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Publication numberUS821393 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 22, 1906
Filing dateMar 23, 1903
Priority dateMar 23, 1903
Publication numberUS 821393 A, US 821393A, US-A-821393, US821393 A, US821393A
InventorsOrville Wright, Wilbur Wright
Original AssigneeOrville Wright, Wilbur Wright
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 821393 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

PATENT-ED MAY 22, 1906.

' 0. & w.. WRIGHT.





No. 821,393. PATENTED MAY 22, 1906. 0. & W. WRIGHT. FLYING MACHINE.


Walla) W335 PATEN'IED MAY 22, 1906.




rlllllllL INVENTORS 0rvz'lla Wright. B Willi ur lfrg'yif.


To a 1i'/i.(:1,'1- if may concern; I

Be'it knownthat we; ORVILLE WRI HT;


ORVllilJE "lilGrllT AND 'lliBLllt 'RlGll'l. OF DAY'lUX, OlllU.


fipeciflcatiqn ofLettera Patent.

.Eatented May 22, 1906.

Application fi1 ad'Mai-ch 28,190- Serial No. 149.220;

1 and WILBUR Wmen'r, citizens of-the United n of Montgomery, and State of .0

States, residing in the city of Da ton, county no, have invented as eciiicat'ion;

ur invention rlatesto that class of flying-machizms-n-r which the weight is sustained by the reactions resulting when one or more aeroplanes are moved throu 'h the air ed 'ewise-at a small angle of. incidence, -either y the application of mechanical power or by the uti ization of the force of gravity.

The objects of our invention are to provide means for maintaining or restoring the equi-- tain novel features, which we will-now proceed to describe and will then particularly point out in the claims.

mg our.invention in one orml.

. In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a perspective view of an a paratus embody- Fig. 2 isa plan-view of the same, partly in horizontal section andpartly bro en away. Fig. 3 is a side elevation, and Figs. 1 and 5 are detailviews, of one formof flexible j oin't'forconnectn" the upright standards with the aeroplanes.

in il mg-machinesof 'the character to which t is invention relates the apparatus is supported in the air b reason of t e contact between the air and. tie. under surface of one or more aeroplanes, the contact-surface'being presented at a small angle of incidence to the air. The relative movements of the air and aeroplane ma be derived from the ino ticn of the air in t e form-cf wind blowing in the direction opposite to that in which the apparatus is traveling or by a combined downward and forward movement of the machine, as in starting from an elevated osition' or by combination of, these two things, and in either casethe operation is that of a soaring-machine, while power ap lied to the machine to propel it positively orward will cause the air to support the machine in asmu-- lar manner. Ineithcr case owing to the varying conditions to be met thereare numercertain new and useful Improvements. in F lying-Machines, of which the following is' tions of the structure w ous disturbing" forces which tend to shift the machine. from the position whichit should occu y-to obtain the desired results. It is the c of object of our invention to provide means. for remedying this difficulty, and we will now proceed to describe the construction means of which these results are accomp ished..

[Int-he accompanying drawings we have shown an apparatus embodyingonr invention in one form. In this illustrative embodi-' ment the machine is shown as comprising. two parallclsuperposed aeroplanes 1 and 2,

and this constructionwe prefer, although our invention ma be. embodied in a structure having a sing e aeroplane. Each aeroplane is of considerablygreater width from side'to side than from, frontto rear. The four corners of the .up )er aeroplane are indicated by the reference-letters a, b, c, and d, while the corresponding corners of the lower aeroplane 2 are indicated" by the reference-"letters e,df, g, and h. The marginal lines a b and e f in icate the front edges of the aeroplanes, the lateral margins'of the upper aeroplane are in dicated, res actively, by the lines a daud b c, the lateral margins of the lower aeroplane are indicated, respectively, by the .linese hand f 9, while the rear margins of the upper andlower aeroplanes are indicated,respec-' tively, by the lines 0 d and g h. 4

Before proceeding to a description of the fundainental theory of operation of the structure we will first describe the preferred mode of constructing the aero lanes and those porliich serve to connect the two aeroplanes. 1

Each aeroplane is formed by stretching cloth or other suitable fabric over a frame composed of two parallel transverse spars 3,

extendin from side to'sidc of the machine,

their ends being connected by bows 4, ex-

tending from frontlto rear of the machine...

