US 828680 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
No. 828,680. PATENTED AUG. 14, 1906. M. W. QUICK.
APPARATUS FOR PUMPING OIL WELLS.
APPLICATION FILED NOV. 8, 1901.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
w s mum}:
ITNE s's I I Zb IQMQ No. 828,680 PATENTED AUG. 14, 1906.
M. W. QUICK.
APPARATUS FOR PUMPING OIL WELLS.
APPLICATION FILED NOV. 8,1901.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
iiiiiiiiiii )II/IIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIAI inxfrrn srATEs arana Faro.
APPARATUS FOR PUMPING OIL-WELLS.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Aug. 14, 1906'.
Application file'd November 8, 1901. Serial No. 81,519.
To all whom it may concern.-
Beit known that 1, MILES W. QUIoK, a citizen of the United States, residing at Titusville, in the county of Crawford and State of Pennsylvania, have invented or discovered certain new and useful Improvements in Apparatus'for Pumping Oil-Wells, of which improvements the following is a specification.
, It has been the usual practice in pumping oil-wells to permit a practically free escape of gases from the well, and under the term gases as herein employed is included such volatile constituents of the oil as will assume a gaseous condition as soon as the oil is relieved of pressure. As aresult of this continuous free escape of gas there will be a gradual separation and escape of the volatile constituents without any movement of the oil, which will remain dead in the interstices of the oil-bearing rock. This is shown by the fact that if the well be closed in, so that pressure can accumulate, thereby preventing a gradual se aration of the volatile constituents from the oil, and the ressure in the .well is then relieved or rediiced there will be a quick expansion of the volatile constituents without a complete separation from the oil, which will be forced out of the rock by such expansion.
The invention described herein has for its object the maintenance of a pressure in the well durin the operation of the ump, the
stopping o the pump as soon as he oil has ceased to flow, and the automatic starting of the pump as soon as the pressure again reaches a certain predetermined oint. The
my improved pum ing apparatus.
invention is hereinafter more ful y described and claimed. 7
In the accompanying drawings, fornnng a part of this specification, Figure 1 is a view,
Inthe practice of my invention the well is provided with a casing 1, a line of tubing 2,
which extends through and forms a tight joint;with the easing-head 3, and a pumprod 4 extending :through a stufling-boxv on the head 5-of the tubing. The tubin 2 ispro:
' -vided with a liquid-outlet pipe 6 an the easing with a gas-outlet pipe 7, which is provided with a suitable valve mechanism 8, normally held closed by a weighted lever 8. The upper end of the pump-rod 4 is connected to the actuating-motor by any suitable means, preferably to one end of a walkingbeam 9, pivotally mounted on the post 10. The opposite end of the walking-beam is connected to the piston-rod 11 of the fluid-pressure cylinder 12. The upper end of the cylinder is connected to a valve mechanism, which in turn is connected to a fluid-pressuresupply pipe 13 and by a pipe 14 to the exhaust-pipe 15. The valve mechanism controlling the flow of fluid-pressure to and from the upper end of the cylinder may be of any suitable form or construction-such, for example, as that shown-consisting of a rotary plug 16, having transverse passages so arranged that in one position of the plug the cylinder will be connected to the fluid-pressure-su ply pipe and to the exhaust-pipe whent e plug is shifted to the o posite position. The plug is provided wit an arm 17, having its outer end connected to a sleeve 18, loosely mounted on the rod 19, which is connected to the iston-rod l1. Tappets 19 are secured to t e rod 19 in suitable positions to shift the valve as the piston reaches any desired points in its movement. It is pre-- ferred to connect a weighted arm to the valve, so as to hold it in its opposite positions as against accidental movement by reason of friction between the sleeve 18 and rod 19.
