US 855069 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
10.355.069 PATE-NTBDMAY 28, 1907.
s.B.sH BLDoN. Y PROCESS oFGoKING GOAL.
APPLICATION FILED OOT.2. 1906.
6 SHEET'S-SHEBT 1.
No. 855,069.v k PATENTJED-MAY 28, 1907. s. B. sHBLDoN.
PROCESS 0F GOKING GOAL.
APPLIoATIoN FILED o oT.2. 190e.
' e SHEETS-SHEET 2.
PATENTED MAY 28, 1907.
s. B'. SHBLDON.
PROCESS of' coKING GOAL.
APPLICATION FILED O0T.2, 1906.
PATBNTED MAY 28, 1907.
s. B. SHBLDON.' PROCESS 0F coKING coAL.
APPLICATION FILED 00T.2, 1908.
6 SHEETS-SHBET 4.
l l i No. 855,0691 r PATENTE-UMAX 28, 1907. S. B. SHEJII'JONs PROCESS OP GOKING GOAL.
APPLICATION FILED 00T.2, 1906.
6 SHEETS-SHEET 5.
, S. B. SHBLDON. PROCESS OP GOKING CUAL.'
APPLIOA'ION FILED 00T.2, 1906.
PATENTED MAY 28, 1907.
y oven and said or distillation yof thecoal, a
troduction of coal discharge of the coke from the opposite end thereof; the *coal during the coking operas,
independently UNITED srarns PARENT FFCE,
PROCESS QF CGKENG GGAL.,
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patentes may es, 19e?.
Application riad october 2,1906. srie No. 337.055.
To rif/ZZ whom it may concern:
Be it knownthat I, SAMUEL B. SnELDoN, a citizen. of the United States, residing at Buffalo, in the county of Erie and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Processes of Coking Coal; andl I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, reference `being had to the accompanying drawings, andV to the letters of reference marked thereon, which form a part of this specification. I
Thisinvention relates tolimprovements in the art of coking or distilling coal for the manufacture of coke and the production of gas, and more especially to a novel process for effecting the coking or distillation of coal, and at the same time saving the gases proh duced in the. operation, in order that the same may be utilized for heating or other purposes and valuable by-products produce-d in the .distilling or coking operation recovered.
An apparatus is illustrated in the accompanying drawings like that shown in 1n prior application, Serial Number 313,072, filed April 21st, 1906,. and. which is adapted for carrying out my-- novel process. Said apparatus embraces general features of construction as follows For effecting the coking coking oven is employed of the kind generally known as by-product oven, or one in which the coal, during the coking operation, is contained Within a closed chamber -and is subjected to the action of heat transmitted thereto through the walls of said chamber.
I have shown in the drawings and prefer to -use the type of oven commonly known as the Otto Hoffmann ov en, in which the coking chamber is arranged horizontally vor is hori-v zontally elongated, and is adapted for the nat one end thereof, andthe tion being advanced along or through .y the oven being closed against ace of outside air and'provided with delivery ducts or passages through Whichpass .the gases produced during the coking opera'- tion. "The oven illustrated, moreover, con'- sista of two parts or sections arranged end to end' to form a continuous coking chamber, sai-d sections being provided with separate or come heating means,
so thatthe part or serv of the o: Een into and t which the coal is first introduced may be i maintained at a higher temperature than the section'adja'cent to thedischarge end of the oven, for a purpose hereinafter stated'. 1n connection with said oven, at the receiving end thereof, are located means for forcing the coal into and through the oven, means'for compressing the coal preparatory to its introduction into the oven, and means for pre heating the coal after it is compressed and before it enters the oven. The coal feeding, compressing and pre-heating Imeans einbraces generally, a receiving chamber, a preheating chamber, and a tapered passage connecting said receiving and pre-heating charm bers, and which is larger at its receiving than at its delivery end. The said receiving chamber,.the tapered passage and pre-heating chamber are connected with each other so as to constitute a continuous passage, which, at the delivery `end of the pre-heating chamber, opens into the receivinor end of the oven'.