The'front and rear spars 3 of each .aero lan'e are connected ,by a. series of parallel ri s 5, which preferably eittend somewhat, beyond. the rear spar, as shown. These spars,'b0'ws' and ribs are preferably constructed. of wood havin the -nec essarv strength combined with lightness and flexibility. ,Upon this framework the-"cloth which forms the sup "porting-surface of the aeroplane. issecured, the frame being inclosed 1n the cloth. The-- cloth for each aeroplane previously to its attachment to its frame is cut on the bias and made up into a singlepiece approximately the size ancl shape of the aeroplane, having I direotidn or the other, the cradle being movthe threads of the fabric arranged-diagonally to the transverse spars and lonlgltudinal r bs, as indicated"at '6 in Fig. 2: us the dlag o'nal threadsof the cloth form truss systems with the spars and ribs, the threads const ,tuting the diagonal members. A: hem 1s formed at the rear edge of the cloth to receive a wire -7,, which is connected to the-ends of therear spar and supported b the rearwardly-extending ends of the ongltudlnal ribs 5, thus formin. a rearwardly-extendmg flap-or portion of t e aeroplane. This construction of the aeroplanes gives a surface which has very great strength to withstand. lateral and longitudinal strains, at the'same time being capable of being bent or twisted in the manner hereinafter described.

When two aeroplanes'are employed, as in the construction illustrated, they are connected together 'by 11 right standards 8 These standards are su stantially rigid, being preferably constructed of wood and of length, equally spaced along the front and rear edges of the aeroplane, to which they are connected at their top and bottom ends by hinged joints or universal joints of' any suitable description. We have shown. one form of connection which may be-used for this purpose in Figs. 4 and 5 of the drawings. In this construction each end of the standard 8 has secured to 'it an eye 9, which engages with a hook 10, secured to a bracketplate 11, which latter plate is in turn fastened to the spar 3.- Diagonal braces or sta wires 12 extend from each end of each stan ard to the opposite ends 'of the adjacent at the front-corners e and f 0f the standards, and as a convenient -mode of attaching these parts I have showna hook 13 made integral with the hook to receive the endo one of the stay-wires, theother stay-wire beingmounted on the hook 10. The hook 13 is shown as bentd'own to retain the stay-wire in connection to it, while the hook 10 is shown asfprovided with a pin 14 to hold the stay-wire 12 and eye 9 imposition thereon. It willbe seen that this construction fo'rms a truss system which gives the whole machine great transverse ri ldity and strength, while at the same time the jointed connections of the parts permit the aeroplanes to be bent or twisted in-the manner Wll1Gl1 W8 -Wlll now proceed to describe. l 15 indicates a rope or other flexible con nection extending lengthwise of the front of 4 the machine above the lower aero lane, passmg under pulleys or other suitable guides 16 .lower aeroplane, and extending thence upward and rearward to the upper rear cornerst and d of the upper aeroplane, where they are attached, as indicated at 17. To the central 7 portion of this rope there is connected a latorally-movable cradle'l8, which ,forms a means for moving the rope lengthwise in one lower aeroplane, with his head to the front,

dle, and the cradle can be moved laterally throughout the other side .or half o able toward either side of-the machine. W

means for operatingthe rope'15, and the machineis intended to be generally used with the-operator lying face downward on the so that the operators body rests on the era- -the movements of the operators body. will beunderstood,jhowever, that the rope 15 may be manipulated in any-suitable manner.

19.indicates a second rope extending tra'ns-.

versely of'themachine along the rear edge of the body portion .of the lower aeroplane, passing under suitable pulleys'or guides 20 at the rear corners g .and h of the lower aeroplane,

and extending thencediagonally upward to the front corners a," and b of the upper aeroplane, where its ends are secured ln'anysum able manner, as indicated at 21.

