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Publication numberUS831173 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 18, 1906
Filing dateApr 26, 1905
Priority dateApr 26, 1905
Publication numberUS 831173 A, US 831173A, US-A-831173, US831173 A, US831173A
InventorsJohn J Montgomery
Original AssigneeJohn J Montgomery
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Aeroplane.
US 831173 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

PATENTBD SEPT. 18, 1906.

J. J. MONTGOMERY.

AEROPLANE.

APPLICATION nun APH.26,1905.

3 SHEETS-SHEET 1.

Nn- 831,173. PATENTED SEPT. 18, 1906.

J. J. MONTGOMERY.

'AEROPLANE.

APPLICATION FILED APB.26,1905.

3 SHEETS-SHEET 2.

1'0 all whom, 'it may concern.-

: burrs STATES Arnur ,orr'icn.

AEROPLANE.

Be it known that 1, JOHN J. MONTGOMERY, a citizen ofthe United States, residing at Santa Clara, county of Santa Clara, State of California, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Aeroplanes; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full,

, clear, and exact description of the same.

My invention relates to the class of aeroplanes; and it consists in certain surfaces with means for adjusting them, as I shall hereinafter fully describe.

The object of my invention is to provide a controllable aeroplane device. 7.

Referring to the accompanyingidrawings, Figure 1 is a side elevation of my aeroplane device. Fig. 2 is a top plan of the same. Fig. 3 is a front view of the same.

enlarged, of one side of one wing-surface. Fig. 5 is a cross-section on the line are of Fig. 4. Fig. 6 is adetail view of the con- "trolling wires and cords which change the surface of the aeroplane. Fig. 7 is a detail view of the same adapted for the rear wingsurface in order to vary its inclination to the front win -surface.

In the orm of the device here illustrated, there is a front wing-surface A, a rear win surface B, and a horizontal tailsurface The wing surfaces A and B in fore-and-aft or transverse section are curved, the most per fect form of the curve being that of a parabola, whereby the curve in front is sharp and that in the back is relatively more gradual, as seen in Fig. 5. These two surfaces A and B are connected by the bars D of a frame.

The front portions a and b, respectively, of the wing-surfaces are best curved down from center to ends, as seen in Fig. 3, and are firmly attached to the fore-and-aft bars D at the points 11. They are also strongly braced in all directions by wires (1, running to vertical frame-posted .and to the frame-bars D. The rear portions a and b, respectively, of the wing-surfaces are hinged midway of their length, where their stiffener-bars are severed and hinged together at a. and b, so that said rear portions are free to droop, but are restrained from upward movement by a series of wires E, attached to the lower beam F of the frame in a manner which I shall presentl describe. These rear portions (1 and I) simply rest on the frame-bars D, and

thereby having their freedom of movement can assume various positions, like the arms of a balance, thus causing a change in the form Specification of Letters Patent. Application filed April 26,1905. Serial No. 257,403.

Fig. lisa device may keep Patented Sept. 1a, 1 06.

of the wing-surfaces on the two sides. This change of surface is for the purpose of guidance and partly for equilibrium and is produced by the following means. The wires E, which are attached above to the rear portion a of the front wing-surface A, pass downwardly from each side of said portion,

the group of wires from each side being united below, as shown in Fig. 6, to opposite ends of an equalizing-cable e through the intervention of a ring. The equalizing-cable 0 plays freely through a pulley e, secured on top of the lower beam F machine. Secured to the wing terminals of the e ualizer-c'ablec are cords 6 which pass there om to the beam and cross each other through a guide e on-said beam, and thence said cords pass downwardly and backwardly, as seen in Fig. 1, and are attached to the ends of a cross-foot or stirrup-bar G, as seen in Figs. 2 and 3. The wires E, which are attached above to the rear ortion b of the rear wing-surface B, pass' ownwardly from each side of said portion, the groups of wires from each side being united below, as shown in Fig. 7, to opposite ends of an equalizingcable similar to the cable e in front and similarly lettered through the intervention of a ring. This rear equalizing-cable instead of bein guided by a pulley rmly attached to the eam F is guided and plays freely through the upper pulleyof a triple sheave, (lettered e,) which sheave is connected with and held'by a cord J, attached to it. This cord J passes freely through a hole in beam F, and is thence guided by a as seen in Fig. 7-, pulley under the beam to a pomt forward, as shown in Fig. 1, to within reach of the operator. Cords e are secured to the terminal rings of the rear equalizer-cable e, as shown in Fig. 7, and thence are guided by the lateral pulleys of the triple sheave e downwardly and backwardly to the foot or stirrup bar G, as seen in Figs. 2 and 1. By pressing down on the stirrup-bar on one side the rear portions of the wing-surfaces on one side are drawn down, while those on the opposite side are allowed to yield to the air-pressure beneath. By these means the wing-surfaces change their form. The pressures on the two sides of the device are varied, and the its course when meeting a gust, which would tend to tilt it and turn it aside, or it may be made to change its course. A feature of the arrangement of the cords e of the frame of the (indicated in Fig. 6) is that the one attached .this the right rear surfaces yielding become the I weaker.

