US 832527 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
PATEN'IED OCT. 2, 1906.
L. BARRI'IT. STAR AND PLANET FINDER.
APPLICATION FILED 00T.5. 1905.
z SHEETS-SHEET 1.
WITHOU T A TELESQQPE INV ATTQRNEY PATBNTED OCT. 2, 1906.
L. BARRITI. STAR AND PLANET FINDER.
APPLICATION FILED 0GT.5, 1905.
` 2 SEEETS-SHEET 2.
mwN mm# m H mw Om.
39%@ .569| .Smm e w28 5:@ v7.2 262 WMQMZDHn-mz 23@ .Sil .ai e 3 5 3S.. is 252 w32/:
E E. www www, www. www. 2% 2m ai. d se: E mm2 www www kw: $2 www EPEE, S
INVENIOR LENBARRITT, or NEW YORK, N. Y.
` i STAR AND APLANET FINDER.
To all `whom, it may concern:
Be it known that I/,CLnoN BAnnrr'r, a eiti zen of the United States of America,resid at the borough of Brooklyn, in the city o New York, State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in a Star and Planet Finder, of which the followis a specification.
his invention has for its object to provide a simple, efficient, and inexpensive planisphere device adapted for use by expert or amateur astronomers or by teachers and students generally for enabling them to quickly and accurately locate and identify and distinguish the moving planets or' the solar system relatively'to the ixed stars or constellations of the heavens at any time and by the aid of annually-arranged reference-tables which specify the relative positions of the planets at proper times.
The invention-Will' iirst be described and then will be particularly defined in the claims hereinafter set forth.
Reference is made to the accom anying drawings, formingpart of this spec' cation, and in Which- Figure 1 is a planor face view of the improved star and-planet nderlwith the plane of. the eclipti, indicated by a heavy-dotted line. Fig. 2 is 'an enlarged detail cross-sectional view taken on the line :c in Fig. 1. Fig. 3.is an enlargaed detail lan view of an inner ortion of t e planisphere. Fig. 4 is an e arged detail plan vieW of a marginal ace view of a planet reference tablet or table for the year 1905. ,f
The numeral 1 `indicates a suitable and preferably vsquare base-plate or backing to which ispivoted at 2 in the North Star position a revoluble planisphere 3, on which the iixed stars or constellations 4, including the Milky Way 5, are produced in any ordinary 1 or approved manner and preferably by printing or lithogra hy, making them appear in white upon a lack or dark ground, so -as to be easily visible.. On the planis here ,3 is roduced distinctively and prefera ly in `red mk a heavy elliptical line 6, which indicates-the lplane of the' ecliptic or theapparent path of t e sun. This ecliptic line 6 is preferably graduated sixty degrees, which .are preferably indicated in successive ves 5,10, 15, &c.,from one to three hundred and sixty, as shown in Figs. 1 and 3 of the.,
Specification of Letters Patent. Appunti@ mea 00am s, 1905. 'snm No. 281.472.
' months also subdivided at the ortion of the planisphere, and Fig. 5 is a 'right of the symbol into .three hundred andv and by the numerals 1,
ymeans comprises by ratentea oct. v'2, 1906.
drawin to facilitate placement upon the planisp ere of the lanet-indicators hereinafter described. he planisphere disk 3 preferably bears at its outer rim portion the names ofthe usual zodiacal sign-names 7, and within the circle of said signs are produced consecutively the names of the from January to December. The
spaces occupied by these month-names are outer part into dayspaces, in which only the alternate days for each corresponding month may, be numerically indicated. f
Over the planisphere-disk 3 is applied a face-plate 8, which, like the backing 1, preferably has a generally square form. Interposed spacing-pieces 9, held at the four corners to and between the plates 1 8, permit rotation of the disk 3 onits axis 2 between these plates. The face-plate 8 has a large and preferably elliptical interior openin 10, through which most of the star-field o the planisphere 3 is visible. Said plate 8 also, preferably, has a series of se ental marginal openings 11, through whlch the month and day indices on the disk 3 may be seen. Within the margin of said openings 11 are roducedon the plate 8 series of numerals 1 to 12 indicating the hourly time from midnight'tO midday and from middayto midnight. horizon-opening 10 of the plate 8 are roduced on said plate the direction-sym ols NorthH and South," and to thel left and North are produced the hrases Eastern horizon and Western orizon. At the north corner of the face-plate 8 is preferably produced the title phrase The heavens without a telescope, under which appears the phrase Abovesand below the elliptical See the accompanying tables for moving planet-disks. ,f
Toward the south appears the phrase Only those stars visible to the nakedY eye are shown," while to the east appears the phrase The path of planets is shown by red ellipse, and to the west appearsv the hrase Hold the map over your head-t e top north-and you will see the stars just as they appear in the heavens." The precise char"- acter andlocation of these information or direction imprints upon the face-plate 8 are IOO immaterial, as they may widely vary as occasion may suggest or require.