Consideringthe structure so far as we have now' described it and assuming that the cradle 18 be .-II l 0V6d to the right in 1 and 2, as indicated by the arrows applied to the cradle in'Fig. 1 and by. the dotted lines in Fig. -2, it will-be seenjahat that portion of the rope 15 passing under the guide-pulle at the comers and'secured to the .wrner'. will be under tension, while slack *is paid out the rope 15. The .partof the rope15 under tension exercises a'downw'ard pull. upon the rear upper comer d of the structure and an upward pull u on the front lower corner e indicated y the arrows. Y This causes the corner (I to move downward and the. corner e to' move "upwardQ As'.the corners moves upwardit carries the corner a 'u ward with. it, since the intermediate standard 8. is substantiallyrigid and maintains an-equal distance between the cornersla and e at all times. Similarlyythe standard 8, connecting the corners dand It,

causes the corner It to move downward in unison with the corner d. Since the corner .41

thus moves upward and-the corner h moves downward, that portionof therope 19'con-' nectedto thecorner a will be through the pulley 20 at' the corner h, and the 'pull thus exerted on the rope. 19 will pull the corner 6 onthe other. side of the machine downward and at the same time pull the corner at said other side of themachineupwar This results in adownward movement of the corner b and anupward movement of the corner 0. Thus it results from a lateral movement of the cradle 18'to the right in Fig. that the lateral margins a d and e k at one side of the machine are moved from their normal positions, in whichthey-lie in thenor- IIO pulled upward V each lateral margin on this side ofthe machine being=ra|sed above said normal plane at its forward end and depressed belowsaid not'-.

mal plane at its rear end, said later'al margins being thus inclined upward and forward. At the same time a reverse inclination is imparted to the lateral mar 'ns be and f g at the other side of the mac e, their inclination being downward and forward. These positions areindieated in dotted lines in Fi 1 of the drawings. A movement of the era le'18 in the opposite direction from its normal po; sition Wll reverse the.angular inclination of the lateral margins of the aeroplanes in an obvious manner. By reason of this construction it will be seen that with the particular mode of construction now under consideration it is possible to move the forward corner of the lateral edges of the aeroplane on one side of the machine either above or below the normal planes of the aeroplanes, a reverse movement of the forward-corners of the lateral marginson the other side of the machine occurring simultaneously. During this operati on each aeroplane is twisted or distorted around a line extending centrally across the same from the middle of one lateral margin to the middle of the other lateral margin, the twist due to the moving of the lateral margins to different angles extending across each aeroplane from side to side, so that. each aeroplane-surface isgiven a helicoidal warp or twist. We prefer this construction and mode of operation for the'reason that it- 'ves a gradual y-increasing angle to the b of each aeroplane from the central longitudinal line thereof outward to the ma thus giving a continuous, surface on see side of the machine, which has a ually increasing or decreasing angleof incidence from the center of the machine to either. side. We wish it to be understood, however, that our invention is not limited to this particular construction, since-any construction whereby the angular relations of the lateral margins of the aeroplanes may be varied in op site directions withirespeet to the "normal planes of said aeroplanes comeswithinthe sco of our invention. "Furthermore, it she d be-understood that while the lateral margins of the aeroplanes; move to different a ions with respect to. or above an below the normal. planes of said aero lanes it does not bring the opposite lateral I to different angles respectively above an below a horiand while the forward corners on one side or the machine ma be de ressed below the normal planes of t e bodies of the aero lanes ression is not necessaril sufiic ent to carry t em below the horizonta planes passing through the rear corners on that side;v

Moreover, although we prefer to, so cons r ct 5 the apparatus that the movements of the lat-.

necessarily follow thatt ese movements bodies of the aeroplanes are inclined to the 'p eral margins on the'opposite sides of the machine are equal in'extent and op ositc in direction, yet our invention is not limited to a construction Iproducing this result; since it may be desira le under certain circumstances to move the lateral margins on oncsidc of the machine in the manner just dcscrihcdswithout moving the lateral-margins on the other side of the machine to an equal extent in the opposite direction. Turning now to the purpose of this revision for moving the lateral margins of .t e ae planes in the manner doscribed, it should be promised that owing to various conditions of wind-pressure and other causes the body of the machine is apt to become unbalanced laterally, one side tending to sink and the otherside tending to rise, the machine turningaround its central longitudinal axis. The rovision which we have just described ena les'the operator to meet this difficulty and preserve the lateral hal- .anee of the machine. 'Assuming that for ,some cause that side of the machine which lies to the left of the'observer in Figs; 1 and 2 has'shown a tendcnc' to dro downward, a movement of the era e 18 to t e right of said figures, as-hereinbefore assumed, will move the lateral margins ofthe aero lanes in the manner already described-,so t at the margins a d and e h will be inclined downward and rearward and the. lateral margins 11 c and fg will-be inclined upward and rearward with respectto the normal lanes ofthebodies of the aeroplanes. With t e parts of the machine in-this position it will be seen that the lateral margins a d and e h present a larger angle of incidence to the resisting air, while the lat- 'eral margins on the other-side of the machine present a smaller angle of incidence. Owing to this fact, the side of the machine presenting the larger angle of incidence will tend to lift or move upward, and this upward movement will restore the lateral balance of the machine. When the other side of'the machine tends to drop, a movement of the cradle 18 in the reverse direction will restore the machine to its normal lateral equilibrium. Of course the-same effect will be produced 1n the same way in the caseof a machme employi onl asi' 1e aero lane. v