passes through the guide E of the stirrup-bar, and vice to the left arms to the right end versa. will force down the left rear surfaces, making stronger side of the device, While the These changes cause the device to swing to the right.

By simultaneously pressing on both ends of the stirrup-bar all the. rear portions ofbotli wing-surfaces are de ressed for the purpose of partly meeting t e re uirements of the fore and aft equilibrium; but this is mainly done by varying the relative inclination'of one of-the Wing-surfaces to that of the other. This last-named variation involves both fore and aft e ilibrium and continuance of flight, as I shal -lv presently explain. This adjustment of inclination is accomplished by a1;- lowing the free rear portion, of the rear wing.-

" surface B torise. under the pressure of the air and'bypulling it down again as required by means of its wires E and cords 6?, heretoada d. for his ndependent use as the pin eys e? of the rearcontrol are not secured to the, beam F, but are held by a se arate cord J, which passes within reach of t erator, being guided. by a pulley 7'.

In the rear of the device in connection with tail-surface 0 there is a large surface H perpendicular to the tail-surface, attached to 1t and extending both above and below it. The tail-surface is adapted to swing vertically by bein hinged at 0 surface and its movement is effected by means ofa cord L, secured to it on each side, Fig, 1-, saidcord be' g suitably uided and attached to asliding handhold within reach of the operator.

Thesurface H moves vertically with the tail-surface but it' has no side movement, because its function is that of a keel or fin and not that of a rudder. It serves to maintain the side equilibrium, which it does by performing an operation different from that of a rudder. The essentials of this fin-like. surface H are, first, that it shall be relatively large; second, that it shall be proximate to the rear surface, and, third, that it shall extend above andbelow the tail-surface C.

e oponcerning the fore and aft alined wingsurfaces A and B. thereare two essential adjustments, first, that of the rear portions of device may keep its course, being prevented from tilting or turning aside and may change its course. These results are based upon the essential character of a wing-surface. In-

Thus a pressure with the right foot.

specially-formed surface placed in such a po= sition as to develop a rotary movement in the surrounding air. This position is determined by mathematical considerations. The various requirements of gliding are met by changes in various parts of the wing. The movements in the air are of such a nature as to make it possible to separate the Wing-surface, as I have done in my device, into front and rear sections and maintain the special rotary movement of the air which lies at the basis of this phenomenon. The sections though separated have a form and adjustment suitable to themselves, based upon the fundamental formula of, formation and adone wing-surface relatively to theother-the 3 5 machine maintains equilibrium andvv flight. If-a surface IIIOVGS'fLh'iL slight angle through to the rear of the Whig-- the air, the center of pressure is near the front edge, and the weight carried must be below this point. To meet the requirements of varying speeds of motion, it is necessary to either change the position of the weight or the angle of the surface. This in my device is done by changing the angle between the front and rear wing surfaces A and B. In

the process of gliding there must be 3 continual change in the angle of these surfaces to maintain theproper speed and e uilibrium.

Concerning the tail-surface C t ere must be an up-and-down or vertical adjustment. The tail-surface is in reality but an extension of the rear wing-surface B, By the varia' tion of its angle the pressuresin the rear are varied. The samevariations are, indeed, produced if the tail be rear wing-surfaceis changed in its angle. In other words, whether the tail be a separate surface oronly an extension of the rear wingsurface it isenough to say that therear surface must be adaptedto change its angle in part or whole. 4

dispensed with and thegro 5 The effect of the fin-like surface H is this: i

If fromany cause the machine is tilted to one side and it commences to glide sidevvise, though the frnt parts have an unimpeded side movement, the rear part having the large fin H meets resistanceand as a consequence the machine is swung around and continues to travelin the, direction it started to fall. Thisof course takes themachine out of its course. To bring it. back again,-the wings must be operated as before described. Thus it will be seen this vertical fin-like surface has a distinctive character, due to its size and position, and, though apparently a rudder, 1s the reverse and not designed to perform the oflice of a rudder. a