The planet locating and distinguishing preference a series of adjustable indicators 12 in the form ofdisks IIO 'divisions quite. unlike planet numerically indicating'only the. dfethree hundredzaud sixty,
having some suitable means of attachment. to the face of the planishere 3 vsuch means,
ermitting the the earth) from Mercury to Neptune, one
'plarret-naine 'being on each planetdisk or indicator.
"'Dhe tables Aenabling any one ordinary intelligence to quickly, feas'ily, and properly llocate-the indicators l2 or vany 'equivalent 'planet-indicators upon the planis here 3 are preferably made 1in ,separate tab eter card storm, `one for each year, the tablet lror 1905 Ibeing ks'lsiown in Fig. 5 .of the drawings. "libe numerals lranging Vafter the` planetnames in squares orlsulbdi-visions of this table and preferably printed 'in red indicate the degrees of the ecliptic plane at or near which the vindicators 12 are :to Pbe located `upon the planispliere '3 at the .dates `appearing, preferably, above the respective de -.ee.-markson .the table. One or more o .these annually-arranged tablets -or talb'les may lbe supplied -Wit'h .each p'lanispheredeyice. 'lt 110W 1s ro osed to supply a 4series .of twenty tables llinr f ocat- .11 planets relatively :to the fixed stars 'for a eriod ol" twenty years ahead of the date oiiputblication of the planisphere.
A prior" planisphere not accompanied @by adjustable planet-indicators and reference tablets or tables-ttory loca/ting them iat the ecliptic andre uirng consultmg an almanac to determine llore time at which an given planet rises, souths, .orsetsbefore bemg able to locate the'planets relatively .to the fixed stars Iliad its graduated ecliptic degreesarranged in tweve groups of thirty degnees, and one group for` .each adjacent im rinfted name .of e ber, and each monthlygroup :lia-ving its degrees indicatedby vnumerals '10.20 vand which is an .arrangement of the degree subgrees from one "to inclusive, .at the ecliptic plane .andiwit-hout .adjacent Iconfusing month-names.
The hereinfdescribed annually-.arranged tabletsor .tabl-es Wouldbe serviceable if the de ree-graduations -at the ecliptic. plane were incated iin :manner other than hereinbefore mentioned-as, for instance, by lines radi- ,ating from the planispheresaxis to its periphery-Whereat said lines may be numerically marked atthe graduated .degree-points buty the numerical marliin of .the degrees in fives from 'one to three undred and .sixty directly on or near the imprint lof the' ecliptic plane., ,as-herein shown and described, is 1 reerred, because itavoids all preliminaryca culations, such as-by eye measurements along lanisphere at or nearI prlnting or otherwise the Anames of" all the planets of the solarsystem (excepting -month, day,
month from January to l ecem .the liereinndescrihed" radial lines, and also avoids search for month names next'deg'ree indications of the ecliptic, 1n order to-ascertain the precise degree posi- .tions at .the :imprinted ecliptic plane tov which the planet-indicators are to be adjusted, and thus assures very quick, easy, and accurate ad'ustment of the indicators upon any part o the planisphere in accordance with the accompanying table by any intelligent adult -orfchild 'pursuing `the study of lthe heavens.