in ch nnec t ion wit the bed of the machine as thus operated we emp oy a vertical rudder or tail 22, so 'su to turn around a vertical axis. his rudder is suported at the rear ends of supports or'arms 23, pivoted at their forward ends to the rear margins of the upper and lower aero lanes, 1 tively. These supports are pre erably -sha ped, as shown,- so that then forward ends are comparatively widely sigparatd, their pivots being ndlcated at 24 ports are free to s upward at their free 'rear ends as indicate in dotted lines in '3, their downward movement being limited in any suitable manner. The vertical pivotsv aid sup- "of the rudder 22 are indicated at 25, and one I of these pivots has mounted thereon a sheave or s r. i rope27,-the ends of which are extendedout laterally and secured to the rope 19 on .oppo- -site sides of the central point of said rope.

By reason of' this construction thellateral shifting of the ciadle 18 serves to turn the.

atmosphere that $1 angle of incidence, alt ou'gh bem lifte or movedupward in the manner a ready described, at the same time meets with an increased resistance to its forward motion, and is therefore retarded in'its forward motion, while at the same time the other side of the machine, presentin a smaller angle of. incidence, meets with es's resistance toits for-' ward motion and tends tomove forward-more the machine a tendency to turn around its vertical axis,.fand this tendency if not prop-" erly met will not onlyl uiiliang'e-the direction of the front of the mac e, but-will ultimately aeroplanes in vertical sition, thus causing the machine to fall. The movement of the rudder hereinbefore described prevents --this action, since it exerts-a retarding influence on that side of'the machine which tends to move forward too rapidly and keeps the machine with its front properl presented-to the direc-' tion of flight and wit its body properly'balanced-' .aroundits central longitudinal I The ivoting of the supports 23 so as to permitt em to swing upward prevents in'ury to' the rudder and its supports in case t e ma' chine alights at such an angle as to cause the" rudder to strike therground. first, the'par'ts' yielding upward; as indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 3, and thus preventing injury or .breakage. We wishit to be understood, -however, that we do not limit ourselves to $5- the particular description of rudder setforth,

"-the essential bein that the rudder" shall be vertical and shal -;be so moved as to present its resisting-surface on that side of'the machine which offers the least 'resistance to tothe' atmosphereiso as to counteract the tend-- ency of the m p 8.108 when the two sides thereof offer different I resistances to, the a r.

- Eromthe central portion of the front of the e to turn around a vertical 'ma chine struts 28 extend horizontally for-- 26-, around which passes a 'tillerrapidly than the retarded side. This gives.

permit one side thereofto drop into a positlon vertically below the other side with the pe same in either direction. Bands 38 extend senses ward-from thefloweraeroplane, and struts 29 extend downward and forward from: the central portion of theupper'aeroplane, their front ends be' uni to'the struts 28'. thB' forward extremities of which are turned up,- as indicated at .30. These struts 28 and 29 form truss-skids projecting in front of the whole frame of the machine and serving to =prevei t the machine from rolling over for-j ward when it alights. The struts 29 serve to brace the upper portion'of' the main frame and resist its tendency to move forward after the lower aero" lane has been sto ped by its contact with t e earth, thereby releving therope 19 from unduestrain, for it wi-llbe understood that when the machine comes into contact with the earth further forward movement of the lower portion thereof being suddenly arrested the inertia of the upper portion would tend to cause it tocontinue to move forwardif not prevented by the struts 29, andthis forward movement of the upper portion would bring 'a very violent strain upon the rope 19, since it s fastened to the upper port-ion at both of its ends, wh le" its lower 'portion is connected by the guides 20 to-the lower -portion. The struts 28 and 29 i also serve to support the front or horizontal rudder, the construction of which we will now proceed to describe. 9