.The receiving chamber is provided at its top with an opening through which the'coal, preferably in pulverized form, may be inltrod'uced into said chamber, and'in saidreceiving chamber is located a horizontally reciprooating plunger operating in its advance movements to force the charges of coal, introduced into .the chamber at the front of said plunger, through said tapered passage- 1e pre-heating chamber into the coking chamber. The' tapered sides of the said passage constitute, in connection with said plunger, the means for compressing` the coal; the inclined4 or tapered sides of said passage serving' to effect compression of the coal latm erally or from theoutside toward the center of the mass of cal, as the'latter is forced through said passage by the action of thel plunger. The walls ofthe pre-beati cham--` ber are preferably made of relative y thin metal, and are surrounded by a combustien chamben'in which is burned gaseous 'or 'other fuel; the heat produced being, transmitted .through the said metal Walls to the mass of coal-within the chamber.- The compacted mass of coal, whicherners the pie-heating chamber from the said tapered passage Iin which it is compressed, is subjected in its passa e through the pre-heating chamber to any esired degree 4cflireat. 'Yivithin said 'passage formed by the 'receiving chamber, the tapered i assagelhand fthe vpref-heating chamber are` coated a-series of metal rods arranged parallel with the 'path .of the coal iIO *coal 'andto thereby aid in the coking opel-afv s zo .site
coal, assaid mass 1s advanced toward and and projecting lfrom the.` inneriace ,of said Sa rodsserve toform continuarorations or channels extending lonlly through the compressed mass of plunger. ous
inte the oven; the coal bein com` ressed between or around the said ro s in t e advance movements of the plunger, andthe rods ex# tendingi such. distance toward or into the oven t at the longitudinal passages or perforations formed by the 'action oli said, rods will not be closed by lateral pressure on the mass after the latter passes theiree or ad- 4 f vance ends of the rods.` The passages or I5 which is o ened at a time during the discharge of t e coke.'
vThe operation of the apparatlis described in carrying out the process 1s practically continuous, and the coldng or distilling operation takes place without the admission of external air to the oven. The entrance of air to the receiving end of the oven is prevented by the solid mass of compressed co'ai which fills the tapered compressing passage and thev preheating chamber, and access of tir intothe delivery end of thev oven is prevented b the 'double-valves in the discharge. duct," as ereinbefore described. VThe compressed and preheated mass 'of coal isadvanced from the pre-heating chamber into' the oven:by"a`n lntermittent orMstep-by-step movement produced vby the reciprocation'o the feeding and compressing plunger, and such mass is acl- T .vanced along or through the yoven as ithe coki operation takes place; the gases generate 'being withdrawn continuously from the colringy chamber.vv When-the coking chamber is made in-parts or sections as above described, it is intended that the coking operation shallv take place'mainly in the section vin which the coal is received, or that Vadjacent tothe receiving end of the oven, and the section adjacent to thedelivery end of the oven is maintained at a. loaiertemperature, so that a partial coolin o :che mass of coke will take place before-tie dischargeofthe same from the oven.
