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Publication numberUS848029 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 26, 1907
Filing dateMay 23, 1901
Priority dateMay 23, 1901
Publication numberUS 848029 A, US 848029A, US-A-848029, US848029 A, US848029A
InventorsFriedrich August Haselwander
Original AssigneeFriedrich August Haselwander
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Internal-combustion engine.
US 848029 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

No. 848,029. PATENTED MAR. 26, 1907/ F. A. HASELWANDER. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.

APPLIUATION FILED MAY 23. 1901.

a SHEETS-SHEET 1.

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F. A. HASEI'IWANDER. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE;

APPLICATION FILED MAY 23. 1901.

3 SHEETS-SHEET 2,

. J LE Irma/Jar @wmzwmm WMW Mfume PATENTED MAR. 26, 1907.

F. A. HASBLWANDER. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.

APPLIOATION FILED MAY 23. 1901 3 SHEETS-SHEET 3.

, "burn/1 FRIEDRICH AUGUST HASELWANDER, or MANNHEIM, GERMANY.

INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE.

Specification of Letters Patent.

, Application filed May 23, 1901. Serial No. 61,586.

Patented March '26, 1967.-

. To all whmn it may concern.-

Be it known that I, FRIEDRICH AUGUST HASELWANDER, a subject of the Emperor of Germany, residing at 1 Kaferthalerstrasse, Mannheim, in the German Empire, have invented a new and useful Improved Internal- Combustion Engine, of which the following is a specification.

This invention relates to internal-combustion engines, and has for its object improvements in connection with the introduction of the combustible into the combustion-chamber and in the mixing of the materials to form the explosive mixture. In the engine according to this invention the air and the combustible, the latter in the form of a gas,

- vapor, liquid, or solid, are introduced separately and are kept separate during the compression-stroke of the working piston in two interconnected spaces.

The principal novel feature of the invention consists in the means for effecting the mixture of the air and combustible by the explosion of an auxiliary combustible mixture either before, at, or just after the end of the compression-stroke.

Other features of novelty will be hereinafter-mentioned and pointed outin the claims.

In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1" is a part-sectional elevation showing an engine constructed in accordance with this invention. Figs 2 to 9 are diagrammatic sectional views showing several ways of constructing the engine according to this invention. Fig. 10 shows in greater detail a particular form of construction. Figs. 11 and 12 are diagrams illustrating types ofengines suitable for working with liquid or solid combu'stibles.

Referring first to Fig. 1, 2 represents the cylinder of an engine, is its piston, and 'y the crank-shaft. a is the exhaust-valve, which is operated by a rocker t, actuated by a rod t and bell-crank lever 15 from a cam 0, which latter is mounted on a half-speed shaft 0, driven by gear-wheels s from the crankshaft y. By this means the valve a is opened once in each alternate revolution of the crank-shaft y. Zis an air-inlet valve which is operated by a rocker t rod t and lever t" from a cam 0 on the shaft 0. r is a chargechamber provided on the cylinder-head and having a gas-inlet valve g, which is operated by a rocker from the link 1) and cam 0 The charge-chamber also has an air-inlet valve n near the top, this valve being operon' the end 0 the gas as it is forced into the cylinder byated through a rocker t t, and lever t" from a cam o on-the cam-shaft 0; The cams 0, 0 and o of course lie side by side on the cam-shaft 0. y is an ignition device of any suitable typeas, forinstance, a sparking plug. This engine operates on the fourstroke cycle in the following manner:-

During the suction stroke fresh air is drawn in through the inletvalve 1 to the cylinder 2 and gas enters through the valve 9 into the chamber 1*. Toward the end of the suction-stroke the air-inlet valve n is also opened, so that a small quantity of air cumstances some remains of the exhaust:

gases lie in a layer between the charges of air and gas. At or about the end of the compression-stroke the small auxiliary gas mixture which has been formed at the top of the gas at the top of the char echarge-chamber 1' by the last part of the gas admitted and the small uantity of air introduced past the valve n 1s exploded in any suitable manner, either by the igniter y or it may be automatically, if thecompression is sufficiently high. The explosion of this auxiliary charge drives the gas in the chargechamber 1' forward into the compressed air at the head of the cylinder 2, mixing the gas with the air in a most efficient manner, while the ignition of the charge is roduced either from the auxiliary mixture or yself-ignition, due to the pressure, or by any ignition a paratus. The fperforated distributin -Wa l p the piston serves to 'stribute making the auxiliary mixture. is supplied by a displacing device-that is to say, by means connected with the piston which on the-:in stroke will cause a portion of the airin front of the piston to be trapped and compressed separately from the remainder of the air.