Heretofore I-have described the wing-surfaces as being curved in cross-section, the

vestigation has shownme that a wing is a best formbeing parabolic. It must now be each side of each wing-surface is specialized,

asp

beginnin as follows: All the fore-and-aft or cross sections are parabolic curves; but those curves nearer the center are most inclined to the ath of movement and thence toward the ends their inclination is gradually decreased, thereby producing a sinuousity of the wing, as shown in Figs. 3 and 5, ,which is the normal surface from which the various changes are made. Inaddition to this adjustment or arrangement the curved cross-sections, 0 about two-thirds from the center, are less sharply curved in front, and so continue decreasing in shar curvature to the ends. This is shown in lfigs. 4 and 5, wherein the successive sections'l, the gradual cutting off at the front of the sharp' beginning of the several parabolic curves. The first of these arran ementsnamely, the gradual change in inc ination of the path of movement properly meeting and the cross-curves to is for the purpose of cutting the rising current of air immediately surface, analysis and in front of the'wing experiments having shown that the action of the under surface of a wing is to cause an ascending current of air immediately in front of the wing-surface, this ascendin tendency being greatest at the center an gradually diminishing toward the tips. The second arrangementnamely, the diminishing curvature near the ends of the Wing-of the forward end of the curves is for the same purose, but is rendered necessary by the fact that if the foregoing adjustment of the surfaces were continued to the end the sharp curvature of the front edge would force the rear portions of the surface into a too abrupt position relative toits path, thus building up a large unnecessary resistance to the forward movement.

In using the aeroplane the operator sits astride the beam F, with his feet on the stirrup-b ar G. With one hand ates the cord L for adjusting-the tail. machine, with the operator in place, is carried to a height by means of a balloon and is launched from any desired elevation by tripping its connections with the balloon.

Having thus described the invention, what I claim as new, and desire to protect by Letters Patent, is-.

1. In an aeroplane devicefa curved wing, with means for changing its curvature,

2. In an-aeroplane device, a curved wing,

with means for adjusting its rear portion rela- I tively to its front portion, to change its curvature.

3. In 'an aeroplane device, a curved wing, with means for adjusting either side of its rear portion either similarly to or diversely from the other, relatively to the front portion, to change its curvature.

2, 3, and 4 show he holds onto the frame and with the other he holds and op eip' e f 4. In an aeroplane device, a curved wing,

side of its rear portion either similarly to or diversely from' the other, relatively to the front portion, to change its curvature.

6. An aeroplane curved parabolically from front to rear, with means for changing its surface.

7. An aerop ane curved parabolically from front to rear with means for adjusting its rear portion relatively to its front portion, to change its surface.

-8. An aeroplane curved parabolically from front to rear with means for. adjusting either side of its rear portion either. similarly to or diversely from the other, relatively to the front portion, to change its curvature.

' 9. An aeroplane curved parabolically from front to rear, its front portion being rigid, and its rear portion adjustable, with means adjusting said rear portion relatively to the front portion, to change the surface of the aeroplane.

fromi -front I to rear, its front portion being rigid andits rear portion ad ustable, with means for adjusting either side of its rear portion either similarly to or diversely fromthe other, relatively to the front portion, to change its curvature.

11. In an aeroplane wings, for varying the angle of one relatively to another and changing the curvature of each.

12. In an aeroplane device, plural aeroplanes curved parabolically from front to rear, one in advance of another, with means for varying the angle of one relatively to another.

13. In an aeroplane device plural aeroplanes curved parabolically from front to rear, one in advance of another,with means for varying the angle of one relatively to an other, and changin the curvature of each.

14. In an aerop ane device, plural aeroplanes,-one in advance of another, with means for varying the angle of one'relatively to another, and means or adjusting either side of the rear portion of each aeroplane either similarly to or diversely from the other sideyrBlatively to the front ortion, to change the surface of each aerop ane.

15. In an aeroplane device, plural aeroplanes, curved parabolically from front to rear,,one in advance of another, with means for varying the angle of one relatively to another, and adjusting the rear portion of each aeroplane relatively to its front portion to change the surface of each.

device, plural curved for.

one in advance of another, with means '16. A curved .aeroplane with means for 'changingsits curvature, andra horizontal-tail .behind, with means forswinging it verticallv.-

'17. In an aeroplanerdevice, plural curved aeroplanes one in :advancelof another, anda :horizontal tail-surface behind the :last aeroplane .with means-for swinging said tail-sur r'face vertically.