My novel process and the apparatus devised for carrying it into eiiect may be more readily understood by reference to the accompanying drawings, in whichfi Figure 1 is a view of an apparatus embodying my invention in longltudinal, vercoking chambers joinedto form stacca tical section taken on a plane passing throgh the center of the coking chamber of the oven, on the line 1-1 of Fig. 3. Fig. 2 is a like section taken on a plane passing through the heating flues of the oven, on the line 2-2 of Fig. 3. Fig. 3 is a horizontal section, taken y on the line 3 3 of Figs. 1 and 2.` Fig. 4 is a horizontal section, taken u on line 4 4 of Figs. 1 and 2. Fi 5 is a an View of the parts located att e receiving ends of two of the ovens shown in/Figs. 3 and 4, the parts for feeding, compressing and pre-heatin0` the 'coal employed in connection with one oli the ovens being shown in horizontal section, taken on theline 45--5 of Fig. 6. Fi 6 is a view of the parts Iat the receiving en of one of the ovens, showing said parts partially in side elevation and artially in central vertical section, on the ine 1-1 of Fig. 3.Y Fig. 7 is a cross-section', taken on line 7-7 of Fi s; 1 and 2. Fig. 8y is a cross-section, taen on line 8-8 of Figs. 1 and 2. Fig. 9 is an end view of the parts associated with one of the ovens, taken upon line 9-9 of Fig. 6.; Fig. 10 is a cross-section, taken upon vline, 10e-10 ofv Fig. 6. Fig. 11 is a crosssection, taken u on line 1-1-11 of Fig. 6. Fig. 12 is a detai sectional view of the compressing andv pre-heatin device, showing amodied form thereo Fig. 13 is a cross-section, takeny upon line 13-13 of Fi 12.' f
he coking oven illustrated in the accompanying drawings is provided with a series of coking chambers 1, 1, 1, Which-are arranged sideby side, as lcdnunon in theconstruction of f Otto Hoffmann ovens.v Each oiv the saidcoking chambers isvequipped with coal feeding," compressing and pre-heating devices at the receivingend thereof, and with a delivery device at its exit or discharge end; the drawingsillustrating in iullonly one of said coking c ambers and itsl associated parts",7 In the walls f the oven which" separate the coking chambersfrdrn'each 'other are formed vertical fines' orheating passages-12, 2, 2, The coking chambers.A 1,91, 1 are c'o'ntinuoiis, but the oven, as a whole,: consists in `veiectfot two sections. arranged end to end, and eacho which is provided with complete v heating means, separate from"the` heating means of the other section, so that the tem-- erature maintained in the two sections may he independently'or separately controlled. Each section of the o'ven,`.therefore, corre.- sponds with a completev Otto Hoffman oven'or, in other Words, the two sections togetherrconstitute two complete -,Ottjo Hoffmann ovens placed end to end with their in effect one continuons cokin'g chamber.
The means for heati g'the ltwo sectionsof each coking chamber being alike, theparts orv passages constitutlng the heatin means for,l
the two sections are lettered a ike in the roo IOS
drawings, and the same descri tion of said heating means will apply 'to bot of said sections.
Beneath eachcoking chamber 1 lare located t-Wolongitudinally arranged passages 3`and 4,
"separated'from -each other by a \vertical,
transverse partition; Connected with said chambers, 3 and 4 are two regenerators 5 and 6 by means of passages 7 and 8 rovidedwith gates or valves 9 and 10.- Sai regenerators and 6 are located below and extend trans- `"versely ofthe coking chambers, and contain the'v usual checker-work. Connected with the lower parts of the regenerators 'are paslzo "sages`3 and 4 associated with, two adjacent coking chambers, are located two `longitu `li nal passa es; 13 and 14 which communicate with the llower ends of the vertical ues or passages 2, 2 in the walls separating said chambers. Said passages 13 and 14 are separated from each other by a vertical partition wall 15 and by a horizontal'partiti'on 16 extending from the bottom of said wall 15 to the external end wall of the oven, so\ that the lower part vof said chamber 14 extends, the full length of one section of said oven.` The chamber 3 connected with the chamber 13 by holes or apertures 18, 18, formed in the longitudinal wall between said chambers, and the chamber 4 is connected with the chamber 14 by like holes or apertures 19, 19.. Said chambers .13 -andAl-t constitute combustion chambers in which. gaseous fuel is burned, air for supporting combustion be ing supplied from the chambers 3 or 4 through the passages 19 or 19. As shown in the .lrawings, 20 and 21 indicate gas supply mains provided with branch pipes 22 and 23 which deliver gas to the outer ends of the chambers or passa'ges 13 and 14, through the end wall of the oven structure.