It will be observed that the motor is of the single-acting type, the piston being forced down by fluid-pressure and raised by the .weight of the pump-rod as it drops down in the Well. When the valve 16 has been shifted, as the piston reaches the lower limit of its stroke to cut off the fluid-pressure supply and connect the upper portion of the cylinder with the pipe or passage '14 the fluid from the cylinder will flow to the exhaust-pipe 15 and also through a port 20 into the lower end of the cylinder, thereby destroying any vacuum which the piston in its u ward movement would normally tend to orm. When there is any liquid in the well, it would buoy up the ump-rod to such an extent that the upwar movement of the piston would be comparatively slow and regular; but if there is no liquid in the well the pump-rod would plunge down quickly when the valve 16 is shifted, and thereby efiect a correspondlng quick upward movement to the piston of the loo cylinder; This sudden upward, movement of the iston would cause such a- 'uiok rush ofpumping mechanism automatic*' i.- e.-,'- toset the-pumping"mechanism in operation. when the desired pressure the :well' has been reached maintaining the pump; inoperationuntilthe accumulated oil has been'pumped out; and then stoppingiltheoperation: of the pumpsuit-able 'va lve Y and motor mechanisms are arranged in' a line of-pi'pe 24; extend ing-rfrom thefwell casin 1 tothepump-op crating mechanism; T e first mechanism; which is :employed' for starting the' umping mechanism when the gas *in thewe attains the desired pressure," consist-s; as shown in Fig. 2','of-a case-or shell25-and a valve 26 de= signed to seat with the pressure'of the gas in' the well. The'stem of this -valve'is-connected to a movable'abutment or diaphragm 27; so arranged-in'a shell'28 as to besubjected on one side to pressure of gas entering the-shell throughaport 29 from -the*we1l-"side'ofthevalve-case 25. The 'valve 26'is forced toward its seat by a spring 30 preferably'arranged to bear against the-diaphragm-and acti'n v inop position'tcthe gas-pressure enteringt I ough port 29'. The-tension'of the's ring 30is-ad- .justed' tohold the-valve clos sired'pressureinthe well has been reached-, I whereuponthe valve 26' is raised from its. seat and gas under pressure-allowed to flowto a valve-shifting mechanism controlling the flow of-lluid-' ressure to-the motor. As shown'irI-Fig; 3ft 4 's IIIGChStDjSI-II'OOIISlStS of an abutment or"diaphragm--31-,' arranged in .a' caseor shell-32 and subjected on oneside to gas-pressure= fr'om' the pipe 24. The diaphragmis connected "by aro'd' 33 to a valve" 34, regulating-the flo'w of fluid-pressure inthepipe-13, leadmgtothe motor; The pressure of gas in thepipe 24 whenthewalve 26"'is* opened will'shift the diaphragm=31 andvalve' 34:, permitting fluid-pressure 1 to' fiiiw to mo-- tor and put the 'same'into operation. The operation of the pumping mechanism will ecn-- tinue until the litt uidin the well'is so exhausted as to permit 0 -a plunging'of'the-pumpgodf ash'eretofo're described. Pressure-oh*gasis' maintained inthe pipe ZQfldIl Hg'thG'OPGIBP tion'of the pump 3 by a valve 35 ofthe mech In order" to render th'e operation of the until the de-- 6 5 anism (shown in section in'Fig: 4) seating? with the ressure in the pipe. This valveis oonnecte byarod36 to an abutment or diaphragm 37, arranged in a case or shell and subjected on the sideaway from the valve to atmos heric pressure. The valve is nor- 7o mallyhel d to its seat by a spring 38,; acting in opposition to atmospheric pressure. When the piston'of the motor-cylinder is jerked up by the plunging of the ump-rod, thereby creating a vacuumunder t e piston,a vacuum" is also-formed inzthe'porti'on-ofth'e-pip e'21 connecting the case oi the "valve -35 to- =thei' cylinder." As this portion-of the: ip'e is com-' nect'ed to'a'spaceb'elowthe' dia agm bya port 39-, it is'evident thatthe f rmatiorrof a vacuum in the lower end 'ofthe'cylihdfland pipe 24* willproduce;avacuum-below-'the*dia-*- phragm; so that the atmospherie 'pre'ssure on the opposite side of thediaphragm" 'w-ill overcomethe-tension of the springand shiftiw 5 the valve 35-frem its seat; thereby permitting such an: 'esca e "of "gas under pressure fl om' the pipe 24 that the'di'a h'ra'gm'BI will be re lievedof pressure'and' the valve-'34 seated by fluidpre'ssure" in the-pipe 13 or"by *atmos 0 pheric'pressurea ainst-thevalvesidofi the" diaphragm' 3 1 ,th reby stopping: the fliiw oh