The front rudder 31 is a horizontal. rudder having a flexible body, the same consisting of three stiff cross-pieces or sticks 32, 33, and 34, and the flexible ribs 35,=connectingsaid crossieces andextendin from front to rear. The ame thus provid is'cove ed by a suitable fabric stretched over the same to form the body ofthe rudder. The rudder is supported.

from the struts 29 by means of the intermediate cross-piece 32, which is located near the center of pressure sl' htly in front of a line e uidistant between t e front and rear ed es 0 the rudder, the cross-piece 32 forming iilie pivotal axis of the rudder, so asto constitute 'a, balanced rudder. To the'front edge of the rudder there are connected springs 36; which PU such that said springs tend to resist any movement either upward or downward of the" front edge of the horizontal rudder. ,Thc rear edge of the rudder lies immediately in 'i do are connected to the upturned ends -30 o -the struts 28, the construction being front of the operator and may be operated by him in any suitable manner. We have shown a mechanism for this pu osecomprising a roller or shaft 37, whic may be by the operator so as to-turn-the I so from the roller: 37 forward to and around a similar roller or shaft 39, both rollers 01 shafts being supported in suitable bearings on the struts 28. The forward roller or shaft has rearwardly-e rtending arms 40, which are connected by links 41 with the rear edge of the rudder 31. The normal position of the rudder 31 is neutral with the aeroplanes 1 and 2; but its rear edge may be moved upward or downward, so asto be above or below the normal plane of said rudder through the mechanism'provided for that pur ose. Itwill .be seen thatthe springs 36 W] I resist any tendency oftheforward edge of the rudderto move in either direction, so that when force is applied to the rear edge of said rudder thelongitudinal ribs bend, and the rudder thus resents a con cave surface to. the action of t e wind either above or below its normal plane, said surface presenting a small angle of incidence at its orward portion and said an le of incidence rapidly increasin toward t e rear.- T 's greatly increases the efficiency of the mid er as com ared wi'tha planesurface of equal area. y regulating the ressure on the up per and lower sides of t e rudder through changes of angle and curvature in the manner escribed a turning movement of the main' structure around its transverse axis may be effeoted,and the course of the machine may thus be directed upward or downward at the will of the o erator and the longitudinal balance thereof maintained.

Contrary to the usual custom, we place the horizontal rudder in front of the aeroplanes.

at anegative angle and employ no horizontal tail at all. Byt is arrangement we obtain a forward surfacewhich is almost entirely free from pressure underordinary conditions of the object which we obtain by .50

flight, but which even if not moved at all from its original position becomes an efficient lifting-surface whenever the speed of the machine is accidentally reduced very much below the normal, and thus largely counteracts that backward travel of the center of pressure on the aeroplanes which has frequently beenproductive of serious in uries, by causing thefmachine to turn downward and forward: and strike the ound head-on. We are aware that a forwar horizontal rudder of different construction has been usalin combination with a suppJ rting-surface and a rear horizontal rudder; utthis combination was not intended to effect and does not effect the arrange ment hereinbeforedesc'ribed.

We have used the term aeroplane inthis' s ecification and the appended claims indicate the supportin -surface or supportingsurfaces by means 9 which the machine is sustained in the air, and by this term wewish to be understood as including an suitable supporting-surface which norma y is substantially flat,"although of course when constructed of cloth or other flexible fabric, as

we prefer to construct them, these surfacesinav receive more or less curvature from the resistance of the air, as indicated 1n We do not wish to be understood as l miting ourselves strictly to the precise details of construction hereinbefore described and or substantially parallelwit 'put departing from. the principles'of our invention. For instance, construction illustrated in which each aeroplane is given a twist alon in order to set its 0 posits different angleswe ave already pointed out that our invention is not limited to this form of construction, since it is only necessar to move the lateral marginal portions, and w iere these portions alone are moved only those '11 right standards which support the mov- -a le portion require flexible connections at their ends. v

Having thus fully described our invention, what we claim as new, anddesir to secure by Letters Patent, is-

1. 11m a flying-machine,v

lateral margins at a normally flat aerop) ane "having lateral marginal portions capa le of movement to different positions above or blow the normal plane of the body of the-aeroplane, such movement being about an axis transverse to, the line of flight, whereby said lateral marginal portions may be moved to different angles relatively to the normal plane of'the body of the aero lane, so as to resent to the atmosphere di erent angles ofhncidence, and means for so movin said ,lateral marginal portions, substan tifily'as described. 3