The operation ofthe regenerators andassociated passages corresponds with that of. an
Otto Hoffmann oven' and is as follows:
Assuming the regcnerator 5 to be connected with a air inlet duct andthe -regenerator 6 with the stack. or chimney ilue, air entering the ilues 11, 11, of said regenerator 5 passes upwardly through the checker-Work therein, which has been previously heated, and lmuch air, in a heated condition, passes through the passage 7 to the chamber 3 from which, through the openings 1S, 18, it'enters the chamber 13. Fuel 'gas delivered to said chamber 13 rom the'pipe 23 is burned therein and the products of combustion rise through the vertical passages 2, 2 above :the chamber 13 and passing horizontally` along the passage 17 descend. throughtheilues.2,f-
2, 2, above the chamber 14 from whence theyv pass through .the openings 19, 19 to the-cha n1- er 4 and thence through the passage 8 tothe regenerator 6 and out through the ilucsf 1L', 12 into the stack. After the checker-work in the regenerator 5 has become cooled, and that in the regenerator -6 heated by the pas Sage therethrough of the outgoing products of combustion, theregcncrator 5 connected with the stack and the regenerator 6 with the air supply duct; combustion then taking combustion pass from saidchamber through the fines 2, 2, into the chamber 13 and thence out through the chamber 3 and the regenerator 5 to the stack.
`place in the chamber 14 and the products of The heating devices for the opposite end 'portions or sections of the oven being alike and being providedV with the usual heat controlling means as the valves in the gas supply vpipes 22 and 23, a higher temperature may be.
trollingrthe temperature in the twoparts or` sections of the coking chamber is of great importance, for the reason that the best results in coking are obtained by rst subjecting the coal to temperatures sufliciently high to efectually complete the vcoking operation, and to vthereafter subject the mass of' coke tog-a4 lower temperature for aconsiderable period,
so as to'afford considerable cooling thereofj before its discharge from the oven.
Now referring to the coal feeding, corn-v pressing and refheating devices .at vthe receiving end o the oven, these parts, as shown in the drawings, are made of metal and embrace features of construction as follows:
24 indicates a coal receiving chamber, 25 a tapered coal-compressing passage, and 26v a pre-heating chamber. Said receiving chamber, the tapered compressing passage, and the pre-heating' chamber are connected with each other to form a continuous passage through which the coal is advanced from the receiving chamber to the oven, lthe bottom wall'of the pre-heating chamber being level with the bottom of the coking chamber, while its' side Walls are parallel with each other and located at a distance apart somewhat less thanthe distance between the side walls of -the coldng chamber, so as. to give clearance spaces at the sides of the mass of coal advanced from the 'pre-heating chamber into the oven.- The top wall of the preheating chamber is located somewhat below the level of the top wall of thev oven, so as .to leave clearance space at, the top ofthe oven.
At the top of the receiving chamber 24 is located an inlet or' feedpassage 27 provided 'with'a' hopper 28 and- With a horizontal, slid: f ing valvegpngateqzg, which latter is lloca'd ,Sa pipes39, 39,1eadi V adjacent to theV top wall of the 'receivino' chamber; The side and bottom walls of sai receiving chamber are arallel with' each other and in the said receiving chamber is lo cated a horizontally reciprocating lunger 30 which lits and slides in contact Wit the side, 1
of two horizontal rods 3'1, which are attached' to an upright cross-head 32, secured to the center o a double-ended piston or plunger 33,
`i 5 the-opposite ends of which slide in oppositely arranged hydraulic cylinders 34 and 35 to which fluid under .pressure is admitted for advancin and retracting the plunger 30.
The si e, top 'and bottom walls of th ta1 zo pered passage j oin th corresponding Walls pf the receiving-chamber 24and the pre-heat lng 'chamber 26, and the ihclination'qf said, Walls'of the tapered passage is such as to give"Y -a desireddegr of-compression to the mass 25 of coal forced t eretlirughfrom the receiving chamber by the action of the plunger 30. Such massof c'oal, inthe advance movement of the plunger 30, is forced by said plunger` from the receiving chamber through 'said pasique side, top and-bottom'w'alls of said passage serving to compress the mass laterally in all directionsor 'from'the exterior -thereof toward the center of same.
