until the stretched key stream S is L_{D }bits long (i.e., the length of the data stream to be encrypted). If additional bits needed, then additional offsets O_{i }are selected with which to generate new bits to add to stretched key stream S.

As an example of the adequacy of such key stream stretching, consider a data block P having length L_{D}, 800≦L_{D}≦1200 bits, and an entropy rate of 80%. A key stream cipher Z has an initialization key K of length L_{K}=128 bits. Assume the largest possible input data block Is L_{D}=1200 bits long and a data block entropy H(P)=75% for safety since the entropy rate is not actually constant over varying data. Thus, entropy H(P)=0.75×1200 bits=900 bits. Using Equation 2 above, the adequate key stream cipher length L_{Z }is given as L_{Z}≧L_{D}+L_{K}−H(P). Thus, key stream length L_{Z}≧1200+128−900=428 bits. Thus, in this example, a key stream cipher of length L_{Z}=428 bits would ensure that security of the encrypted data block P. Assuming that the key stretching operation is significantly faster than the stream cipher generator (e.g., key stream generator), an efficiency gain of approximately 50% is achieved. That is, by taking into account the entropy H(P) of the data block, a shorter length L_{Z }key stream cipher may be generated and subsequently stretched to a data block length L_{D}.

Now, consider a scenario where L_{D}=500, O_{1}=1, and O_{2}=2. The stretched key stream bits S_{i}, where i ∈ {0, 1, 2, 500, 501, 1000}, all depend only on the first three bits (i.e., S_{0}, S_{1}, S_{2}) of the stream key Z. Thus, knowing any three of the corresponding plaintext bits would reveals all three of the others. This is because, in this example, offset O_{2 }is a small multiple of offset O_{1}.

One solution to this problem is to select offsets O that are distinct and each offset O generates the group modulo L_{Z }under addition (otherwise the bits can be separated into independent equivalence classes, which might lead to a divide-and-conquer attack). That is, the offsets O are selected so that they form a Full Positive Difference Set or Golomb Ruler. That is, that the pair-wise differences between any two offsets (counting 0 as offset O_{0}) are all distinct. The offsets O ate selected such that no two pairs of offsets are the same distance apart. The largest distance between two offsets is its length.

However, this offset selection scheme still has some weaknesses in that once a few bits become known, each bit that subsequently becomes, known and Is related to a bit already known allows yet another bit to be derived (i.e., become known). The reason for this weakness is that only two bits of the key stream are used to derive anew bit.

A key stream Z **402** L_{Z }bits long is generated. The first L_{Z }bits of key stream S **402** are copied as the first L_{Z }bits of stretched key streams **404**. A pair of offsets O**1** and O**2** is selected with which to generate up to L_{Z }new bits according to S_{i}=Z_{i }⊕ Z_{(i+O1)mod Lz}⊕ Z_{(i+O2)mod Lz}, where L_{Z}≦i<2L_{Z}. For example, for offset O**1**=1 and O**2**=3, bit S_{Lz}=Z_{0 }⊕ Z_{1 }⊕ Z_{3 }and bit S_{Lz+1}=Z_{1 }⊕Z_{2}α Z_{4}. Similarly, if an additional L_{Z }bits are needed, they may be generated based oil a second pair of offsets O**3** and O**4** such that new bit S_{i}=Z_{i }⊕ Z_{(i+O3)mod Lz}⊕ Z_{(i+O4)mod Lz}, where 2L_{Z}≦i<3L_{Z}. For example, for offset O**3**=7 and O**4**=12, bit S_{2Lz}=Z_{0 }⊕ Z_{12 }and S_{2Lz+1}=Z_{1 }⊕ Z_{8 }⊕ Z_{13}.

Consequently, the stretched key stream S is represented as:

S_{i}=Z_{i}, where 0≦i<L_{Z }

*S* _{k} *=Z* _{i } *⊕ Z* _{(i+O1)mod Lz} *⊕ Z* _{(i+O2)mod Lz}, where *L* _{Z} *≦k<*2*L* _{Z }and 0≦*i≦L* _{Z }

*S* _{j} *=Z* _{i } *⊕ Z* _{(i+O3)mod Lz} *⊕ Z* _{(i+O4)mod Lz}, where 2*L* _{Z} *≦j≦*3*L* _{Z }

As before, each of the offsets O_{i }are distinct values modulo L_{z}, and form a Full Positive Difference Set, New bits are added to stretched key stream S until the stretched key stream S is L_{D }bits long (i.e., the length of the data stream to be encrypted). If additional bits are needed, then additional offsets O_{i }are selected with which to generate new bits to add to stretched key stream S.