Illustrative off the :use of .this-.invention the planrisp'here f3 in lFig. il fof .the drawings is shown turned upon its axs 2 until thedaite of l=Oeltober=5 registers with :the .hourfof 4 -a. m. By referring .to 'the illust/rated table arranged for the year 1 905 it Will beseen that the planet lVenus stands :at-aboutft'he .one lhundred and sixtieth degree, and the indicator 1 2, marked Venusf is therelioqre applied orrafixedfto ilhe plan-iSphere :3 4at 'or near the numericall marked foneehundred .and sixtieth degree-off its [ecliptic planef. Said table shows :thatJ'upiter yand, Neptune voccupy .respective positions-.at
the siXfty-ifth .and lone hundme't'h degrees, and their indicatingd.isks will also be appliedfto fthe planisph'cre 3 at. these respective d y ree positions at. orrnear the ecliptic plane 6, Si as shown in Figs. 1 and I2 of thedmawings. lf new the directions at the rightshand lcorner of the face-.plate 8-u Hold .the mapowrer your head--the top to the no 4 IL-bre iollllowed, the virripnints aof-rtlhe fixed stars and ftheirconstellations on the planispheme I3 vand '.the disks 12 applied thereto Will to ether.' clearly indi- .cate .on the plamis'pherete precise yrelative positions the visiblestar-sand planets occupy in ythe heavens `at fcura.. m. .onOetolvcr- 5,
1.905. By simply turningftl-:e plan'isphere 3 Y on its pvot2fto amy positionindicatingitlhe vand hour, with .refemence'to A:the repared table for any given year, the .melative positions of .they edstars-andmoving planetsmay b'e quickly, easily, and certainly indicated at any time oda-yor night during that year by adjusting the planet'indicating disksthe planis-phere 3 ator'near the ecliptie. lane 6 atproper positions in accendance witili the tables.y
Itisrobvious with this plenispliere l.device and accompanying tables any person of ordinary intelligence will beyable to yiind the .fixed :stars andtheirconstellations and also locate -and identify. and most clearly distinguishthe planets appearing as vmorning .or evening stars or otherwise any time and yfor any `numlwr.of'years forwhich the tables may be prepared. The `Very large number of persons, broth professionals and amateurs, interested inthe study offthe heavens may in this simple device have always :conveniently .at hand a readily-adjustable celestial chart enabling the'mby the aid of the easily-read reiierence-tablesY to -uufailingly locate all the fixed stars and their. constellations and IOO IIO
clearly distinguish `them from theplanetaryy system at any year, day, month, and hour. v
printed p ane of the ecliptic, and it was spe.
cially directed that with this prior device an ephemeris or nautical almanac be used to determine Where to locate 'the planet-indicators upon the planisphere at various times of any given year for which the ephemeris was issued.
The tablets or tables accompanying the planisphere in accordance with this invention cost but a trifle by comparison with the cost of an ephemeris for a eriod of twenty'years. It also requires specia training or skill to accurately use ephemeris or almanac tables to distinguish the planets from the ixed stars by a process of selection of proper tables from the great mass of tabulated information for astronomers and navi ators usually compiled in these volumes. Tiis trouble of selecting and using the proper ephemeris or almanac tables to determine the planet positions would alone discoura e o ular or Wide use of a star and planet ndlerlby novices in astronomy and navigation, aside altogether from the almost prohibitive cost, bulk, and Weight of many volumes of the ephemeris or almanac, if used only for distinguishing the lanets Jfrom the fixed stars, as is pro osed to be done by the aid of this improve planishere device of Which the accompanying.
tablets or tables thus obviously form an important part.
The special object of this invention is to rovide a planisphere-having imprints `of the edstarsand of a graduated ecliptic plane with adjustable planet-indicators and accomf panying tablets or tables,by the aid of which any young or older student may quickly and easily and accurately apply the planet-inditors at or near the imprinted ecliptic plane of the planisphere-disk and Without requiring the inconvenient use of expensive andbulky ephemeris or almanac volumes. This invention by including initself all necessary means or appliances for quickly and Y accurately locating and visibly positioning the planets relatively to the xed stars is for this purpose the full equivalent of and an obvious improvement upon any prior lanisphere device necessarily accompanie by an ephem` eris or almanac, the proper use of Whichvis not understood by the very4 large majority of intelligent persons Who are unable to make calculations from such volumes, but desire a fairly accurate knowledge of the celestial sphere. In other Words, the object of this invention is to provide at loW cost the most complete and effective combination ofsimple appliances for easily and'accurately locating t e without aborious or inconvenient or expensive calculations that has as yet been devised and with a view to stimulatin and widely lpopularizing the asthetic and elpful study of the heavens.
lanets relatively to theiixed stars u Various modications may bemade in the form yof the planet-indicators and in the method of applying or'aflixing them to the lanisphere 3as, for instance, the lanetindicator attachment may be efecte magnetically or in manner other than'by the teeth or ins 13, herein specially shown and describe The terms imprints and imprinted also are`to be construed as including1 any method of producing on the planisp ere the desired representations of the iiXed stars and their constellations and the graduated ecliptic plane.
