US 821655 A
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No. 821,655. PATENTED MAY 29, 1906.
APILIGATION FILED JULY 30, 1904.
' greater convenience respondingly large.
HUGO means, OF NEW YORK, my.
Specification of Letters Patent.
ratented May 29, 1906.
Application filed July 30,1904. Serial No. 218.861.
To all, whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, HUGO LIEBER, a citizen of the United States, residing in the city, county, and State of New York, have in vented a certain new and useful Improvement in Radium Surfaces, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to radium surfaces, and has forits object the securing of the effeet of all the rays and radium, the securing of greater effects than have heretofore been secured from radium, in the use of radium by reason of the form and manner in which it is used according to this invention, and greater economy in the smaller quantity of radium necessary to be used for a given purpose according to this invention than has heretofore been necessary for the same purpose and by reason of the effective manner which the radium used accordin to this invention is protected and preserve V As is well known, radium has been obtained in exceedingly small value and cost of radium most importance, pare radium in such form that-the maximum eifect can be secured from a minimum quantity of radium, veniently as well as effectively used, and that the radium can be protected and preserved. Radium is an extraordinary substance, the effects of which are and emanations, that radium be so its different rays, rays and of its emanations may be secured, and secured without the danger of injury to the human body-for instance, from contact disposed that the eflects of with the radium itself. 1 Such effects are 'secured by means of this invention.
My invention is illustrated in the drawings forming part of this specification.
In the drawings, Figure serted into a solution of radium. Fig. 2
shows a rod coated with an exceedingly-thin film of radium accordin to this invention. Fig. 3 shows the rod of Fig. 2 inserted into a solution suitable for coating the exceedingly thin film of radium. Fig. 4' shows a rod coated with an exceedin ly thin'film of radi um and an exceedingly t protecting material upon the film of radium Fig. shows an of the emanations of the use of radium by reason of uantities, and the as been and is cor- It is therefore of the ututility, and value to prethat the radium can be con- "able for the purpose.
secured through its rays It is therefore essential and especially of its alpha 1 shows a rod in- I in film of a suitable end view of the rod of Fig. 2. Fig. 6 shows an end view of the rod of Fig. 4. Fig. 7 shows a flat surface coated with an exceedin ly thin film of radium and an exceedingly-t film of a suitable protecting material according to this invention.
In the drawings, Fi 1 shows a vessel containing a solution A 0 radium or radium dissolved in some suitable solvent. In Fig. 1, B is a rod or stick of some suitable material,
such as celluloid, partially dipped into the solution A of radium.
Fig. 2 shows the rod or stick B (shown in Fig. 1) after it has'been dipped into and with- 7 dr awn from the solution A of radium. (Shown in Fig. 1.) In Fig. 2 the part of the rod B between C and D which was dipped into the solution'A of radium, as shown in Fig. 1, is coated with an exceedingly thin film F of radium, the solvent of radium contained in the solution A, (shown in Fig. 1,) having evaporated or been otherwise removed.
Fig. 3 shows a vessel containing a solution I of some-material, such as pyroxylin, suitand thus protecting and preable for coating, servin the thin film of radium deposited by, the so ution A (shown in Fig. 1) upon the part of the rod B between C and D, as shown ,in Fig. 2. The suitable material, such as pyroxylin, of the solution E (shown in Fig. 3) is dissolved in some solvent or solvents suit- Alcohol, ether, and acetone, as is well known, are solvents suitable to dissolve pyroxylin.
Fig. 4 shows the rod or stick B (shownin.
Fig.. 2) after'the part of the rod or stick between 0 andD has been dipped into the solution E (shown in Fig. 3) and coated with an exceedingly thin film G of pyroxylin or other suitable material, lin or other suitable material having evaporated or been otherwise removed. Fig. 5 shows an end view of the rod or stick B (shown in Fi 2) and shows in exag eration the excee mgly thin film F of r ium surrounding the rod or stick B.
Fig. 6 is an end view of the rod or stick B (shown in Fig. 4) and shows in exaggeration the exceedingly thin film F of ra ium surrounding the rod or stick B and theexceedin ly thinfilm G of pyroxylin or Qther suitab le material surrounding the thin film F of radium.
Fig. 7 shows the flat surface of a'sheet H coated with an exceedingly sthin film F of radium and of suitable protecting material'ac the solvent of the pyroxycording to my invention; The material of l radiations do not all penetrate freely through which the sheet H is composed may be celluloid or any other suitable material. 'It may, for instance, be composed of some material, such as a material fibrous in character, which will enable the radium surface or film .F to be conveniently spread or placed upon or about some part of the human body in the treat ment of disease.
