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Publication numberUS852646 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 7, 1907
Filing dateNov 11, 1905
Priority dateNov 11, 1905
Publication numberUS 852646 A, US 852646A, US-A-852646, US852646 A, US852646A
InventorsLucien I Blake
Original AssigneeSubmarine Signal Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
System of submarine signaling.
US 852646 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



1 91 t-neooco M avwmtoz in analogous transmission through t LUCIEN I. BLAKE, or LAWRENCE, KArisAs, ASSIGNOR To SUBMARINE SIGNAL COMPANY, OF BOSTON OF MAINE.


Patented May 7, 1907.

Application filed November 11,1905. Serial No. 286,802.

To all whom it may concern.-

Be it known that I, LUOIEN I. BLAKE, a

citizen of the United States, residing at Lawrence, in the county of Douglas and State of Kansas, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Systems of Submarine Signaling, of which the following is a specification, reference being had to the drawings accompanying and forming a part of the same.

In the art of sub-marine signaling, if this term be understood as including all methods of transmitting audible sounds or signals through a body of water, it has heretofore been customary, except when the conductivity of the water is relied upon to transmit electric current impulses, as described in my U. S. Patent. No. 524,239 of August 7th, 1894, to produce the sound or signal to be transmitted by molar as distinguished from molecular vibrations, and to utilize the sound waves transmitted through the water to impart corresponding molar vibrations to a suitable receiver. In fact, in the art of submarine signaling as heretofore racticed substantially similar devices an methods of transmission are adopted as those em loyed lie atmosphere, and approximately the same principles are followed as those which distinguish acoustic apparatus designed to operate in common air, a highly compressible medium and one Without viscosity. I have made the discovery however, that much 'superior practical results af'e obtainable by the production, transmission and reception of molecular vibration, my investigations leading me to believe that the viscosity of the water, exerting an effect analogous to friction, impedes or annuls the mechanical vibrations of large amplitude which correspond to the lower segmental or molar tones, while permitting the high or molecular tones to be transmitted to great distances. Moreover water, unlike the atmosphere, is practically incompressible, and I have discovered that because of this property acoustic apparatus designed to operate molocularly w on submerged is by far the most efficient and effective in cooperation with a medium naturally The incompressibility of the water practically prevents or almost immediately dampens the molar vibrations of any submerged soundproducing apparatus and thereby renders their re eated or continued production difficult an ex ensive. If, for instance, asound device be orced to vibrate under water in molar segments, as has heretofore been accomplished by powerfully striking a bell pneumatically, t e distance over which the undamental tones can be practically transmitted and received is comparatively short. But I have demonstrated by practical tests that the molecular tones are transmitted and may be utilized to affect a suitably responsive receiver at very much greater distances,

and are clearly audible for some time after the molar vibrations have ceased. This fundamental difference in the physical properties of water and air so far as acoustic roperties are concerned, hasnot, so far as am aware, been previously recognized or if so at all, only in a vague and incidental manner in the systems of submarinegsignaling by sound. Applying the principle underlying this discovery, I have succeeded in developing a system for the transmission of signals under Water which yields results incom arably superior to those heretofore obtainer by the use of instruments designed for the production and reception of molar vibrations, such system involving as its fundamental characteristics the employment of a transmitter adapted to set up within itself or to deliver intothe Water molecular vibrations, as distinguished from molar vibrations or disturbances, and a receiver sensitive to such molecular movements and ca able of converting them into audible SOLIIH s.

In carrying out my discovery I have found it ossible to use instruments or devices of Widhl different construction, and have foun in practicing the method of imparting to the Water molecular disturbances at one or more points and subjectin to their influence a receiver sensitive to sue effects, that the ultimate results are entirely independent of the specific nature of the instrumentalities em loyed. I shall describe therefore, only suc means as I have employed for demonstrati the principle of the invention and which have thus far found to be the best for ractical purposes, but it will be obvious from the above considerations that my invention is not limited to such devices, nor to the specific manner of their use hereinafter l tended set forth.

In the accompanying drawing Figure 1 is a perspective view of a sound producer or transmitter designed for use in carrying out my invention. ig. 2 is a similar view of a different form of device for thesame purpose.

Fig. 3 is a form of receiver adapted for use in the system.

Referring to Fig. '1, the transmitter in this instance consists of an iron casting the Weight of which may be say, seventy pounds. The casting is formed with a body C and a smaller overlapping portion B extending from the main body at its end but separated elsewhere by a slot of approximately one half inch wide.