.2. In a flying-machine, the combination, with two normally parallel aeroplanes, superposed the one above the other, of upright standards connecting said planes at their margins .the connections between the standards an aeroplanes at the lateral portions of the a roplanes being by means of flexible joints, each of said aeroplanes having lateral marginal portions capa le of movement to different ositions above or below the normal plane of the body of the aeroplane, such movement be about an axis transverse to the line of flig t, whereby said ,lateral marginal portions may be moved to difi'erent angles the aero lane, sons to resent to the atmosphere di erent angles 0 incidence, the stand-- ards maintaining. a fixed distance between .the portions of the aeroplanes which theyconnect, and means for imparting such movement to the lateral m a] portions of the aeroplanes, substantial] as described;

. 3. In a flyingmachme, a normally fiat. aero lane having lateral marginal port ons capable of movement to different po l w above or below the normal plane of the body .of the aeroplane, such movement boingabout an axis transverse to the line of flight, where by said lateral marginal portions may be 'moved to different lesrelatively to the normal plane of the body of the aeroplane, and alsoto different angles relatively to each other, so as to resent to the atmosphere differ'ent angles 0 incidence, and means for s1;-

its entire length shown in the accompanying drawings, as itis obvious that these details may be modified while we prefer the relatively to the normal plane of the body of asdescribed.

multaneously imparting such movement to said lateral marginal portions, substantially 4. In a flying-machine, the combination,

5 with parallel superposed aeroplanes, each having lateral marginal portions capable of movement to different ositions above or below the normal plane the bed of the aeroplane, such movement being a out an ax 1s transverse to the line of flight, whereby said lateral marginal ortions may bemoved to different angles re ativel to the normal lane of the body of the aerop ane, and to di erent angles relatively to each other, so as to resent to the atmos here different angles 0 1ncidence, of uprig ts connecting said-aeroplanes at their edges, the uprights connect ng the lateral'portions of the aeroplanes be ng connected withsaid aero lanes by flexible parting to the lateral margins of said aeroplane-a movement about 'an'axis'lving-in theody of the aeroplane perpendicular to said lateral margins, andtherebymoving said latoral margins int-o differentan ular relations -to the-normal plane of the b( y of the aero plane, substantially as described.-

6; In a flying-machine the combination, with two super osod'and'norlnally arallel aeroplanes, ear-1 having substantialy the; form of a normally fiat rectangle elongated transversely to tho line of flight, of upright standards gunner-ring the edges ot'said acroplanes to maintain their equidistancc, those standards at the lateral portions'ol said aoroplanes being connected therewith by flexible punts, and means for simultaneously impartmg to both lateral margins of both aeroplanes a moymuenl about axes which are perpen lic ular to. and margins and m the plancsof. the.

bodies of the -respective aeroplanes, and

thereby moving the lateral margins on, the' opposite sides of the machine into different angular relations-to the normal planes of' the same side of the machine moving to the same angle, and the nmrgins on one side of the ma- ,rhmo moving to an angle different from the angle to whichthemargins on the other side of the machine mo\'e,:snbstantiallv as (lescribed.

nnsly moving' the lateral-portions! hereof into joints, and means for sim taneously impartofflight, in'combination-witb means for im-t respective aeroplanas,'tl1e margins on the different angular relations to the normal planeof the body of' the aeroplane and to each other, so as to present to the'atmospheredifferent angles of incidence, of a vertical rudder, and ,ineans' whereb said rudder "is caused to present to thewin that side there-- of nearest the side of the aeroplane haying.-

the smaller angle of incidence and offering. the 'leastresistance to the atmosphere, substantially as described.

8 .,I n a flying-machine, the combination 7 5 with two superposed and normally parallel aeroplanes, u right standards connecting the edges of sai aeroplanes to maintain their equidistance, those standards at the lateralportions otsaid acro lanes being connected 8o therewith b flexible oints and 'means for si-' multaneous y moving both lateral portions. of both aeroplanes into different. angular re- 'lations to'the normal planes of thebodies of I the respective aeroplanes, the lateral portions on one side of t moved to an angledifferent rrom that to W 'eb the lateral portions on the other side ot the machine are moved, S0 as, to present different, angles of incidence at the'two sides of the machme, ofa vertical rudder, and means where by said rudder is caused to presentto the r a machine bei wind that side thereof nearest the side of the V V aeroplanes having'the smaller angleof incidence and offering the least resistance to the 5 atmosphere, substantially as. described.