In one implementation, key stream length L_{Z }to be chosen to be a prime number. For the example discussed in _{Z }may be chosen to be **431** for this reason. Then all non-zero offsets are generators. In fact, when more than two bits are combined in each step, only one of them needs to be a generator.

**504** having bits that are as good as the key stream Z bits. That is, the stretched key stream S bits should appear as random as the (cipher) key stream Z bits. To generate new bits, one Implementation simply uses the S bits when the Z bits run out, using offsets O**1** and O**2** in a kind of recurrence relation. The first L_{Z }bits of (cipher) key stream Z **502** are merely copied into stretched key stream S **504** such that S_{i}=Z_{i}, where 0≦i<L_{Z}. If additional bits are needed, at least two offsets O**1** and O**2** are selected from a Full Positive Difference Set. New bits are then generated based on offsets O**1** and O**2** such that S_{i+Lz}=S_{i }⊕ S_{i+O1}⊕ S_{i+O2}, where 0≦i<L_{D}−L_{Z}. For example, for O**1**=1 bit and O**2**=4 bits, S_{Lz}=Z_{0 }⊕ Z_{1 }⊕ Z_{4}=S_{0 }⊕ S_{1 }⊕ S_{4 }and S_{Lz+1}=Z_{i }⊕ Z_{2}⊕ Z_{5}=S_{1 }⊕ S_{2 }⊕ S_{5}. Consequently, the stretched key stream S may be represented as

S_{i}=Z_{i}, where 0≦i<L_{Z }

*S* _{k+Lz} *=S* _{k } *⊕ S* _{k+O1} *⊕ S* _{k+O2}, where 0≦*k<L* _{D} *−L* _{Z }

Computationally, this means the stretched key stream S **504** may be calculated on a single pass with information calculated from its previously existing or generated S bits based on the same offsets O**1** and O**2**.

**4**, and/or **5**), it may be done on bytes or words. In this implementation, a key stream cipher Z **602**, L_{Z }bits long, is generated. The L_{Z }bits are copied into stretched key stream **604** so that Si=Zi for 0≦i<L_{Z}. Then additional bits are added on either on a word-by-word basis or a byte-by-byte basis so that a plaintext data blocks L_{D }bits long, can be encrypted by the stretched key stream **604**. For example, using offsets O**1**=1 byte and O**2**=3 bytes, a new byte may generated and added to stretched key stream S **604** by combining its bytes B_{k}, B_{(k+O1)}, and a bit-shifted version of B_{(k+O2)}, where 0≦k<(L_{D}−L_{Z})/8.

Using bytes instead of bits would violate the condition that die offsets O be generators because, viewed on a bit level, the offsets would all be evenly divided by the word size. Care could be used to ensure no bad interaction between the bytes of the key stream and the bytes of the plaintext (e.g., if coefficients of a discrete cosine transform data were also of the byte size). This could be addressed in a number of ways. For example, one or more bytes or words of the recurrence relationship may be rotated, as illustrated by the bit rotation of B_{(k+O2) }to obtain a rotated byte * B_{(k+O2)}, to destroy such alignment. Alternatively, bit offsets may be used (instead of byte offsets O**1** and O**2**) that were not whole byte offsets. Another option is to use bit shifting to combine two bytes or words but still utilizing the byte-parallel or word-parallel computation.

While the example in _{Z }and L_{D }have been rounded up to be multiples of eight (8).

In various Implementations, part or all of the stretching schemes illustrated in **4**, **5** and/or **6** may be Implemented In hardware, software, or a combination thereof.

Note that while simple XOR operations have been used in illustrating various examples of key stream stretching, other operations/functions may be used. It Is not necessary that the recurrence function (e,g., stretching algorithm implemented by key stream stretcher **108**) actually be linear, merely that it should not introduce any bias. An example of a nonlinear function that could be used by the stream stretcher is the boolean Majority Function, which has three inputs and produces as its output the value which appeared most in its inputs. This can be represented more simply as maj(a,b,c)=ab ⊕ bc ⊕ ca.

It is also possible to use a block cipher such as AES or Triple-DES in a mode that makes it effectively a stream cipher. Counter Mode and Output Feedback Mode are two such modes. Digital Cinema, for example, uses Interleaved Output Feedback Mode. These modes are all described in National Institute of Standards and Technology—Special Publication 800-20, “Modes of Operation Validation System for the Triple Data Encryption Algorithm (TMOVS): Requirements and Procedures,” revised April 2000. The present stretching schemes may be Implemented with these and other cipher modes.