3o sige 25 into the 'pre-heating chamber26; the f o The side, to and bottom walls yof the preheating cham er.26 are parallel with each other and are f'ormed by a metal' shell, which is preferably made in two arts, divided on Q a vertical, longitudinal p ane. Surround- 4o"ing the preheating chamber is a combus- `tions ace 'or chamber 36, in which is burne amixture of 'gas and airv for heating .the coal in its' passage through said preheating chamben Sald combustion cham- 45 ber 36'is provided at its top with exit tubes or pipes 37, 37, 3 7 for 'the exit ofproducts of combustion. Fuel gas is -supplied to the fuel supply main 38' provide with supply 1 chamber. v1The`Wal s ofthe pre-heating and c'o'ifnbustion chambers preferably conslst of other along thelongitudinal centersof the A'said chambers.; The'said combustion' cham-" b er'? 6 is shown as Water-jacketed, the'same into A and throuh' the' oven.
into-the bottom of said i 36 is Wader-cooled inorder to pregf'entin'ur to the metal of'which it is-Ina the ig `degree of heat resulting from 'the urning of ing end thereof and the bottom wall of vwhich forms a horizontal extension 'or centinuation' of the top wall ofthe pi'heatingqg chamber. Saidy apron 4 5 extends for somedistance into the oven and'serves to prevent the top of the compressed v[nass ofcoal from rising into contactwith the to wallof the oven, under the pressure app ied, through 8f the plunger '30; to the-mass-of coal for fore ing it'through the pre-heatingchamber, and Said watercooled apron 45 hasthe form of a-hollow metal lbox, and the same is preferably made to forma part or continuation-oa hollow metal water-cooled ri 46,` applied between the combustion charliier 36 'and-the ad- -jacentend of the mas'o structureel the` oven; said apron and ring eing water cooled '.9'9' in order to prevent'nj lto-or destruction of the same by the. action o fy heattrans-g mitted theretofrom .the highly heated 'walls of'theoven.` 47 and 48 indicate Water supply sind re- '9 lturn pipes for the water-cooled,-r' *'46, said pipes being connected with the supp y andreturn pipes 42 and 44 hereinbefore referred to. The AWater cooling of the 'combustion- 'chamber 36,`the apron 45 and ring 46 'will roo* Vhave no' detrimental effect,` so far-as the preheating 'of the coal is concerned, because 'such water cooling will have the 'effect only 'of keeping the metal parts, :which 'are sbf' ,ject to .the heat of the combustion taking 'x05 place in the said combustion chamber .35 an of the heat from the oven-walls, at such low 4temperature as to jprevent said lmetal arts being heated' to an injurious e'xtent,w it out reducing the amount 'of 'heat 'transmitted-to I Irc 'the coal below that 'necessary forthe .proper '.preheating thereof. lbottom of said chamber 36 b means of a Extending frm. the 'innert face ,of4 l-the plunger 30 are 'a plurality of rod "3,0, 50, arranged parallel Awith each .otherl nd4 aral I l 5 lel-with the sides-of thereceivingrh v.preiv Aheating chambers. In the .form ,f 4convst'ructon illustrated'in 1 to ,11", thi)- rods 5 0', 50,1`ar e attached-to and-move with said plunger 30,and`extend from'theface of said I 2Q plunger- .forwardly through the receiving chamber24, thetaperedpassage $25 and the pre-heating chamber 26:-A Said 'rods are preferably' made- `long enough to eid-end some vdistance .into the Looking oven when 12S-fl the plunger'is advanced; The' coal, which is introduced in pulveriz/ed form into the re` ceiving chamberv in advance' of'the plunger, surrounds` said'rods,v andin-.the advance movement ofthe -plu'nger'the coal isf'packed 130 chamber 24, and t effected at relatively low temperatureand.'
