US 848279 A
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PATENTED MAR. 26, 1907.
B. J. ASHLEY.
APPARATUS FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL.
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Y B. J. ASHLEY. I APPARATUS FOR, SEWAGE DISPOSAL. v
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S B. J. ASHLEY. APPARATUS FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL.
BURTON J. ASHLEY, OF CHICAGO, iLL ivoIsf APPARATUS FOR SEWAGE DISP SAL.
v Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented March 26, 1907.
Application filed September 18, 1906. Serial No. 335.109.
To all whom it may concern.-
Be it known that I, BURTON J. ASHLEY, a citizen of the United States, residing at Chi cage, in the county of Cook and State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful- Improvements in Apparatus for Sewage Disposal, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact specification.
This invention relates to improvements in apparatus for sewage disposal, and has for its primary object to provide an improved means for receiving and disposing of sewage, and is more particularly adapted to be used in con nection with private residences, farm-houses, and country estates whlch are remote from municipal sewage systems and have no natu:
ral outlet or other means for disposing of sewage wastes.
A further object is to provide an improved means for sewage disposal that is simple and cheap in construction, employing common materials in connection with thenatural surroundings of earth and air, and at the same time being constant and efficient in its operation, so that when the apparatus is installed little or no attention is required to keep it in operative condition.
To the attainment of these ends and the acclaimed, and shown inthe accompanyingdrawings, illustrating an exemplification of this invention, and in which Figure 1 1s a view in elevation, partly in section, of a complete installation of one embodiment of my invention. Fig. 2 is a vertical section of the tank shown in elevation in Fig. 1, the view being taken on line 2 2 of Fig. 3. Fig. 3 is a horizontal sectional view of the tank on broken line 3 3 of Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is a vertical sectional view of the tank, taken on line 4 4 of Fig. 3, but showing the dischargeduct and ventilator-duct in position in elevation. This view also shows a modification of my invention in the form of a'water-inlet or flushing-duct. Fig. 5 is a vertical sectional view on broken line 5 5 of Fig. 3. Figs. 6, 7, and 8 are vertical sectional views on lines 6 6, 7 7, and 8 8, respectively, in Fig. 1. Fig. 9 is a view showing a modified form of my device, corresponding to a view on line 9 9 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 10 is a vertical longitudinal sectional view. of a modified arrangement of my filtration and nitrification apparatus; and Fig. 11 is a vertical sectional view on line 11 11 of Fig. 10.
A cesspool or tank 10 is provided as a temporary receptacle for sew-age wastes. This may be constructed of any suitable material, such as concrete, reinforced concrete, brick, or stone. It should be made watertight by washing theinside with several coats of pure cement or by applying some form of a coat that is impervious to water and not easily affected by the action of the materials to be contained therein. I construct this tank entirely under the ground, and it differs from the ordinary form of cesspool in that the walls are so constructed as to prevent the escape of the contained'fluids out into the surrounding earth. This tank may be of any desired shape; Its size is to be determined by the quantity of sewage to be taken care of. either rectangular in cross-section or cylindrical in cross-section, as shown in the drawl terminate the top of the tank a short distance below the surface of the ground, preferably just below the frost-line, and construct on the top thereof a manhole 1 1, leading from the surface of the ground to the interior of the tank, said manhole being covered by a removable door or trap 12. This door may contain a number of small ventilating-holes 13. The house drain-pipe or intake-duct 14, conducting the sewage into the tank, enters at a distance below the surface of the ground, in-
in the wall adjacent to the intake-pipe toward the center of the tank, I prefer to continue this baffle-wall at least to the center of the tank, if not slightly beyond, but do not continue it to meet the opposite wall,.as it is not desired that the tank should be divided into two distinct com artments.
thereto provide the outlet-duct or drain- 1 preferably construct it On the op- .posite side of the ba e-Wall 16 and adjacent outlet-pip pipe 17. This pipe should leave the tank in a plane slightl below the entrance of intakeipe 14. I a so provide the interior end of e17 with a T-section 18 of sewerpipe similar to 15, except that it referably extends somewhat lower in the tan than the discharge end of pipe 15. The vertical branch'of 18 may be extended by the addition of sewer-pipe 19 through the top of the tank to the surface of the ground and a screen or closed lid 20 provided at the upper end thereof.