Radium is a radio-active substance which emits and radiates rays usually called Becuerel rays. In addition to the emission of t e rays radium gives off emanations of gaseous particles. .The rays discharged by radium are of several kinds, and three rays discharged by radium are known and designated as the alpha rays, the beta rays, and the gamma. rays. The alpha rays have little penetrating power and do not penetrate glass, for instance. The beta rays have greater penetrating power, but penetrate glass to a limited extent only. 'The gamma rays have still greater penetrating power and penetrate glass freely. The rays and emanations emitted and given off by radium proceed from throughout the mass of the radium; but thealpha rays emitted by the inner portion as distinguished from the surface of the radium mass are largely absorbed by the surrounding particles or atoms of the radium mass, and in like manner the beta rays emitted b the inner ortion as distinguished from t e surface 0 the radium mass are largely absorbed by the surrounding par ticles or atoms of the radium mass. When absorbed, the energy of the alpha and of the beta rays is changed to heat, and the absorbed al ha and the absorbed beta rays are not avai able for use. Such absorption of the rays will take place at one-tenth of a mil- 'limeter beneath the surface of the radium mass. With regard to the emanations given off by the radium mass the emanations to an extent collect on the surface of the surrounding particles or atoms of the radium mass and are occluded, just as when a piece of platinum is placed in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms of hydrogen collect on the surface of the platinum and are occluded. The occlusion of the emanations given off by the inner portion as distinguished from the surface of the radium mass is greater, but to a limited extent only,
. than is the occlusion of the emanations given off by the surface of the radium mass.
Heretofore radium has been kept and applied for use in tubes or containers made of such material as glass or alumlnlum, usually sealed or air-tight. This method of using radium does not permit the securing of the best effects from radium, because, for instance,
9 the alpha and the beta rays emitted by the inner mass of the radium are largely absorbed as above explained, because the material of.
the container in which the radium mass is held is of such character or thickness that the thewalls of the container and because the radium, in a suitable solventsuch as water,
acetone, wood or grain, alcohol, or ether thereby obtaining a solution of radium. In the-solution of radium I dip or immerse some suitable solid -material-such as, for instance, celluloidhaving a suflicient surface and then withdraw the dipped solid material from the solution of radiumor otherwise spread the solution of radium upon the surface of the solid material. I then cause the solvent of the solution of radium to be driven off, as by evaporation or drying, and there remains upon the surface of the solid material, adher ing to it, an exceedingly thin film of radium. Other means may be employed to spread upon the surface of the solid material the exceedingly thin film of radium. For instance, a paste or other adhesive substance contain-, ing radium, preferably dissolved radium, and composed of material suitable for a coating to protect the radium, as hereinafter described, maybe employed and spread in any convenient manner upon the surface of the solid material, serving as a support or carrier; but I prefer to dip the solid material into the solution of radium. An advantageous method of spreading the thin film of radium upon the surface of the solid material is to dissolve the radium in a solvent which will soften the surface of the solid material when thesolid material is brought in contact with it'. For instance, if the radium is dissolved in alcohol and ether or in alcohol and acetone and if the solid material employed is celluloid the surface of the celluloid will be temporaril softened b the action of the solvents of tfie radium w en the celluloid is brought in contact with the solvents, and upon the evaporation of the solvents after the solution of radium has been spread upon the surface of the celluloid the thin film of radium remaining upon thersoftened surface of the celluloid will adhere advantageously and permanently to it. When the solvents have evaporated, the softened surface of the celluloid will become hard again. Y
In order to protect and preserve the thin film of radium spread upon the surface of the solid material, I coat the thin film of radium with an exceedingly thin film or skin of some suitable material, such as pyroxylin. For
this urpose the pyroxylin is dissolved in the I usua solvents-such as alcohol, ether, and g acetone-and the solid material, with the exceedingly thin film of radium spread upon its coming in contact with bodies exposed to the action of by the radium.
The spreading of the exceedingly thin film of radium upon the surface of thesolid materialand the coating of the film of radium thus spread upon the solid material may also be accomplished by dissolving the radium and radium finely and the coating material in suitable solvents in one solution I and then dipping the solid material into the solution or otherwise spreading the solution u on the surface of the solid material or by me dium and solid material dissolved together in the solvents through the evaporation of the solvents and forming the solid material distributed throughout it into a body of such shape;,but I prefer to apply the thin film of radium to the surface of the solid material and then to coat the thin film of radium.