The free end of the extension B is beveled, with faces at an angle of about sixty degrees, and at 'a distance from this end of about one inch is arranged a water pipe with a slot through which a thin jet of water under pressure may be directed against the beveled edge. If such a jet be forced against the end of part -B, under a pressure say of eighty lbs., the whole device may be set in molecular vibration and when submerged in I the Water may be employed as a transmitter of my system.

The form of transmitter illustrated in Fig. 2 will serve to show how widely the construction of this device may be varied without de-- parture from the invention. This transmitter consists essentially of a ipe of lead or other material about two inc es in diameter through which a stream of water is forced through a flexible pipe P While submerged in the water. let is formed with an opening like that in an ordinary tin whistle, and above this the pipe is partially closed except for a narrow sht S,

. through which the water is forced. When water is forced through the pipe R it splits in a thin stream on the beveled edge of the opening, and the water friction of this thin stream against the edge, and against the viscous water, sets the water inclosed within the short pipe into molecular vibrations which willbe communicated as sound waves to the water outside. With an instrument of this kind a clear musical tone may be produced which does not depend for pitch upon the length of the pipe as in air instruments, where the air column vibrates segmentally.

The receiver shown in Fig. 3 is composed, essentially, of three carbon plates F, G, H, each about three inches long, two inches wide, and three sixteenths of an inch thick. Plates F and G arekzlamped or secured firmly to an oak base K, an inch or more in thickness, while plate H'rests li htly upon and bridges the other two. en the instrument is used in a horizontal position no means for holding the plate H in place is required, but as in practice the base K is inused to mamtal nary telephone receiver The end of the pipe near the in-- to be cemented or otherwise united to a ships skin on the inside below the Waterline, a cover of wood lined with felt may be.

'n the plate H in light contact with plates F, G. g

The carbon plates are in circuit with a battery L, and the primary of an induction coil in the secondary circuit of which is an ordi- M, which may be in the pilot house or other convenient point on the ship.

If a transmitter such as shown in'Figs. 1 and 2, be immersed in the water and set in molecular vibration, its vibrations will be transmitted for great distances through the water and may be caused'to operate a receiver such as that described, so that the latter will emit a distinctly audible sound. The receiver as stated, may be attached to the skin of a ship, inside below the waterline, and I have found that it will be operated under such circumstances regardless of the character of the material in or the thickness of the sides of the ship. I am not able to state to what distances signals may be thus transmitted, but in practice I have had no difficulty in operating over a distance of four miles with apparatus suchas above described.

I may observe that in some of the transmitters which I have constructed I have not had in view the complete suppression of molar or segmental vibrations, as the presence of these is or may not be detrimental to results which I seek to accomplish. Such vibrations,however, are of little or no utility as compared with the molecularvibrations as it may be readily demonstrated that they carryfor only a fractional part of the time or of the distance over which the latter are effective to produce the most pronounced effects. 7

It will be seen that ships equipped with a transmitter and receiver of this kind may be able to communicate with one another, or with shore, over very considerable distances, and that the invention meets the requirements of a wireless tele aph system but at greatly reduced cost, an with much greater simplicity and economy of operation.

What I claim is:

1. The system of submarine signaling herein described, comprising in combination a submerged transmitter adapted for producing and imparting vibrations essentially molecular in character, and a submerged re-' ceiver sensitive to such vibrations, as set forth. I

2. The system of submarine signaling herein described, comprising in combination a submerged body and means for setting up therein vibrations essentially molecular in character, and a submerged receiver sensitive to molecular vibrations, as set forth.

3. The system of submarine signaling here-.-

in described, cdmprising in combination a submerged metallic body, means for setting the same in vibration essentially molecular in character, and a submerged receiver sensitive to molecular vibrations, as set forth.

4. A transmitter for submarine signaling systems consisting of a metallic body in combination with means for setting the same in IJUCIEN I. BLAKE.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2664850 *Nov 26, 1949Jan 5, 1954Franklin S SmithMethod and apparatus for producing shock waves
US2973739 *Oct 6, 1949Mar 7, 1961Estes Nelson NUnderwater transducer
US3093107 *Jan 25, 1945Jun 11, 1963Joseph A GrandExpendable ammonia noisemaker
US3932711 *Sep 13, 1973Jan 13, 1976O'brien Gerard JTransmission of voice or sound through telegraphy
Cooperative ClassificationG10K11/20, B06B1/0215