fluid-pressure to the 'cyli'ndr' 121' From the foregoing it will'bereadil under?" stoodthat as soon as the liquid in th well-isg 5 pumped bff to such-an extent that the-pump rod will plunge the'ifl1lid-pressure actuating the'pump mechanism-is cut off and' the flow: of gas from the well is stopped and-that these conditions-will'continue-until the gas-'pres roo sure'inthe well rises to a predeterrnined'point. As soon'as this pressure-is reached the valve 26 is opened, and gas will flow along the pipe 24, the'valve35'having been closed as soon as vacuum= in thecylinder is destroyed and 10 5 de ress the-diaphragm 31 sufiiciently'to open Val Ve-34 to'permito the flowof fluid 'pressure' to the-motor-cylinder.= v
s As the maintenance of highpressure in the" well during "thepum ing operation would 1 1o prevent the flowofoil om'the-sandinto'the well and as the flow of oil to the we'll is facilitatedby a reduction of-pressure' in the well; -I provide 'for a reductionofpressure byaregu lat-edesca e-of-"gas; This escapeof "gascan" 115 be" effectedandcontrolled in* a vamety of ways A convenient means -forthe -purpose consists of' 'the valve 8; arl' anged to seat against 'the pressure-in thewell a weighted lever 8 normally-holding the valve to its seat) 1 20 and a liftingu-ed 40; connected at one *end to the walkingebeam 9 ,while the opposite-end-is connected to theweighted lever 8. The connection between-the walking beam and the weighted lever'is so con's-tructedthat-thev1z5 valves will be ppened-"dziring a'portibn only; of the movement of the pump-rod; the *durii 'ti'on of the opening -being dependentu on 'therate ofaccumulation of'gasin the we} 2* Whilepreferring to employ a fluid=pressure" 1 o motor for operating the pump-rods, my improvement can be applied to other forms or constructions of pump-operating mechanisms, as shown in Figs. 5 and 6. The rass- 5 hopper 41 has its upper end connecte to a ro 42, extending from a central station operating a number of pumps and the opposite end connected to the pump-rod 4, T e connection with the operatin -rod is such that if re the lower end of the grassdiopper be supported in its highest erative osition the rod 42 will slide back an forth without shifting the grasshopper. In order to stop the operation of the pump, a catch or stop is arranged in r suitable relation to the grasshopper to en age the same when the pump-rod is in its big est position, and thereby prevent any further op.- eration of the pump until the grassho per is released. This catch or sto is contro led by so the pressure of gas inthe weld Aconvenient form of stop mechanism is shown in Figs. 5 and 6 and consists of a pivotally-mounted prop or arm 43,'ada(.1pted under conditions ereinafter stated to rop under the horizonz 5 tal arm of the grasshopper when the latter is in its hi hest position. The arm or prop is provide ce tion of a pin on the cradle 46. A rolling weight 47 is arranged on the cradle adapt- 0 ed to assist in shifting the cradle and arm and hold them in position. This cradle is connected by a rod 48 to a movable abutment,
as the diaphragm 49, which is arran ed in a case or shell 50, the space in the shedl being 3 5 connected by, a pipe 51 to the well-casing. A-
spring 52 is connected to the diaphragm to prevent the latter being raised until the pressure in the well has reached a predetermined point. When the arts are in the, .position .0 shown, the pump w1ll not start until the pres- .sure in the well is suflicient. to overcome the tension of the spring and to lift the rolling weight. As soon as. the cradle has been tipped from the angle shown, the notch or re- 45 'cess being made sufliciently long to permit this initial movement without affecting the prop, the weight will roll quickly to the opposite end of the cradle and jerk the prop or arm from under the asshopper and the pumping will begin. g the pumping progresses gas is allowed to escape from the well by means substantially similar to that'illuS- trated in Fig. 1.- As soon as the pressure in the well drops to a point where the tension of 5 5 the s ring will overcome the pressure against the iaphragm and the gravity of the rolling weight the cradle will be again shifted, the
weight will roll to the. opposite end and throw the prop or arm 1n positlon to drop un- 50 der the grasshopper when it reaches the limit of its upward movement, ,and thereby stop the operation of the pump until sufficient ressure to shift the cradle has again accumu ated in the well.