The material used for coating the thin film of radium must be such as will permit one or more of the diflerent rays emitted by the 1 film of radium beneath to: penetrate or such as will permit some or all of the emanations given off by the film of radium beneath to pass through or such as will permit both the rays and the emanations to pass through, and the film or skin of the coating should be exceedingly thin to permit the rays and emanations freely top scribed, upon the evaporation of the solvents is exceedingly thin and of. such character that not on y the gamma and beta rays, but also the alpha rays emitted by the thin film of radium beneath freely penetrate or pass through it, and so do most of the emanations emitted by the thin film of radium beneath the coatin By the use of t liam Crookes the bombardment against a screen coated with zinc sulfid roduced by the rays emitted permanently an spontaneously by radiumis shown. The screen of zinc sulfid appears under the bombardment of the radium rays covered by a multitude of small brilliant points which scintillate and appear to the surface of the .emitted by the rays and emanations given ofi 1 mg a rod or solid body in any suitable or convenient shape from the raass through. The coating. left by the solution of pyroxylin, above dee spinthariscope of Sir Wil These small brilliant a iece of celluloid and if" &
according to my invention and as above described. and if then a screen of zinc sulfid be subjected to the bombardment of the rays the exceedingly thin film of radium spread upon the celluloid and coated as above described, the screen of zinc-sulfid will .be covered with small, brilliant, and scintillating points far more multitudinous than when the screen of zinc sulfid was bombarded by the rays of the same quantity of radium before it was spreadin an exceedingly thin film upon the surface of the celluloid. The existence of the brilliant and scintillating points proves that the alpha rays have pene trated the thin coating surrounding the thin film of radium, and the increased multitude of the brilliant and scintillating points proves that the effect secured from the same quantity of radium has been greatly increased. Another method of proving that the effect of a given amount of radium is greatly increased b spreading it in a thin film upon a surface of solid material according to my invention is by comparing the times within which it will discharge the electroscope when in'the form in which itv has heretofore beenused and when in the form of an exceedingly thin film according to my invention.
When the ra dium is in the form of an exceedingly thin film, it will discharge the electroscope in a fractional part of the time required for the discharge-of the electroscope by the same radium when in the form in which radium has heretofore been used.
- By spreading the radium in an exceedingly thin film upon the surface of some solid material the absorption of the alphaand of the beta rays and the occlusion of the emanations by the inner portion of-the radium mass are obviated, and the radium is put into such form that the maximum effect canbe secured from it and that for a given purpose the m1mmum uantity only of radium need be used. The so 'd material upon which the thin film of radium is spread may be ofany shape and size suitable or convenient for use in the treatment of disease or for other purposes. The solid material used may consist of celluloid, wood, metal, glass, rubber, fibrous material, and the like. i
I am aware that it has been stated that a cardboard screen covered with Sidots hexagonal blende which is said to be very sensitive to pro'ected atoms, but not to electrons,
was painted over with nitrate of radium, the V word Radium beiifg in the middle, ainl-that the light from this screen was of considerable intensity, the Word Radium being very prominent. Sueh'is not my invention. Aecording to Iny'invention radium is not spread ill-Eon the surface of hexagonal blende e1- other e material, but upon the surface of indifferent materiaLwhicli' serves merely as a carrier or support for the radiurn distributed upon 01' throughout its surface for the purpose stated.
What I claim is y I 1. A radio-active body contining a rac'lid eetive substance protected by suitable; r0-
materiel, subsftmitii11yas deser e8. raflio-adtive body; eontaini'l'ig radium proteeted' by suiftzi'ble proteeting mate-rial, sulis'tentistl'ly as He'scrib'ed. \s
3. A surfaee of indifferent SOlitl msiteli'all pro videcl with an adhering rmlio-aetive'eo'ating of an exceedingly thin film of radium in a; finely-divided state, substantially asflescribed. I
4. A suffaee-of solid nieteriel proy'idef'l with an adhering radio-active coatmg of sin exceedingly thin film of radium in a finelyof suitable material protecting the film of ra 6. A s'u'rfaee of'c'ell uloidfproyidetl with an adhering coating of an exceedingly of radium in a' state; and in' exceeilirigly tlii'n beating of sui'tehle 'rna'teriel protecting the film of radium substantially as described.
In witness whereof Ihave signed inynefr'ie subscribing witnes es; I y 1 ff hI-IiUGOVLI EBER,
to this speeii'iesitiofi the pirese ie df two g Witnesses;
BERW UC -Ex FRAN Is E. CASH;