US 846338 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(t2! whom, it may concern.-
'" i ms. 84 ,338.
UNITED STATES PATENT. OFFICE.
PATRICK J. hIONAhIARA, OE BALTIMORE, MARYLAND.
' Specification of Letters Patent enoosss OF PROMOTING "COMBUSTION!- Patented March 5,1907 I Application filed June.20,1906.. scar No. 322,658.
Be it known that I, PATRICK J. McNAuARA, a citizen of the United States, residing in Baltimore city, State of Maryland, have invented certain new and useful Improvements promoting combustion; and it has for its principal object to effect such complete combustion as will practlcally insure the elnn1na- 'tion' of free carbon, and thereby prevent'the generation of smoke. This object of the invention is attained by sprinkling or sifting over the coal, either before or after the stove or furnace is charged, preferably after the fire has been started, a substantially non-combustible substance, preferably in a powdered form, which will have a tendency to envelop the coal and become incandescent.
In practicing my invention I have discovcred that a substancemost suitable to at proportions mentioned, viz: silica, 80.88 per cent.; oxid of iron, 6.28 per cent; alumina, 8.60 per cent. lime, 0.38 per cent; magnesia 0.59 per cent., and water 3.27 per cent., or any substance or substances which will become incandescent at a comparatively low While I have found the proportions above'stated to give the most satisfactory results, yet I do not-'wish to be understood as limiting myself to the exact proportions given, as they may be varied in a reasonable degree.
In preparing the mixture the ingredients are thoroughly mixed with a sufficient quantity of water to reduce the mass to a slightly lastic condition. 'I he excess of water is alowed to evaporate, and when the mass is in a dry condition it is reduced to a powdered form. In this form itis sprinkled over the coal, preferably after the fire has been started,
and is permitted to sift down throughthe'interstices between the coal. The powdered substance readily envelops the coal and quickly becoming incandescent the free car-- bustion.
. free carbon in the form of smoke may be liberated by thecombustion of only the hydro gen content, if the ten'iperature is below 800, at which time oxygen has greater affinity for hydrogen than it has for r trbon. Above 1,000", however, oxygen has greater affinity for carbon than hydrogen, and the smoke.
disappears as the conditions favorable to smoke formation are removed; This is one of theresults attainedby concentrating the heat of combustion within the coal, by coating it with a porous substance which is a nonconductor of heat and which evolves heat by radiation from the coating andallows the gaseous products of complete combustion to escape through. its pores.
Other substances which have the property plish the result sought to be attained, the
. term incandescent signifying a substance of heat non-conducting but radiating nature, the concentration of heat upon which soon brings it superficially to an incandescent condition.
Among the advantages to be derived from my invention are economy in the use of-fuel and the prevention of smoke. In practice a saving of coal is effected by consuming the sinoke and other combustible substances,
becomes incandescent and consumes the carbon as soon as it is liberated and before it can escape in a free state, it being understood that the coal is not so entirely enveloped as to prevent a suitable supply of air being furnished at the bottom'of the grate to'aid cant 'I he formation of clinkers is prevented by the chemical action of the infusiblc heat-retarding substances employed on the alkali of the ash, rendering the same pra'c tically infusible, and but a minintum of residue of the powdered substanceis left after the coal is consumed.
I have noticed in the practice ofmy process of-coniplete combustion that I completely deodorize and neutralizethe gases ordinarily resulting from combustion andcompletely rid the products of combustion of the objectionable anddeleterious or injurious substances, thus obviating the otherwise bad effects upon the health by producing a purer and more healthful surrounding atmosphere. and heating effect.
1. The process of promoting combustion, consisting in enveloping coal with a :bstanc'e having the property of becoming incandescent at a comparatively low temperature.
' which consists in performing the combustion of fuel within a communicating porous coating of heat-non-conductive substance, concentrating the heat within the combusting fuel to a point at which carbon has a superior aflinity'for oxygen than hydrogen, and se-- curing the heat therefrom by radiation from the porous heat-non-conductiVe c0ating 2'5 vwithin which the fuel is caused to combust.
5, The -process of promoting combustion,
which consists in performing the combustion of 'fuel .Within a communlcating porous envelop of "heat -nonoonducti ve' substance, concentrating the heat within the combusting-fuel to a point at'which carbon has a superior affinity for oxygen than hydrogen, and
securing the heat therefrom by rarliation' from the porous heat 110n ='concluct1ve,-.en- 'yelop within-which, the fuel is caused to combust. I I
In testimony whereof l aflin' my signature 111 presence of twbwitnesses.
J PATRICK J. MoNAMARA. Witnesses:
J. JEROME Lrenrroor, TITIA'N W. JonNsoN.