30 and is retained in this smoes 5 solidly around the rods, so that saidv rods form in the mass of coal aplurality of longitudinal Asl. the ma'ss of coal is forcedthroughytle tapered passage 25 itis compressedv or solidi'- ied, and the effect of the heat to which the said mass is subjected in the pre-heating chamber being to produce coherencev be.
tween the particles of coal in'the mass so thatit retains its solid form-when it enters the coking chambers, it follows thatv the longitudinal passages or perforations formed by said rods will remain-in the mass after the same has been advanced beyond .the free ends of said rods.
In Figs. 12 and 13 I have shown a modified construction in the perforatin'gand pre-heating devices. In this instance, the rods50, pass through holes in-the plunger 30and are attached to a reciprocating cross-head 51. Said cross-head 51'is moved rearwardly far enough to bring the rear ends of therods flush with .the inner or working face of the plunger osition during the introduction of the suppy or charge of coal tothe' receiving chamber. After a.charge of coal has been introduced, the cross-head 51 will be advanced s o as to'carx'y the rods 50 forwardly through the fresh coal and into the longitudinal passages reviously formed thc-.mass of coal and t 1e plunger and crosshead willthen be advanced together. In said Figs. 1 2 and 13, the combustion chamber 36 is shownlas extended so as to surround' the compressingl assage 25, the receiving e feed passage 27. This construction gives increased efficiency in the pre-heating means, since the pre-heating is the longer the coal is exposed to heat before entering the coking chamber, and the larger the area of heating surface to which it is exposed, the greater will be the quantity of heat transmitted to the coal.
Now referring to the means 'at the exit end olf the oven for discharging the coke therefrom, the same consists of a vertically arranged discharge ipe 52 the upper end yof which is connected) with the discharge end of the oven, and the lower part of which extends below the floor of the oven and is provided with two vertically separated valvesl 53, and" 54. The valve 53 preferably consistsof a horizontally sliding gate, while the valve 54 embraces a conical closure adapted to fit against a circular seat at the bottom of the vpipo .'2 and is attached to an operating and supporting lever 55 which is pivoted to the ipc and has a weighted arm 56 adapted to hold the valve. closure normally in contact with its seat. `The discharge pipe 52 preferably consists of an exterior shell or casing of shi-:et mctalprovided with a lining of refrac tory material. A water-cooled ring 57 is .5 preferably introduced between the pipe 52 passages, openings or perforations.'
`closely compacted and will and the adjacent end of the maso l end wall of the oven. Means illustrated or securing a circulation of water in said cooling ring',` consist of supply and return mains 58 and 59,`c omiected with the said hollow ring by ipes 60 and '61. i he two valves 53 and 54 in the discharge end of the pipe 52 are for the purpose of permitting thecoke to be discharged from the furnace withoutv admiting air thereto. As the body or mass of coke reaches the discharge end of theoven, the same, being par-- -tially cooled, disintegrates and the fragments of coke fall through the ducts 52 and accumulate u on the 'valve 53, which is normally closed. en a considerable quantity of the coke has accumulated on the upper valve 53, ,the latter is Withdrawn so as to allow the accumulated coke to fall u on the lower valve 54. The .valve 53 is t ien closed and the valve 54 -opened to permit the discharge of the cokel from the lower end of the pipe.