Inletipe 15 should be extended some distance below the water-line, but not so far as to prevent the lighter particles of sewage enterlng the tank from being carried downward through the pipe by reason of the pressure of the fluid therein. This arrangement permits sewage to enter through the intake-pipe into the tank ina mild manner, preventing the stirring upof the contents. It also prevents new sewage from becoming mixed lmmediatel with the old and causes a slow travel of t e contents from the inlet to the outlet, which effect is further augmented by the baffle-Wall interposed, as described, between the intake'and outlet pipes, as this arrange ment compels all of the materials entering the tank to make the circuit at least around the outer edges of the bafflewall. This quiescent movement in the tank permits the heavier particles in the sewage to settle to the bottom and the lighter particles to rise to the top, so that the zone of greatest fluidity may exist somewhere between the water-line and. the bottom of the tank. It is at this zone of greatest fluidity that I'prefer to locate the intake end of pipe 18, which communicates with outlet-duct 17.
As, before stated, the size, diameter, and
- depth of the tank can only be determined by the amount of sewage that is to be disposed of, and if the construction be very much elongated the inlet and outlet ducts maybe placed at opposite ends of the tank and the baffle.
' wall dis ensed with- The ischarge-pipe 17 conducts the overflow from the tank, preferably by a watertight pipe, to any desireddistance fromthe' 5 tank before entering my system of nitrification and purifying ducts. This filtering system may be constructed at any desired distance from the tank. In order to get the best results, it is necessary that the premises have suflicient ground space and subsoil of sufficient porosity to absorb the fluids discharged into t e tank.
I preferably use for my filtering-ducts ordinary 'farm-tiles 21, surrounded by a section of filterin material 22, consisting, preferably, of clin ers or cinders'whijch are" the waste product from the combustion of coal.
If suchmaterial is not available, I find that coke, crushed stone, and burned clay, such as broken brick and tile, have a certain value seams for this purpose. be used, but are not as efficient as clinkers or coke. The tiles employed for conducting the overflow from the tank are open to some extent at their 'oints and furnish a means for the escape of a restricted amount of the fluid into the surrounding filterin material. If the ground be somewhat rolling or declining from the tank, I prefer to elongate my filtering and aeration system in the manner shown in Fig. 1, employing a succession of Sand and gravel may also ducts, one below the other. In Fig. 1 I show a series of three such systems, the second one extending beyond the first one at the outer end any desirable distance, while the third is 'made to extend beyond the secondv likewise.
As a means of securing the best results I find it very necessary that these ducts and the surrounding material should be kept well supplied with air. To this end I provide the upwardly-extending aerating-pipes 25, which terminate at the surface of the ground and should be rovided with screens to keep out foreign su stances and vermin. At the extreme outer end 23 of each of the filteringducts I preferably provide a closure and near the end of each duct an aerating-pipe 25. If the surface of the earth, however, Wlll permit, a modification similarto that shown in Fig. 10 may be employed to good advantage, in which I show the extreme outer end of the last duct ofthe series opening to the exterior or surface of the earth.
The aerating-pipes 25 may be multiplied indefinitely, but in order to give the best results I find it is not necessary that they be located nearer than from forty to one hundred feet of each other. The urpose ofclosing the ends of the ducts, as s own at 23 and at other places, as will appear from the illustrations, 1s not to prevent the fluid contents in the ducts from entering the surrounding purifying material, but is only to revent such contents from leaving the ducts in undue quantities, thereby flooding the purifying material at the different localities, and at the same time not being. able to take IIO advantage of the purifying action of other sections.
