|Publication number||US822848 A|
|Publication date||Jun 5, 1906|
|Filing date||Sep 16, 1904|
|Priority date||Sep 16, 1904|
|Publication number||US 822848 A, US 822848A, US-A-822848, US822848 A, US822848A|
|Original Assignee||Emil Kunz|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (6), Classifications (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
No. 822,848. PATENTED JUNE 5, 1906. E. KUSZ.
LPPLIGATIOH PILEB SEIT. 1S, 1904.
y 1 UNITED STATES PATENT OEEIOE.
EMIL Kurz,l or CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.
SpeccationA of Letters Patent.
Patented J une 5, 1908.
Applies@ mea september 16,1904. sans N9. 224,737.
` Toal whom it may concern:
after fully described and claime I In theaccompan 'ng drawings, illustrateY igure 1 is .a perspectiveV Be it known that I, EMIL KUNZ a citizen ofthe United States, residing at Chicago, in the county of Cook and State of Illinois, have ,invented certain new and useful Im rovements in Vl-Ieat-Insulators;` and I do ereby declare the followin to be a full, clear, and enactv descriptionio the invention, such as will enable'others skilled in the art to which it sipertains to make and use the same; y inventionrelates to a novel construcktion in heat-insulators, the object being to rovide simple and Aefficient means 'for insu ating compartments, particularly refrigerators; and it consists in the features of construction and combinations of (parte hereining rn invention, view 1 lustrating a section of heat-insulating material constructed in* accordance with my invention, part of saine being broken awayL Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sectionY ofAY composite i heat-insulating Wall or section theres Ycenstructed in accordance with my inrentikin;Y
3 is a perspective 1View of a ad of heatinsulating 1 material constructe in accord,- ance with my invention. Fig. ,4 is a section Y similar to Fig. 2, showing a modiiied form of construction;
An essentialv feature of my invention consiste in providing heat-insulating material which is exceeding'l light.
Another essentie feature of my invention consists in" providing whatrl term compositiel heat-insulating material, in which av plurality of substances, all sci-called non- ,Y
conductors of heat, are empio ed so that to penetrate the body formed t e heat will Vmoet witlivarious resistances to hinder its passage.
j vAnother yessential feature of my invention consistsin forming auch insulating material 1n ads orblocks'of various forms and sizes, which will enable it to be more readily handled andrenders-it stronger and more compact than if constructed to correspond in size and shape with the area to be covered or insulated thereby.h
consistsnprovidin in the insulatin mate-n Another essential feature of ymy invention rial a large number o small relatively isolated air-cells to so confine the air as to prevent it frcinserving as a vehicle to transmit heat appliedY to or absorbed at one point in a wall vto other parte thereof, thus lccalizing such absorption or enetration.
To these an other ends my invention con siste, primarily, in providing a heat-insulating sheet or wall which comprises two pareils sheets A andV B, of aper or other so-called.
non-conductor of eat, between which are mounted a plurality of parallel corrugated strips C ci similar material, the ridges of the eorrugations thereof being cemented to the sinner faces of the sheets A and B. Between Vadjacent strips C are provided partition- Walls D, also of a similar material, the upper and lower. edfres of which are cemented to the Y inner :faces of the sheets A and B. The edges et said strips C abut against the said artitionwalls, and the joints thus ici-ine heat penetrating either of the Outer sheets cannot continue its passage, but is absorbed the air in the cells therein, and its further passage is a ain resisted by the walls of said cell and by t e air of adjacent cells, by which it is absorbed., so that penetration throiigh the sheet is exceedingly slow, .thus rendering changes of temperature from exterior causes in a compartment lined with this material very slow, particularly by reason of the fact that the air contained in anyone cell cannot actas a vehicle to distribute any change of temperature except over a very small sur- YYface. This material is particularly adapted for lining refrigerator-ccm artmcnts by reason of itsV very light weig t and efliclency. To render it more serviceable, the cuter sheets A and B are coated with any suitable Waterprocn material.