- In the operation of the apparatus de scribed, assuming that theplunger 30 hasl been previously advanced to rce the charge of coal from' the receivingchamber into the tapered passage 25 and the pre-heating chamber- 26 and then Withdrawn, a space will have been left betweenthe said plunger and the rear face of the mass of coal 1previously forced into or compressed within t e passage 25. The space in advance' of the plunger is then filled by a new charge of pulverizedcoal,
introduced through the inlet passage 27. In the nextsucceeding advance movement of the plun er thecharge of coal within the reamber is forced from the same into or through the tapered passage 25, while the mass -of coal inlsaid assage, inadvance of the -newly introduced) charge, is advanced through the re-heatin chamber and the coking cham, r. As tie' mass, 'ofcoal is forced througlrthe tapered assage, the walls thereof serve to compress t e mass both vertically and laterally, so that the mass enter- IOC ing through the v*pre-heating chaftnber is 'possess the desired degree of solidity. The effect of the heat transmitted to the mass of coal through the .walls of the re-heating chamber is to melt or soften the ituminous constituents of the coal, or toproduce yartial cokin of the mass, so that the partie es of coal in is mass cohere and the mass will, in itssubsequent advance movement into and throlugh the coking chamber, retain the form given it by being forced throu h the ta ered compression pissage and' t rough t e pre-heating cham In first starting the oven in operation the oven will'be filledv with coal from the top through an opening 62 provided for the pur'- p'ose. Heat will then be appliedin the o rdinary manner, and the mass of coal withinthe cokingchamber will be coked'. In the meanru-Y r' time .the receiving chamber will have been filled Withcoal through the inlet openin in its top, the lunger or pusher being Wlthdrawn for tiiis purpose. The coking chamber will then befilled with coke, and the extension of the oven formed by the pre-heatchamber and the compressing chamber e d with coal compressed therein by the action of the plunger; the coalacting as a seal which prevents the escape of gas from the receiving' end of the coking chamber and 'also keeps ou't the atmospheric air. A It will, of course, be understood that thegas generated in the oven passes Vtherefrom to an exhauster so that the coking chamber Vis subject to internal pressure not greater than that of the at# mosphere. Each oven is provided with outlet passages 63, 63- through' which may be discharged products of the coking operation.
In the operation of the oven the pusher will be worked at any desired speed. For illustration; 8.33 foot oven produces four and twotenths tons of coke in 24 hours. rl`he movement through the oven would, in this case, be equivalent to about one-fourthinch per minute. During the coking o gration, the ordinary coking 'process procee sin the coking chamber from the sides and bottom thereof, and the pre-heated.coal is forced into the oven against the incandescent coke-therein, 'so that as thel pre-heated coal enters the coking chamber, the'coking proceeds ,in an endwise direction or from the incandescent portion of themass toward the incoming uncoked. portion thereof. Manifestly, -in the operation, the production of gas will be contmuous and at a uniform rate, as Will be the production of coke, whilea large amount of ieat will be saved o to the fact that the oven is never openedjandl emptied. By'making the oven in twopartsv or sections equipped with separably controllable heating means, the receiving portion or end of the oven ,may
- be run at a veryulu'gh heat, While the discharge end. or portion thereof containing the v coke may be kpt at a much lower temperature, thereby e ecti a partial cooling of the coke before it leaves t e oven and consequent large saving of the gas.
n the process ofcoki as heretofore without pre-heating, the co ing operation proceeds from the outside toward the center of the mass, as well as from the sides of the mass inward, the interior of the mass being quite cool during a considerable .portion of the operation so that tar and pitch tend to condense in the center of the mass.- The center being the last portion coked, in case of an oven of the usual cross-sectional form and dimensions', that is to say, from about 15 inches to 2'2 inches wide and about 5 feet in height, a verticalcleavage'line is produced. On either "side of this cleava e line, the coke resulting from thefnal distillation of the 'taror pitch which has 'been deposited in this vicinity, on'
account of the low temperature of the center of the mass, will be'very porous. B y the preheating of the coal when in compact mass, and. during 'the advance movement jof the to condensation of the tar and pitch inthe -center of the mass will be greatly lessened, so that the pre-heating tends to roduce e uality in the character of the colic throng out the mass.
The .formation of longitudinal holes oi` `passages in the body of the coke, will also tend to prevent such condensation of tar and pitch in the center of the mass and ive uniformity to the product, while at t e same time making more rapid the operation of coking because facilitating the escape of gases and volatile constituents of the coal .from the interior of the mass during the coking operation.
sists in the step of pre-heating t e-coal as it mass to the coking retort `or oven. `With respect to this feature, my process differs from thatrcarried out by the use of an upright "or vertically elongated coking chamber to thetop of which the coal is fed and from the bottom o'f which the coke is removed, for the reasons that inoperationl of such a vertical oven, in which the downward moveeffected by the action of gravity and the cokeV is removed from vthe bottom of the retort thereof, -there can be substantially no compression of the coal rior to the 'first heatin(lr thereof because if -t ere be any substantial thev coal, such compressiondoes not take place in the upper part of the retort, but
the retortand is dueto the 'weight of t e coal in the upper part of the retort and to the checking of fthe descent of the coal 'through .friction against the sides thereof.