This device was first described in the appli-r cants German patent, No.--101,453, o

-'to'ber 20, 1897, published on December 27,

1898, and nonovelty'is claimed in the presout application for the principle per 80 as I described construction.

top ofthe charge-chamber, this mixture being exploded asjbefore and serving to mix the main charges of air and gas. .1) here is a distributing-plate fixed in the charge-chamher 1' and serving to break up the'gases when 'they are blown out from said chamber by theexplosion.

In the modified from of construction illustrated in Fig. 3 the charge-chamber r is centralover the end of the .piston, which latter carries a large projection 12,- ada ted to enter a corresponding recess 1) in t e cylinderhead. a,-as before, is the exhaust=valve, Z the airinlet valve, (behind the valve win the drawing) and g the gas-inlet valve. In this case toward the end of the compressionstroke the air-imprisoned in the narrow circular spacey round the projection 22 is forced through the pipe 9 and a distributing-nozzle cinto the top-of the charge chamber r, there charge of gas-and air. plate-or the like for breaking up the stream forming the auxiliary mixture,which is exiploded'in order to drive together'the main p here is, as before, a'

' of gases.

Fig.-4-shows another forrn of construc tion of the displacing device. In this 'case achambe'r y. is formed in the end of the :pis-' -tonZc,-=and a projecting part p ofthe chargechamber renters the-space 1" toward the end The projection; 11 is perforated at the sides to. 've-commu-' of the compression-stroke.

nication' between the interior 0 the chargechamber 1* and the cylinder-head. The i e g in th1s ease extends from the bottom oi t e pro ection 2; up toward the top of the charge- -chamber 1', and toward the end of the compression-stroke the air imprisoned in the space 7"- is forced up the pipe g to the top of the charge-chamber r in order to form the auxiliary mixture, which serves, as before, when igmted to drive together'the main charges of air and-gas..

The modification illustrated in 5 represents ithe same type of construction as is shown in Fig. 1, except that the valve n is placed the gas-supply pipe behind the valve g, and'ln this case the valve n opens just before the end of the suction-stroke in order to admit a'little air with the-lastporti on of the gas-admitted in order to make the auxiliary mixture.

This invention is not restricted .to four-- at the end of the charge-chamber r.

: Fig. 7 shows one form of construction.

about to be described.

stroke cycle-engines, but itis applicable to any well-known-types of two-stroke cycle-engines. Fig. 6 illustrates one method of applying the invention to a two-stroke cycle-engine. The rearward extension k of the piston 7c works in a rearward extension of the cylinder in order to form a gas-pump at g, while the remaining area at the rear of the piston forms an airpump at Z. The gas-pump g communicates with a gas-valve g at the end of a chargechamber r, which is arranged at the side in this case, while the air-pump Z communicates by a pipe g with the main air-inlet valve Z and the auxiliary air-inlet valve 71. a represents the exhaust-port of the cylinder 2, which is uncovered by the piston 'Zc at the end of its outstroke in well-known manner. With this construction shortly before the endof the expansion or working stroke the exhaustport a opens, while the air-valve Z and the gas-valve g are opened. The air flowinginto the cylinder .2 scavenges the waste gases from the same and fills the cylinder, while the charge-chamber r becomes filled with gas. The secondary air-valve n now opens, admitting some-air to form the auxiliary mixtrulre 1e compression-stroke now follows, and toward the end thereof the auxiliary mixture is ignited, wherebythe gas is driven out from the charge-chamber r into the combustionchamber proper, whereby the working mixture is made.

A convenient form of construction of engine for working according to this invention is one in which two pistons are employed. 2 z are two cylinders placed side by side and connected by a passage at m. Their pistons areconnectedby the rods 7' j to the'common crank-shaft y. The piston is longer than the pistonZc', so that the piston k comes nearer to its cylinder-head in-the compressionstroke than the piston 7c. By this arrangement a displacing action is produced, as is Z, as before, is the air-inlet valve; (1, the exhaust valve; q,'thc pipe for the auxiliary air, and g the gasva ve admitting gas to the charge-chamber 1". During the suction-stroke the air is drawn in through the valve Z into the cylinders z 2 .and gas enters the combustion-chamber 1" through valve g. Toward the end of the compression-stroke the piston 7c, acting as "the displacing. device, covers up the communicating passage m between the cylinders and after this forces some air through the pipe q into the top of the charge-chamber r, there forming the auxiliary explosion mixture, which is ignited and serves 'to mix the charges.