55 It is characteristic'of my improvements with a notch or recess 44 for there- 'controllin motor an means for contro ing said valve by pressure of gas in the well, substantially.
that the operation of pumping is controlled by conditions in the well. In the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 1 the pumpin starts when the accumulation of pressure in icates conditions favorable to a flow of oil into the well and is stopped as soon' as the oil is exhausted.
The presence of an attendant is entirely unnecessary. In the construction shown in Figs. 5 and 6 the pumping is wholly controlled by pressure in the well. It is also characteristic of my invention that as the pumping mechanism begins to operate a valve is opened to permit the escape of gas from the well, so that the oil in the rock. can flow freely into the well during the pumping operation. The valve is'closed, preventing further escape of gas when the pumping mechamsm is stopped, thereby reventing the oil from becomlng dead, in w 'ch condl- 3 tion it would not flow readil to the well.
' While I have shown'and escribed'the referred construction, the claims are not ited in their broader terms to the construction or arrangements shown and described, as other forms and combinations wlthin the spiritof the invention will readily suggest themselves to those skilled in the art. lclaim herein as my invention 1. In an apparatus for pumping oil-wells,
the combinationof a pump, powermechanism for operating the pump, means for controlling the operating mechanism and means for operating said controlling means by PIGS-r sure of gas in the well.
2. In an apparatus for pumping oil-wells,
the combination of a pump, power mechanism for'operating the ump, means for starting the operating mec amsm and means for operating the starting means 0' erated b gaspressure in the well, substantia ly as set orth.
3. In an apparatus for pumpin wells, the v mec anism, a
combination of a pumping Hm h contro g t e valve connected to *the wel escape of gas therefrom, and means operative by pressures determined by conditions in the no I wel for-opening and closing said valve, substantially as set forth.
4. In an apparatus for pumping wells, the combination of a pumpin I mechanism, a' valve connected to said wel and controlling the'escape of gas therefrom, and means operative b the pumping mechanism for opening an closing said valve, substantially as set forth. I
5. In an apparatus for pumping oil-wells,
the combination'of a'pump, afluid-pressure motor for operating the pump,
the flow of fluidressure to and a valve as set forth. I
6. In an apparatus for pumping oil-wells, the combination of a pump, a fluidressure motor for' operating the pump, a va ve controlling the flow of fluid-pressure to the mothe & v 828,680
v tor, means for opening the valve by a, predestarting of the pumping mechanism, and for termined pressure of asin the well and closing said valve .on the stoppage of the means for closing the va ve by the movement Fumping mechanism, substantially as set of the pump consequent on the exhaustion of orth. 5 liquid in the well to cloesaid valve, su'bstan- 'In testimony whereof I have hereunto set 15 tially as set forth. 4 my hand. I
7. In an apparatus for pumping wells, 3, l MILES QUICK. combination of a pumping mechanism, a Witnesses:
valve controll'in the fiow of as from the HERBERT BRAD EY,
10 well, and means oropenings valyeon'the GAITHER.