**700** configured to implement a key stream stretching function. A processing circuit **702** may generate a stream cipher Z using a secure algorithm. The length of the stream cipher may be dependent on the amount of entropy expected in data to be encrypted. That is, based on the entropy of the data to be encrypted, the length L_{Z }of key stream cipher Z may be just long enough to ensure the security of the encrypted data. Because the data to be encrypted may contain significant entropy, the length L_{Z }may be significantly less than the length L_{D }of the data to be encrypted. Processing circuit **702** obtains the data length L_{D }and, if necessary, adds new bits to the key stream cipher Z so it is extended or stretched to at least L_{D }bits long. The new bits may be added by combining at least two bits in stream cipher Z in a recursive manner. For example, two or more bits may be XORed to generate a new bit. The two or more bits may be offset from each other as exemplified in the schemes of **4**, **5**, and/or **6**. Processing circuit **702** then obtains the data to be encrypted from input buffer **704**, encrypts the data using the stretched stream cipher Z, and outputs the encrypted data to output buffer **706**.

In various implementations, the processing device **700** may be a computer, microprocessor, programmable logic device, and/or digital circuits.

**800** including a communication interface **802** for obtaining a key stream of length L_{Z}, a data length acquisition interface **804** for obtaining the length L_{D }of a data block, a bit generator **806** for generating L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream, and stream generator **808** for appending the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits to the key stream, to generate a stretched key stream. Additionally, an offset table **810** includes one or more offsets that are used by the bit generator **806** to select the at least two bits of the key stream. In one example, the one or more offsets form a full positive difference set. The new bits may be (1) appended to the beginning or end of the key stream, (2) inserted between the beginning and end or the key stream, and/or (3) interleaved evenly or unevenly (e.g., sporadically, randomly, or pseudo-randomly) among the bits of the key stream

Consequently, a device is provided, comprising (a) means for obtaining a key stream of length L_{Z}, where L_{Z }is a positive integer, (b) means for obtaining a length L_{D }corresponding to a data block, where L_{D }is a positive integer, (c) means for generating L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits recursively by combining at least two bits of the key stream, and (d) means for appending the L_{D}−L_{Z }new bits to the key stream to generate a stretched key stream.

**902** is fed into a stream cipher generator **904** to generate a key stream Zi **906**, having a length of L_{Z }bits. A stream stretcher **908** then uses the bits in key stream Zi **906** to generate new bits and obtain stretched key stream Si **910**. For example, stream stretcher **908** may be configured to stretch key stream Zi **906** as illustrated in **4**, **5**, or **6** to obtain stretched key stream **910**. The stretched key stream **910** is then combined **914** with an encrypted data Ci **912** to obtain plaintext data **916**.

One or more of the steps and functions illustrated in **2**, **3**, **4**, **5**, **6**, **7**, **8**, and/or **9** may be rearranged and/or combined into a single step or embodied in several steps without departing from the invention. Additional components and/or steps may also be added without departing from the invention. The apparatus, devices, and/or components illustrated in **7**, **8** and/or **9** may be configured to perform the methods, features, or steps illustrated in **3**, **4**, **5**, and/or **6**.

The foregoing embodiments are merely examples and are not to be construed as limiting the invention. The description of the embodiments is intended to be illustrative, and not to limit the scope of the claims. As such, the present teachings can be readily applied to other types of apparatuses and many alternatives, modifications, and variations will be apparent to those skilled in the art.

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US20120321079 * | Jun 14, 2011 | Dec 20, 2012 | Freescale Semiconductor, Inc | System and method for generating round keys |

Classifications

U.S. Classification | 380/44, 380/37, 380/46, 713/171, 708/250, 380/278, 713/168, 380/268 |

International Classification | H04L9/22, H04L9/26 |

Cooperative Classification | H04L9/0662, H04L2209/30 |

European Classification | H04L9/22 |

Legal Events

Date | Code | Event | Description |
---|---|---|---|

Jun 5, 2008 | AS | Assignment | Owner name: QUALCOMM INCORPORATED, CALIFORNIA Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:ROSE, GREGORY GORDON;HAWKES, PHILIP MICHAEL;REEL/FRAME:021055/0468;SIGNING DATES FROM 20080402 TO 20080403 Owner name: QUALCOMM INCORPORATED, CALIFORNIA Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:ROSE, GREGORY GORDON;HAWKES, PHILIP MICHAEL;SIGNING DATES FROM 20080402 TO 20080403;REEL/FRAME:021055/0468 |

Feb 12, 2016 | REMI | Maintenance fee reminder mailed | |

Jul 3, 2016 | LAPS | Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees | |

Aug 23, 2016 | FP | Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee | Effective date: 20160703 |

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