In the form of construction shown in Fig. 8 the two cylinders z 2 are arranged at an angle to one another, and their pistons Zc k work by'rods y" j on the same crank on the crankmto the communicating passage 1nbetweeni the cylinders'z' and 2 but otherwise the arrangement and the manner of working are substantially identical with those described in connection with Fig. 7, so. that no further description .will be necessary.

v The types of engine illustrated in Figs. 7 and 8 can be readily arranged to work on the two-stroke cycle system; Fig. Qcorresponds with Fig. 7 and illustrates this, the only modifications being that the air-inlet opening Z should be arranged to be uncovered by one piston k toward, the end of the expansion-stroke, while the exhaust-opening a is uncovered by the other piston is. The communicating passage m is provided, as before,

and also another passage 1h near thelower part of the working space in each cylinder. In this case at the end of the working stroke the ports Z and a are opened, and the gas escapes through the port a, while air entering at Z scavenges both cylinders, passing from one to the other throu h theo enings m and m for this purpose. as is a itted by the valve 9 to the charge-chamber 1, and durin the compression stroke the air is compresse in the cylinders z 2 ,v while the gas is compressed in the charge-chamber 1'. Finally the piston 16 passes the opening m and then discharges some air through the passage g to thetop of the charge-chamber 1', thus forming the auxiliary mixture which serves to mix the main charges of gas and 'air.

Fig. 10 shows a corresponding adaptation of Fig. 8 to work as a two-stroke cycle-engine. In Fig. 10 the construction has been shown in somewhat greater detail. 2 2 are, as before, the cylinders standing at an angle to one another, k the pistons, and y" 7' the. connecting-rods working on a common crank on the crank-shaft y. u. is a crank-casing serving to compress the scavenging and working air, this air being admitted to the crank-casing past the valve 8 in the usual manner. The scavenging-airpasses through the passage f to the air-inlet valve I immediately after the exhaust-v'alve a has been opened at the end of the working stroke by the rocker t, link t, and bell-crank lever t actuated by the cam I 0, (which in this'case opens the valve a once at each revolution of the crank-shaft y.) In this construction the gas is exhausted past the valve at the end of the working stroke,

while air is forced through the passage f into the cylinder 2 from which it streams into the cylinder 2 through the passa es m m, thus effectually scavenging both t e cylinders. The gas is admitted to the chargechamber 1' at the same time past the valveg, and during the compression-stroke the air is compressed in the cylinders z 2 whilethe gas is compressed in the charge-chamber 1'. Toward the end of the compression-stroke air is forced by the piston k through the pipe tons k and k begin to recede for the working stroke the auxiliary charge is exploded by the igniter y, thus forcing out the gas into the compressed air, and so making the working mixture, as before. I

In all the constructions above described it will be understood that where gas is mentioned any vaporized fuel may be used in well-known manner. If liquid or solid fuels are to be injected, however, the construction of the engine will be slightly different.

Fig. 11 shows one construction for working with liquid or solid fuels. The piston kworks in a horizontal cylinder 2, rovided with an air-valve Z and exhaust-Va ve a, as before. The charge-chamber 1' has an extension 1' for the auxiliary mixture, while the main charge of fuel is admitted to the chamber 1' by valve g and a subsidiary charge to the chamber 1" by valve g. The charges will be vaporized by the heat of thewalls of the chambers r and 1" in well-known manner. The auxiliary air is admitted'to the chamber 1 through the valve 12.. The auxiliary air mixing with the auxiliary fuel forms the explosive mixture in the chamber r, and this when exploded drives out the gasified fuel from the chamber 1' through a nozzle d into the air compressed in the space at the head of the cylinder 2. Av

' combustible passing through saidnozzle and maythus assist in breaking up the stream.

Instead of using two valves g and g one valve may be arranged to serve the double purpose if a deflector a: isprovided below the valve, as shown in Fig. 12, to cause part of the fuel from valve g to pass along into the chamber 1', while a small portion will fall into the chamber 1'. The part of the fuel in the chamber 1" forms the auxiliary mixturewith the air entering through the valve 11., and this when exploded drives out the fuel fromchamber r into the cylinder 2.