This improved planisphere device may also be used to indicate the phases of the moon for any month of any year by employing a series of disks 12, indicating in proper manner the moon phases-new moon, first quarter, full moon, last uarter. By reference to specially-prepare tables relatively indicating the days of the month and the degrees of the ecliptic said moon-disks may be aplied to the planisphereat the ecliptic lane ine 6. For instance, for the month o December, 1905, the table shows that the kmoon enters as new moon on December 1, at tWo degrees; enters the 2 first quarter on December 7, at ninety-six degrees; becomes full moon7 on December 14, at one hundred and ninety-two degrees, and enters the last quarter von December 21, at eighteen degrees. By placing the corresponding moonphase disks at the degree marks -2 96 192 18 on the ecliptic plane line 6 these disks Will indicate new moon, first quarter, full moon, and last quarter phases, respectively, for said month of December, 1905. If desired, but one full-moon disk may be used and placed at the corresponding degree indicating such (phase in the table.
This improve planisphere device may also be used to determined the apparent or relative position of the sun upon the ecliptic at `any day or date by simply layiig a ruler or straight-edge directly from the rth Star 2 to the desired date at the margin of thev disk 3 and the point of intersection or the degree imprinted Where the ruler crosses the plane of the ecliptic 6 Will indicate at saidfecli tic the apparent position of the sun at that ate.-
l claim as my invention-fA 1. A star and planet iinder comprising a planisphere having imprints of the fixed stars and a graduated imprint of the ecliptic plane,
adjustable planet-indicators adapted to said planisphere at or near its graduated ecliptic lane, and one or more accom anying tabibts or tables having imprints i entifying the s ses;
planetsand their mspeetive-positions at cer-` tain times1 relatively t'o the degrees; of the planishere eolptie plane, substantially as de-v scribe planispherehavingimprints of the iixedstars and a graduated imprint ofthe ecliptic plane, adjustable planet-indicatorsadaptedi to saidf planisphele at or nearits graduatedA ecliptic plane, and one'or more accompanying' annu ally-arranged tablets or tables havin imprints identifying. the y planets and then* "respective ositions at certain times relatively to; the grecs ofE the planispllere eeliptic plane,l substantially asdescribed.
3; A star' and planet finder comprising a' planisphere havingimprints of' the fixed' stars, andagraduatedim rmt' of* the ecliptic: lane with. appliedl orf-a jacent numerical degree indications, adjustable planet indicatorsada ted tosaidl planispliere atl or near its gra uatedecliptio'plane, andoneor more aecomP prints identifying the planetsand their re- 2 5 spective ositionsat certain timesrelatively toy thel egrees of the planispliereL ecllptic plane, substantially'as-describedi 4; A star' and planet finder. comprising'- a: planisphere havingimprints of the fixed istars, l anda'graduatedimdprint off the -ecliptic plane with' applied or a ('acent' numerical degree' indicationsarrange from one totlmee'hundred andsixty, inclusive; adjustable planetindicatorsadapted tosaid" p anispliere at or near its graduated ecli 'tie-plane, andoneor more Iaccompanfyii 1g ta lets or tables-having imprints identi yingtlieplanet's-iandtheir re-v spective ositions'at'--certain times relatively' to' the` egrees-- of-I thel planisphere' ec'liptic plane, substantiall' as described 5. A- star and5 p a planisphere having imprintsof'tlie fixedistars andfagraduated imprintoftlie ecliptic plane,- adjustable planetlindics'itorshaving attac'liingpoint'sdor teeth adapted to detachably' fasten themv` to the lplsmisphere `at?, or nearits imprinted eeliptic =p ane; and" one cir-.more laccompanyingt'a'bletsor tablesliavingimprints identify-lng*` the planetsJ and their* respective' vpositions at certain times relatively to* the degreesofthe planispliere ecliptic plane, sub-` stantially as described.