:18. Inanhaeroplane device... plural curved .-'aeroplanes, -onelinadvance of another, withmeans. for .varyingqthe angle of. one relatively .to ianotheraand .-a horizontal tail-surface behindrthelast aeroplane with means for swinging said tail-surface vertically.

19. In .an aeroplane .device, plural aeroplanes, one in advance of another,-.with means :for varying the. angle of onerelativelyl to ,an-

other and changing the surface of each, and .a "horizontal tails-surface behind thelast aeroplane with meansforswinging said tail-sur- .,20. Inan aeroplane device, plural aerolanes, one m advance of another, with means orvaryingthe angle of one-relatively. to .an-

lthe

other, means for ad 'usting. either side of aeroplane either s1m1- .rear portion. of oat rlarlyrto .ondiversely. from the other -side,relar-tively to the front portion, to change .the .sur-

' face of each aeroplane, and a liorizontali tail- .3

surface. behind: the last aeroplane with means for-swinging .said tail-surface vertically.

'21.;I-n..-an.-aerop1ane device, pluralaeroplanes, curved parabol-ieally .from front to :rear, one in advance of another, with means for varying the angle of one relatively to another, and adjusting the rear portions of each aeroplane relatively to its front portions to .ehange the surface of each, and .a-horizontal tail-surface behind the last aeroplane with means for swinging said tail-surface verticall-y. v

' 22. Air-aeroplane havingat its reara horirzontal ,tail-surface-with means forswinging it changing vertically,.- and. a -relativelyi lar e: fin-surface fixed to the tail-surface perpen icularly.

"23. A .ourved .aeroplane .with means for its curvature said aeroplane having .at-rits :rear -a "horizontal tail-surface, with -means; for-swinging it vertically, and .a relatively-largej fin-surface fixed to. the tail-surface perpendicularly.

24. An-aeroplane device comprising plural aeroplanes .one inadvance ofanother, ,a horizontal tail-surfaceat therear ,of the .last aerotail surfaoe perpen plane with: means for. swinging it vertically,

and a-relatively lar efin-surface fixed tov the icularly.

25. In an aeroplanedevice, plural aero- --planes-one inadvance of another, with means for. varying theangle .of one relatively .to another and changing the surface of each, and a -horizontal= tail-surface behind the last aero plane, with means for swinging said vtail sur ,ifacesvertically, .and a .fin-surface- .fixed to the tail-surface perpendicularlyn 26. In an aeroplane device, plural aero= l planes, one in advance of another,with means for varying the angle. of onerelativelyto another, means for adjusting either side of the rear portion of each aeroplane either similarly to or diversely from the other side, relatively. tothe front portion, to change the survface. of each aeroplane, and .a horizontal tailsurface behind the last aeroplane with means for swinging saidtail-surface vertically, and a fin-surface fixed to thetail-surfaceperpem dicularly.

27. In an aeroplane device, plural aeroplanes, curved parabolically from front to rear, one in advance of another, with means for varying the angle of one relatively to another, and adjusting therearportion of. each aeroplane relatively to its front ortionto vchange-thesurface of each .and a orizontal tail-surface behind the last aeroplane, with means for swinging said-'tailesurface vertically, and a finesurface fixed to the tail-surface perpendicula-rly.

28. A.curved aeroplane with means :for changing its curvature and provided with a fin-surface perpendicular: thereto.

29. A curved aeroplane with means for changing its curvature-and provided with .a

-surfaceperpendicular thereto and extending both above .and belowsaid aeroplane.

30. An aeroplane .curved parabolically from front to rear.

' 31. An aeroplane curved 'parabolically from front to rear, its curves, 1n successive .sections from center to lends, decreasing in inclination to the path of travel.

.32. An aeroplane curved parabolically *from front to rear, its sections near. the ends beingless sharply. curved .at their front ends than the forward ends of sections nearer the center.

33. An aeroplane curved parabolically from front to rear, its curves in successive sections from center to ends decreasing in inclination to the path of travel, andiits sections near the endsbeing less sharply curved at their forward ends than the'forward ends of sections nearer the center.

' 34. aeroplane curved parabolically from-frontito rear, its curvesin. successive sections from center toends decreasing in inclinationto the path of travel, itssections near.the ends being less sharply curved at theirforward ends than the forward .ends of sections near the center,- and means for changing the surface of saidaeroplane.

35. An aeroplane curved. parabolically from front to rear, its curves in successive sections from center toends decreasing in inclination to the path of travel, and its sections near the ends being less. sharply curved at their forward ends than the forward ends .ofsections nearer the center, and means for adjusting the rear .portion of said aeroplane l relatively to its front portion.