Finally, it is to be understood that the drawings are only intended to indicate in a general manner the method of applying thisinvention to certain standard types of internal-combustion engines, and it will be seen that a competent engineer can apply the invention to practically any type of internalcombustion engine without further instructions than are contained in the foregoing specification. Any convenient forms valves, valve -operating mechanisms, &c., may be used, as the constructiohs of these parts form no feature of this invention. Throughout the specification it has been said generally for the sake of brevity that the air is compressed in the cylinders, while the gas is compressed in the charge-,chambers Of course the plane of separation between the two will advance up the charge-chamber as the compression proceeds, as will be readily understood. In some casesas, for instance, in Fig. 1the positions of the air and the gas in the cylinder and charge-chamber may be reversedthat is to say, the air may be admitted by-the valve g, while as is admitted to the cylinder by the valve In this case the .valve n would admit a small auxiliary amount of gas at the top of the charge-chamber for forming the auxiliary mixture, which 'when'ignited would drive out the air from this chamber and mix it with the gas come pressed in the cylinder-head. The arrange- 'ments previously described are, however,

preferable.

In any case it will beunderstood that the positions of the various valves may be varied somewhat and the construction of the various parts may be altered'tothe arrangement of the parts being such that by the explosion of the auxiliary mixture the separately-compressed air and combustible the .one mainly in the cylinder and the other in the charge-chamber are mixed, substan,

tially as described.

2.- In an internal-combustion engine, the combination-with the working cylinder and piston of a charge-chamber open tothe cylinder at one end, means for admitting working air and combustible, the one to the charge-chamber and the other to the cylinder, means for exhausting the waste gases, further means for forming a separate and auxiliary mixture in the charge-chamber at the end thereof remote from the cylinder, and means for igniting said mixture, the arrangement of the parts being such that by theexplosion of the auxiliary mixture the separately-compressed air and combustible, the one mainly in the cylinder and the other in the chargechamber are mixed, substantially as described.

'. 3. In an internal-combustion engine, the

combination with the working cylinder and iston of a charge-chamber open to the cylmder at one end, means for admitting working air and combustible, the one to the chargechamber and the other to the cylinder,

means for exhausting the waste gases and further means for introducing to the chargechamber at the end thereof remote from the cylinder a small quantity of a fluid such as will be capable of forming with a portion of the fluid already in said chamber separate and auxiliary explosive mixture, substantially as described.

4. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination with the-working cylinder and piston. of a charge-chamber open to the working cylinder at one end, means for admitting working air and combustible, the one to the charge-chamber and the other to the cylinder, means for exhausting the waste gases, further means for introducing to the charge-chamber at the end thereof remote from the cylinder a small quantity of fluid such as will be capable of forming with a portion of the fluid already in said chamber, a separate and auxiliary explosive mixture and means for igniting said mixture, substantially as described.

5. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination with the working cylinder and piston of a charge-chamber, means for admitting working air and combustible, the one to the charge-chamber and the other to thecylinder, means for exhausting the waste gases, a displacing device and means operatively connecting said displacing device with the working piston, and a passage leading from said displacing device to the chargechamber, the arrangement and pro ortions of the parts being'such that the uid displaced by the displacing device is injected into the charge-chamber in which it forms an auxiliary explosive mixture with a portion of the fluid already in said chamber, substan tially as described.

6.-In an internal-combustion engine, the combination with the Working cylinder and piston of a charge-chamber, means for igniting the mixture in said chamber, means for admitting working air and combustible, the one to the charge-chamber and the other to the cylinder, means for exhausting the waste gases, a displacing device and means operatively connecting said displacing device with the working piston, and a passage leading from said displacing device to the chargechamber, the arrangement and pro ortions of the parts being such that the uid displaced by the displacing device is injected into the charge-chamber in which it forms an auxiliary explosive mixture with a portion of the fluid already in said chamber, substantially as described.

7. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination with the working cylinder and piston of a charge-chamber, means for admitting working air and. combustible, the one to the charge-chamber and the other to the Working cylinder, meansfor exhausting the waste gases, a second or displacing cylinder and means connecting same to the working cylinder aforesaid, a piston in said second cylinder. and means operatively connecting said piston to the necting said piston to the working piston aforesaid, and means of communication be- 1' een said second cylinder and the chargechamber, the arrangement and proportions of the parts being such that fluid displaced by the second piston is injected into the charge-chamber in which it forms an auxiliary explosive mixture with the fluid already in said chamber, substantially as described.

8. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination with the working cylinder and piston of a charge -chamber, means for igniting gases in said chamber, means for admitting working air and combustible the one to the charge-chamber and the'other to the working cylinder, means for exhausting the waste gases, a second or displacing cylinder and means connecting same to the working cylinder aforesaid, a piston in said second cylinder and means. operatively connecting said piston to the working piston aforesaid, and means of communication between said second cylinder and the charge-chamber, the arrangement and proportions of the parts being such that fluid displaced by the second piston is injected into the charge-chamber in which it forms an auxiliary explosive mixture with the fluid already in said chamber, substantially as described.