While insu atin -sheets as shove described arvery eiiicient 1n themselves, it would be Eexpensive to form a thick insulating-Wall therewith, particularly as the efficiency thereof becomes greater as the number of air-cells of smaller volume increases. Hence in the construction of thickl insulating-'walls it is may Abe more completely hermetieaily sealed by in- VYtrcducing cement or los IIC
advantageous to use a cheaper filling, referably of lighter materials. Such lil ing is reerabl of a light ber, and to produce the est resu ts such liber should be carded, for the reason that when all bers extend in the same direction, so as to lie upon and overlap each other, the insulation is most'eifective.
In the animal kingdom it will be noted that hair or wool is always so arranged as to extend in one direction and overlapping and that nearly all animals have the power of raising the hair, this power being utilized by such animals in hot Weather to cool the skin, so that it is reasonable to suppose that when the hair lies flat and overla s the insulation is most complete. It will a so be noted that such hair generally extends horizontal] or downwardlythat is, that the free en s of the hairs are lowermost-so that the warm air contained in the fur cannot readily escape. Hence I prefer to em loy a filling E; consisting of a plurality of iayers of cotton wadding or similar material the ber of which is carded, and this I arrange so that such fibersY extend horizontally, the various layers of such fiber being separated by partitions of paper or similar material, as indicated at F. The cotton waddin which `I prefer to use generally consists o two thin sheets of tissue-paper or calendered fiber, between which the carded fiber is held, and such thin paper or calendered fiber may form the partitions, or an additional sheet or sheets may be provided between the layers of -such fiber. The said carded liber is not sufiiciently stiff for its own support, so that if loosely inserted between outer Walls of stiff insulating material it would readily pack down in the lower ortion of the sp'ace in which it is contained so that the upper portion would form an air-space only. Hence to support such fiber properly the same is preferabl slightly compressed between the outer wa ls and is cemented thereto by irst coatin the inner face of the outer wall with a suitab e adhesive material and a pl ing a sheet of wadding thereto while sai a hesi-ve material is moist. Additional sheets may be similarly cemented together and to any intervening partition-wa ls, so that such fiber is thus suitably supported. It Will be obvious, however, that such su port would not answer for lar e vertically-disposed areas of such fiber, an I refer, therefore, to form relatively small books or ads as follows: Between two outer or doub e outer layers G of the cellular insulating material hereinbefore described I mount a plurality of sheets I of carded fibrous wadding, which may be alternated with additional sheets of said cellular insulatin material and relatively stiff partition-Wal s, consisting of sheets of paper or the like. All of the sheets employed have a common area of, for example, one square foot, thus formin a block having such area and which is bui up to any desired thickness. The ed es of this block are bound or lined with sti board or similar material, whic previously coated on their inner faces with a suitable adhesive material by means of which the edges of all of the sheets contained -in the block are cemented thereto, such blocks being further strengthened by strips J of tape or the like cemented at their free ends to the outer sheets G and passing over the sheets H.
The blocks formed are slightly com ressed before the binding-sheets H are app ied, so as to insure the retention of the wadding in proper relative position and exhaustin part of the air contained therein. Such locks may then be inserted in the walls of refrigerators and refrigerator-cars and used generally wherever insulation is desired, except, of
sheets H of pa er or card-l have been course, where the same would be subjected to hi h temperatures.
I c aim as my invention- 1. An insulating-Wall comprising in combination, outer walls of relatively non-conducting material having small isolated-aircells therein, a llin comprising a plurality of layers of carded brous material, and intermediate walls of relatively'non-conducting material interposed at intervals between said outer walls to support said filling.
2. As a new article of manufacture, an insulating-pad comprisin in combination, parallel outer walls of a re atively non-conducting material provided with isolated air-cells, loo
a filling of carded fiber interposed between said outer walls, a plurality of intermediate supporting-walls interposed in said filling,
and a binding of relatively non-conducting 4 material around the edges of said pad., sai carded liber and said outer and intermediate walls being cemented together and said bindin being also cemented to the edges.
n testimony whereof I have si ed my name in presence of two subscribing wit- 11o nesses.
RUDOLPH WM. Lo'rz, F. SCHLOTFELD.
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