6; A star-andl planet; finderY comprisiigai faceeplate having aninteriorfliorizon-openmgf and" outer hour-marks; a planispher'e revolubl'e'relatively to the face-'piateand'havin g imprints- 'of vthe fixedstarsand` ai radu'ate l imprint of the ecllptic plane visib eat' saidl horizoimpening'and'also havingfmonth andl `day-indices visible relatively tothe hourmarlisofgl the `facelate; combinedv Withad justablev pianeti-in icato'rs`v adapted1 to'- saidi p'lnisplere Iat or'near its graduated-imprintedecli ticplanejandloneormore accom anyingi-tablet's-or tables-having'imprint's i entif 2i Al'starand planet ndercomprisingfa a'nying' tablets or' tables having imnetf finder comprising w 1 ying` thel planets; and'l their res ective` positlons at certain timesrelativel to tlede- -gxeesofl the=plani here ecliptic p1ane;'sub jstantiallyras descr-i edi 7. Al st'ar'andplanet finder' comprising a 'face-plate having 'an-interior horizon-opening and outer hourhmarlis; a'- planisphere revoluble relatively' to the face-platel and' havin imprints of tile iiiied stars, and a graduate imprint of the e'cliptic'y plane with` applied or 7 5 adjacent numerical degree indications and visibleat saidE horizon-opening and; also-liaving month` and day indices visible relatively tloe the' hour-marks of the face-plate, combined with adjustable planet indicatorsada ted" to said; planis here at or' near its fgra uatedimprinted-'eci tic plane; and one or more accompanyingta lets-or tables having-imprints identifying'the planets and their 'respectivex positions at certain times rela- 'tivel to tile-degrees of the lanisphereeclipytic p ane,- substantially as described.
8: A starand planet' finder comprising a face'eplate having an interior horizon-opening 'andV outer hour-marks;l aplanisphere revoluble relatively to the faceplat'e and having imprints of" the lined` stars' anda raduated imprint of theecliptic plane visib e at said horizon-opening and' also having month'and day indices visible' relatively to the hour- Inarks of' the f'acelate,v combined with adjustable planet-in icators having attaching pointsor teeth adapted" to detachably fasten l`themt'o#saidplanisjphere' yat or' near its graduatediI'nprin-ted*ecli tic plane, and one ormore Ioo A.accon'ipanying' tab ets or' tables having imf prints identifyingv tile planets and their respective ositions at certain` times relatively to the egrees of the planisplierel ecliptic plane; substantially as described. v
9. A' stari and' planet: finder comprisin a faceplate havihganinterior liorizon-openlng and marginal@ openings andL adjacent Hour- ?marl's; a' planis here revolublebeneatntlie l'faceplate and' aving imprints off the xed .1 stars 'and f ofv the ecliptic lane lvisible through Xsaid liorizon-opening= ci? the face-plate' and Falso' having' month-and 'day indices visible 'through' the marginal openings ofr thev face- Vplate; combined with adjustable planet-i11- icatbrsfadapt'ed' to' said' planispl1'ere ator near its imprinted e'cliptic plane, substanftially 'as described;
10; A` star'and planet iinder comprising a face-plate having an interior horizon-opening and' marginali openings andi adjacentI hourmarls; a planis here revoluble beneath the face-plate'and avin imprintsofftliefixed stars and* a graduate imprint of1 the 'ecliptic fplane' visible vthrou hsa1dl horizon-o I ening ofthe face'- late ;saiv planisphere also aving -mcnth an 'da indices visible through the 'marginal o enln s ofthe face-plate, combined Wit adjustable planetindicators adapted:v to said planispliere at; or near its :3c
graduated eoliptio plane, substantially as de- 1 through the marginal openings of the facesorbed. plate, combined with adjustable planet-indi- 11. A star and planet finder comprising a cators having attaching points or teeth face-plate having an interior horizon-opening adapted to detachably fasten them to the 5 and marginal openings and adjacent hourplanisphere at or near its imprinted ecliptic 15 marks; a planisphere revoluble beneath the plane, substantially as described.l
face-plate and having imprints of the iiXed LEON BARRITT. stars and of the eoliptlo flane visible through Witnesses: said horizon-opening o the face-plate and FLORENCE C.v SMITH,
1o also having month and day indices visible ALVIN K. GOODWIN.