In Fig.1 Ihave shown an arrangement of filtration-ducts in a vertical plane. Where the surface of the'earth. will permit it, I-find a modification, such as illustrated in Fig. 9, may be used to good advantage, by which the 'ducts are shown in trenches extending a around the edge of a hill and conforming somewhat to 'the surface thereof, a con-' struction which is found much cheaper in installing and may be made to require somewhat less pipe in the construction of the aerating or surface ducts.
In a tank of he character described a large amount of decomposition of the solids and suspended matter discharged into itis observed to take place within a very short thrown down or precipitated and to a certain extent-occup1ies the bottom or'lower zone of the fluid he zone therefore of greatest fluidity lies between the surface of the contents of the tank and the bottom, and it'is from this zone that the fluid is taken into intake-pipe 18 and discharged throu h outlet 17 mto the filtration and nitri cation.
ducts, where it is further submitted to purifying means, consisting of the combined action of the air and the purifying effects of the filtering materials. If the filtration and nitrificationducts be of sufficient ca acity to care for the discharge from the tan the resulting fluid. is renderedcolorless, odorless, and harmless, in that it is resolved into its component parts before being given'to the earth to absorb.
As a modification of my device, I show in Fig. 4 a flushing-pipe 26, which enters the tank at a point just above the normal level of the liquid and which has on the interior of the tank an u wardly-extending dischargenozzle 26. flushing-pipe may extend to a water tank or reservoir or may be the overflow-pipe of a cistern, so that through it at intervals considerable quantities of water in amore or less pure condition maybe thrown into the tank. The upward direction to the discharge-spout 26 is given for the purpose of directing the stream upwardly and permitting the water to fall on the top of the liquid contents of the tank. I have observed that the action of water thrown into the tank in this "manner, particularly ran-water, has a tendency to cause disintegration and decomposition of the mat on the top of the fiuid contents of the tank and causes a new and beneficial renewal. of bacterial activity to take place within the tank.
It will be apparent that manhole 11 on the top of the tank is provided for the pur ose of permitting entrance to the interior. eference has also been made to screens or closed lids, that may be rovided at 15 and 20. When modern plum ing is used and thesoilpipe of the residence is carried out through the roof of the house, the "draft in the soilpipe has a tendency to create a suction through intake-pipe 14, and when such con ditions obtain do not seal the pipe 15*. Under such conditions perforations, as at 13, in lid of manhole must be provided. In
I the event that u per section of outlet-pipe 19 be omitted an said pipe terminated with 13 in manhole 11 should be closed, which said perforated passage. in the tank at joint 19 then the perforations will cause the air to be drawn through the tank and throu h the aeration and purifying ducts, a resultfind to be very desirable.
When modern plumbing is not used in the residence, and consequently the soil-pi e is missing, I close or seal upper branch of mletpipe at 15, which forms a trap, preventing the discharge of gases from the tank into the residence t oughthe intake-pipe. Under such conditions gases from the tank should escape from perforations 13. If upper branch of outlet-pipe be terminated at 19*, circulation of air from the filtration and nitrification ducts into tank and u wardly throu h vents 13 will take place. If branch 19 he extended to the surface of the ound, as illustrated in the drawings, then t e circulation of air from the outlying ducts does not enter the tank, but escapes at 20, which should be screened as a protection against foreign substances and vermin.