9. In an internalcombustion engine, the combination with the working cylinder and piston of a charge-chamber, means for admitting working air and combustible, the one to the charge-chamber and the other to the working cylinder, means for exhausting the waste gases, a second or displacing cylinder and means connecting same to the working cylinder aforesaid, a piston in said second cylinder and means operatively conworking piston aforesaid, and means of communication between said second cylinder and the chargechamber, the arrangement and proportions of the parts being such that fluid displaced by the second piston is injected into the charge-chamber in which it forms an auxiliary explosive mixture with the fluid already in said chamber, and that the exhausting means is opened shortly before the end of the working stroke and the waste gases are expelled by air admitted through the air-valve, substantially as described.

10. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination with the Working cylinder and 7 piston of a charge-chamber, a second or displacing cylinder and two passages connecting said two cylinders near the top and near the bottom respectively, a piston in said sec ond cylinder and means operatively connecting said piston to the working piston aforesaid, means of communication between the second cylinder and the charge-chamber an air-inlet valve on the second cylinder, a combustible-inlet valve on the charge-chamber, and an exhaust-valve on the first cylinder, the arrangement and proportions of the parts being such that air displaced by the second piston is injected into the chargec'hamber in which it forms an auxiliary explosive mixture with the combustible already in said chamber, and that the two pistons uncover the second opening between their cylinders .at the end of the working stroke, at which time the air-inlet valve and the exhaust are opened, substantially as and for the object hereinbefore described.

11. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination with the working cylinder and piston of a charge-chamber, a second or displacing cylinder and two passages connecting bottom respectively,

operatively connecting said piston to the working piston aforesaid,

means of communication between the second cylinder and the charge-chamber, an airinlet valve on the second cylinder, a combustible-inlet valve on the charge-chamber, and an exhaust-valve on the first cylinder, and means for igniting the gases, the arrangement and proportions of the parts being such that air displaced by the second piston is injected into the charge-chamber in which it forms an auxiliary explosive mixture with the combustible already insaid chamber, and that the two pistons uncover the second 0 ening between their cylinders at the end of the working stroke, at which time the air-inlet valve and the exhaust are opened, substantially as and for the object hereinbefore described.

In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.

FRIEDRICH AUGUST HASELWANDER.

Witnesses:

H. W. HARRIS, CONRAD ZnvrMER.

said two cylinders near the top and near the

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2415506 *Feb 7, 1945Feb 11, 1947Marion MalloryInternal-combustion engine
US6543225Jul 20, 2001Apr 8, 2003Scuderi Group LlcSplit four stroke cycle internal combustion engine
US6609371May 7, 2002Aug 26, 2003Scuderi Group LlcSplit four stroke engine
US6722127Oct 31, 2002Apr 20, 2004Carmelo J. ScuderiSplit four stroke engine
US6880502Jul 8, 2003Apr 19, 2005Carmelo J. ScuderiSplit four stroke engine
US6952923Jun 9, 2004Oct 11, 2005Branyon David PSplit-cycle four-stroke engine
US6986329Jul 20, 2004Jan 17, 2006Scuderi Salvatore CSplit-cycle engine with dwell piston motion
US7017536Mar 2, 2005Mar 28, 2006Scuderi Carmelo JSplit four stroke engine
US7121236Sep 6, 2005Oct 17, 2006Scuderi Salvatore CSplit-cycle engine with dwell piston motion
US7588001Aug 4, 2005Sep 15, 2009Scuderi Group, LlcSplit-cycle four-stroke engine
US7628126Mar 21, 2006Dec 8, 2009Scuderi Group, LlcSplit four stroke engine
US7810459Feb 5, 2009Oct 12, 2010Scuderi Group, LlcSplit-cycle four-stroke engine
US7954461Sep 12, 2008Jun 7, 2011Scuderi Group, LlcSplit-cycle four-stroke engine
US7954463Jul 15, 2009Jun 7, 2011Scuderi Group, LlcSplit-cycle four-stroke engine
US8006656Apr 18, 2009Aug 30, 2011Scuderi Group, LlcSplit-cycle four-stroke engine
WO2011144926A1 *May 16, 2011Nov 24, 2011Rikard MikalsenFree-piston internal combustion engine
Classifications
International ClassificationF02G3/02, F02B75/22, F02B41/00
Cooperative ClassificationF02B75/228, F02B41/00, F02G3/02
European ClassificationF02B41/00, F02B75/22U, F02G3/02