36'. An aeroplane curved parabolically from front to rear, its curves 1n successive sections from center to ends decreasing in in clination to the path of travel, and itssections near the ends being less sharply curved at their forward ends than the forward ends of sectionsnearer the center, the front portion of said aeroplane being rigid, and means for adjusting its rear portion' relatively to its front portion, to change its surface.

37. In an aeroplane device, an aeroplane curved parabolically from front to rear, its

curves, in successive sections from center to ends, decreasing in inclination to the path of travel, and a horizontal tail-surface approximate to the rear of said aeroplane, with pleans for vertically swinging said tail-surace.

38. In an aeroplane device, an aeroplane curved parabolically from front to rear, its curves, in successive sections from center to ends, decreasing in inclination to the path of travel, a horizontal tail-surface a proximate to the rear ofsaid aeroplane, wit means for tail-surface and extending both a curved said tail-surface, and a vertically swingin perpendicularly to the fin-surface secure tail-surface.

39. In an aeroplane device, an aeroplane parabolically from front to rear, its curves, in successive sections from center to ends,decreasing in inclination to the path of travel, a horizontal tail-surface a proximate to the rear of. said aeroplane, wit means'for vertically swingin said tail-surface, anda fin-surface I secured perpendicularl to the eve and below said surface.

40;: In an aeroplane device, an aeroplane curved parabolicallyfrom front to rear, its curves 111 successive sections from center-t0 ends decreasing in inclination to the athof travel, and its sections near the end being less sharply curved than the forward ends of sections nearer the center, and a horizontal tail-surface approx1- mate to the rear of said aeroplane, with rfneans for vertically swinging said tail-surace. I I I 41. In an aeroplane device, an aeroplane curved parabohcally om front to rear, its

curves in successive-sections from center to ends decreasing in inclination to the path of travel, and its sections near the ends being less sharply curved at their forward ends than the forward ends of sections nearer the center, a horizontal tail-surface a proximate to the rear of said aeroplane, means for vertically swin said tailsurface, and a fin-surface secure perpendicularly to said tail-surface.

42. In an aeroplane device, an aeroplane curved parabolically from front to rear, its curves, in successive sections, from center to ends, decreasing in inclination to the path of travel, with means for changing the surface curved parabolically center,

at their forward ends ral aeroplanes,

of said aeroplane, and a tail-surface approximate to the rear of said aeroplane, wit ifneans for vertically swinging said tail-surace.

43. In an aeroplane device, an aeroplane curved parabolically from front to rear, its curves in successive sections from center to ends decreasing in inclination to the path of travel and its sections near the ends being less sharply curved at their forward ends than the forward ends of sections nearer the center, with means for changglrg the surface of said aeroplane, and a tail-s ace approximate to the rear end of said aeroplane, wit pieans for vertically swinging said tail-surace.

44. In an aeroplane device, an aeroplane from front to rear, its curves in successive sections from center to ends decreasing inclination to the path of travel, and its sections near the ends being less sharply curved at their forward ends than the forward ends .of sections nearer the with means for. changing the surface a tail-surface approximate 9 lane, with means tail-surface, and

of said aeroplane, to the rear end of said aero for vertically swinging sai a fin-surface secured perpendicularly to the I tail-surface. y 45. An aeroplane device, comprising plural aeroplanes, one in advance of another, with means for changing the surface of each, and means for varying the angle of one r'elatively to another, each of said aeroplanes being curved parabolically from front to rear,

its 'curvesin successive sections fromcenter to ends decreasing in inclination to the path oftravel, and its sections near the ends'being less sharply curved at their forward ends than the forward ends'of sections nearer the 5 center, a horizontal tail-surface approximate to the rear portion of the'las'taeroplane, and means for vertically swinging said tail-surface.

46. An aeroplane device, comprising. lu-

one in advance of anot er, 110 with means for changing the surface of each, and means for varying the angle of one relatively to another, each of said. aeroplanes curved parabolically from front to rear,

its curves in successive sections from center 5 to ends decreasing in inclination'to the path of travel, and its sections near the ends being less sharply curved at their forward ends than the forward ends of sections nearer the center, a horizontal tail-surface approximate to the rear portion of the last aeroplane,

means for vertically swinging said tail-surface, and a fin-surface secured perpendicularly tothe tail-surface. a h lnlwitness whereof I have hereunto set my I 5 an JOHN J. MONTGOMERY. presence of J. COMPTON, I

1). B. Rrcnakns.

Classifications
Cooperative ClassificationY02T70/121, B64C31/02