In the construction of the auxiliary or und erlyin filtration and nitrification ductsI prefer time form shown, consisting of the tile drains or pipes closed at each end and having one aerating-pipe 25 near their outer ends. The air enterlng at pipes 25, which is particularly noticeable when the soil-pipe of the residence is available, as previously described, passes toward the tank through the perforated walls of the ducts and into the surroundingfiltering material, thereby greatly hastening the filtration and nitrification processes. I
In order that the invention might be fully understood, the details of an embodiment tghereof have been thus specifically described;
What I claim is 1. In an apparatus for the purification of sewage the combination of a tem orary receiving-tank, provided with an mlet-duct, and having an outlet-duct below the level of said inlet-duct, andaerating and mi *ing means adapted to receive the over ow from said tank, said means comprising a perforated passage surroundedby a bed of filtering and purifyirg material and means for supplying air to said perforated passage] 2. In an apparatus for the purification of sewage the combination of a temporary receiving-tank, provided with an inlet-duct, and having an outlet-duct below the level of said inlet-duct, a baffle-wall within said tank between said inlet and said outlet ducts and operating to delay the flow of liquids be tween said ducts, and aerating and purifying IIO tankv providedflrith inlet and outlet pi es piercing the walls thereof, the normal leve of said outlet-pipabeing lower than the normal level of saidinletipe, a downwardly-extend ing branch on sai inlet-pipe terminating below the normal level of said outlet-pipe and an upwardly-extending branch communicating with said downwardly-extending branch and terminating within said tank and above level of said inletipe, a downwardly-extending branch on sai inlet-pipe, terminating below the normal level of said outlet-pipe, and an upwardly-extending branch terminating within said tank and above the normal level of the liquid therein, a downwardly-extending branch on said outlet-pipe terminating within the tank, a baffle-wall within the tank interposed between said inlet and said outlet pipes and adapted to delay the flow of liquids etween said pipes, and purifying means adapted to receive the overflow from said I tank.
I 5. In an apparatus for the purification of sewage the combination of a liquid-receiving tank provided with inlet and outlet pipes piercing the walls thereof, the normal level of said outlet-pipe being lower than the normal level of said inlet-pipe, a downwardlyextending branch on said inlet-pipe terminating below the normal level ofsaid outlet-pipe and an upwardly-extending branch communicating with said downwardly-extending branch and terminating within said tank above the normal level of the liquid therein, a downwardly-extending branchon said outletpipe terminating within the tank, an upwardly extending branch communicating with said outlet-pipe and its downwardly- -extending branch, said upwardly-extending branch being continued through the wall of said tank, forming a means of communicating with the air on the exterior of'the tank, and urifying means adapted to receive the over ow from said tank.
6. In an apparatus for; the purification of sewage the combination of a liquid-receiving tank, provided with inlet and outlet ipes piercing the walls thereof, the normal level of said outlet-pi e being lower than the normal level of sai inlet-pipe, and a filtration gand nitrification means adapted to receive the overflow from said tank, embodyin a perforated Ripe or passage buried below t e surface of t e soil; the said pi e or passage being sm'roundedbya bed of tering and puriprovided 5; with one: or eading'to thesurface' said outletipe, being lower thanlthenormal' level of sai "mlet-pipe, and avfiltrationia'nd overflow from said tan bodying a series of perforatedpipes on pas sages buried below the surface-ofthe soil, each of said pipes or passages: lying indifferent horizontalplanes as they progress-from said tank outwardly,;said2 pipes or-passages nitrification means adapfed' to receive the.
v said means; em,-
being provided with aerating-pi es or ducts leading to the surface of the soi and being surrounded-by beds ofpurifying andfiltering material.
8. In. an apparatus for the purification of sewage, the combination of 'aliquid-receiving tank provided with inlet and. outlet piercing the walls-thereof, the normal evel of said outlet-pipe being lower than the normal level of said inlet-pipe, and filtration and nitrificationmeans adapted; to receive the' ipes overflow from said tank, said means embod'ying a perforated-pipe or passage buriedbelow the surface of the soil, and rovidedwith one or more aerating-pipes lea ing-tothe surface of the soil.
9. In an apparatusforthe purification of sewage, the combination of a liquid-receiving tank provided with inlet and outletpipes piercing the wallsthereof, thenormal evel of said outlet-pi ebeing lower than the nor mallevel of sai inlet-pipe, and a filtration and nitrification means adapted to receive the overflow from said tank, embodying a series of perforated pipes or assa es buried below the surface of the soil sai pi es'or passages extending outwardly from sai Y tank in the same general direction, each pipe or passage bein situated in a lower horizontal plane than t e preceding member. as they progress outward and a series of aerating ducts or passages leadin therefrom to the surface of the soil.