9. In a flying-machine, an aeroplane normally flat and elongated transversely to the line of flight,- in combinationl with means for imparting to said aeroplane alhelicoidal warp loo around an axis transverseto the line of flight and extending centrally along the body of the aeroplane inthe directio of-"the elongation of the aeroplane, substantially as described 10. In a flying-machine, two aeroplanes, each normal y flat and elongated trans- ,versely to the line of-flight, and upright standards connecting the edges of saidaeroplanes to maintain their equidistance, the connections between said standards and aeroplanes bemg bymeans of flexible joints, in

combination with means for simultaneousl imparting to each of said aeroplanes a hellcoidal war around an axis transverse tothe line of-flig t and extending centrally along n5 standards eonpecting the edges of said aeroplanes to mainta n their equidistance, the

connections between such-standards and aeroplanes be ng means of fiXi-ble 1 25 in comb nation with meanstor {simultanesiy iiu arting to each-of; said aeroplanes a b 'Paronnd: axis transverse to the line I of flight and extending centrally along the body of the aeroplane in the direction of the elongation of the aeroplane, a verstantially horizontal flexible rudder, and means; for curving said r'udderrearwardly and upwardly or rearwardly and downwardly with respect to its normal plane, substantially as described.

13. In a flying-machine, the combination,

with an aeroplane, of a normally flat and substantiall horizontal flexible/rudder ivotally mounte on an axis transvers'eto t e line of -iiight near. its center, springs resisting verti-' cal movement of the frontc go of said rudder and means for moving the 'rear edge of sai rudder above. or be ow the normal plane thereof, substantiallyas' described.

14. A flying-machine comprisin superposed connected aeroplanes, means or movmg the opposite lateral portio nos of said aeroplanes to different angles t the normal planes thereof, a vertical rudder, means for moving said vertical rudder toward-that side of the machine'presenting the smaller angleof incidence an the least resistance to the atmosphere, and a horizontal rudder provided with means for, presenting its upper or under surface to the resistance of the atmosphere, substantially as described.

15. A flying-machine comprising super posed connected aeroplanes, means for movmg the opposite lateral portions of said aeroplanes to different angles to the normal planes thereof, a vertical rudder, means for moving said vertical rudder toward that side of the machinepresenting the smaller angle of incidence and the least resistance to the atmosphere, and a horizontal rudder provided I with means for presenting its upper or under surface to the resistance ofthe atmosp said vertical rudder bein located at the rear of themachine and said orizontal rudder at each aeroplane, said yingmachine, the combination, with an aeroplane, of a normally flat and subthe front corners t .secured to the rear corners of the upper aeroits ends secured here,-

the front of the machine, substantially as described. p

16. In a flying-machine, the combination,

with two superposed and connected aeroplanes, of an arm extending rearward from arms being parallel and free to swing upward at their rear ends, and a vertical rudder pivotally mounted in the rear ends of said arms, substantially as described. 17. A fiyingmach.ine comprising two superposed aeroplanes, normally flat but flexile, u right standards connecting the marguns 0 said aeroplanes, said standards being connected to said aero anes by universal joints,-diagonal stay-wires connecting the opposite endsof the adjacent standards, a

rope extending along the front edge of the lower aeroplane,

ereof, and having its ends plane, and a rope extending along the rear edge of the lower aeroplane, .passing through guides at the rear corners thereof, and having to the front corners of the upper aeroplane, substantially as described. 18. A flying-machine comprising two superposed aeroplanes, normal y fiat but flexile, upright'standards connecting the margins 0 said aeroplanes, said standards bein connected to said aeroplanes by universal joints, diagonal stay-wires connecting the opposite ends of. the adjacent standards, a rope extending along the front edge of the lower aeroplane, assing through guides at the front corners t ereof,-and having its ends secured to the rear corners of the upper aeroplane, and a rope extending along the rear edge of the lower aeroplane, passing through guldes at the rear corners thereof, and having its endssecured to the front corners of the up er aeroplane, in combination with a vertical rudder, and'a tiller-rope connecting said rudder with the rope extending along the assing through guides at-

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International ClassificationB64C3/52
Cooperative ClassificationB64C3/52, Y10S244/904, Y02T50/145
European ClassificationB64C3/52