10. 11 an apparatus for the purification of sewage, the combination of a tank and pipe adapted to receive the overflow therefrom, a filtration and nitrification means embodying a series of perforated assages formed of farm-tiles buried beneat the surface of the earth and provided with aeratingpass'ages leading upwardly therefrom, and communiy and away from said tank,
eating with the air at the surface of the soil. 11. In an apparatusfor the purificationof sewage the combination of, a tank andpipe adapted to receive the-overflow therefrom,
and-filtration and nitrification means our:
bodying a series of; perforatedt passages'j formedof farm-tiles buried beneath .the; sur; face of the earth in beds, of, clinkers, crushed stone or burned earth, and rovided with! aerating-passages leading to t e earths surl face.
12. In an apparatus for thepurification of sewage, the combination of a tank, a pipe 3 adapted to receive the overflow therefrom i a flushing-pipe ente said tank above the l 7 normal level of said fi let-pipe, and filtration i and nitrification Qmeans embodying a series olfuperforated passagesbeneath the earths 1 s ace adapted to receive the liquid;con tents of the tank from the overflow-pipe thereof, and being provided with a series of upwardly-extendin ,airgt'ducts or passages 1 communicating withthe atmosphere at the surface of the soil.
13. In an apparatus for the purification of sewage, the combination of a liquid-receiving tank provided with inlet and outlet pipes piercing the walls thereof, the normal level of said outlet-pipe being lower than the normal level of said inlet-pipe, a downwardlyextending branch on said inlet-pipe terminating below the normal level of said outleti pi e, an upwardly-extending branch on said in etipe communicating with said downward y-extending branch and terminating 1 within said tank and above the normal level of the liquid therein, a downwardly-extending branch on said outlet-pipe terminating within the tank, an upwardly-extending branch on said outlet-pipe communicating with said downwardly-extending branch and i I extending into the outer air on the exterior of said tank, a baffle-wall situated between said inlet and said outlet ipes and adapted I toretard the flow of liqui s therebetween, a flushing-pipe entering said tank at a point above the normal level of said outlet-pipe, l and means adapted to receive the overflow- E from said tank. I
14. In an apparatus for the purification of sewage, the combination of a receiving-tank, and aerating and purifying means adapted 1 to receive the overflow fromsaid tank, said means c'omprisingla ipe or passage extending beneath the s ace of the earth being 1 provided with perforated walls and embedi i the soil, a body of filtering tact with said perforated p pe or passage, the
ded in a body of filtering material having direct contact with the surrounding soil.
15. In an apparatus for the purification of sewage, the combination of a receiving-tank and aerating and purifying means a apted' to receive the overflow from said tank, means com rising a 1 e or ass e rovi e with perfor ated wa s xten ing lielibath the surface of the soil and surrounded by a bed of filte and material the said filtermg an tact wit the surrounding soll.
16. The combination in an apparatus for the purification of sewage, of a perforated pipe or passage buried below the surface of material in consaid filtering material ha direct contact with the surrounding soil am means for supplying air to the perforated pipe or passa e.
17 The combination in an apparatus or the purification of sewage, of a perforated pipe or passa e buried below the surface of the soil, a be y of filtering material in contact with said perforated pipe or passage, the said filtering material having direct contact withlthel surroundin soil, and an aeratingpipe ea(in from sai e iorated i eor assage to the surface of tihe soil. p P P 18. In an apparatus for the purification of urifymg material having direct consewage, the combination of a temporary r'eceiving-tank, provided with an inlet-duct. and having an outlet-duct'below the level of said inlet-duct, and aerating and urifying means adapted to receive the. over ow from said tank, said means com rising a erforated passage eirtendin beneat the s ace of the l earth and embe ded in a body of filtering material having direct contact with the surrounding soil.
In testimony whereof I have name to this specification, two subscribing witnesses, of September, A. D. 1906.
4 BURTON J. ASHLEY.
E. C. SEMPLE, A. L. SPRINKLE.
in the presence of on this 13th day signed my.