In carrying out'my process, gravity of the coalis not a factor in the advance and compression thereof, "becau'se the mass of coal is tort by pressure on the outer end of the mass, the result being that the coal in the mass is held in a compressed state at the time heat for` pre-heating is applied thereto, and the coal is prepared .for the coking process being adherence of theparti mass, which is advanced unbroken into the oven.-
to theforward movement ofl the. mass,;due
mass toward and into the oven, the tendency substantially as fast as iti'is fed tothe top.
the lowerphrt ofthe retortby reason of its.
While the endwise pressuregappliedtothe outer end of the mass of coal as it is'advanced into the oven,. together with Athe?resistance` An'to its frictional contact *Walls the A11 important feature Vof my rocess conf is advanced in acompact and continuous ment of the mass of coal through the oven is),`
`compression of the mass due to the weight of necessarily occurs'only in the lower art of moved horizontallytoward the 'oven or rel both compressed and preheated to produce c es of coal into a solidv there@ -aplyang hat. i 4the menging tubs en -passage for preheati'ng the .coal during its movement therethrough, and .applying coki Y heatto :the portion of the mass within "salti'retort or oven.'. A The process of v coking coal which consists in advancing coal in a compact and .continuous mass' toward and into a coking retort o r oven Without admitting air to the latterpperiorating the compressed mass, applyf 111g .cokmg heat to the .portion of the mass Within the retort or oven, and removing the siste. in applying pressure to one end of a 'mass of coal to advance "the mass toward a cokingkretort or oven, applyin lateral pressure tothe mass to compress t e same from the outside toward the center thereof, con- 'iining the compressedmass laterally during jits movement toward the retort oroven, ad#
. vancing the saidcompressed mass into the said retort or oven Without admission of air -"thereto, perforating 'the mass when under 3o. sists in applying pressure to one end of a lateral'pressure. and applying coking heat to the. portion of the mass within the said retort lOI Oven.
11. The'process ci coking'coal which conmass of coal while conlining it laterally to advance the mass toward and into a coking retort or oven, perforating the mass before it reaches the retort or oven, applying heat to the mass during its approach toward the reort or oven for preheating the same, and appiying coking heat to the portion of lthe mass within the retort or oven. f
1-2. The process of coking coal which consists`- in applying vpressure to one end of a mass of coal to advance the same toward and into a cokinglretort or oven, applying lateral pressure to t e mass to compress the same in a direction from its outside toward its center, perforatingthe mass While under compression, ap lying heat to the mass during its approac i toward the retort lor oven, land ap- `xor passage Aplying coking heat to the portion of the mass within said retort or oven.
13. The process of colring coal which consists in applying pressure to one end of a mass of coal 'confined in an in closing tube or passage which has direct connection with a `colgin'g retort oroven to advance the mass through said passage and from the latter into said retort or oven without the admission of' air thereto, perforating the mass longitudinally during its movement through said pas'- sage toward said retort or oven, applying coking heatwto the portionof the mass within said retort or oven and removin the finished eolie. from' the retort or oven om time to time Without admitting air thereto.
14. The process of coking coal which consists in' applying pressure to one end of a mass. of coal confined in an inclosing tube or passage, applying lateral pressure to the massdirlrinff its movement' through said tube igor compressing the mass from its outsidetoward its center, perforating the mass longitudinally. while under lateral pressure, and applying coking heat to the portion of the mass within said coking retort or oven.
1.5. The process oi coking coal Which con sists in applying pressure to one end of a mass of coal confined in an inclosing tube or palssage, applying lateral pressure to the mass during its movement through said tube or passage to compress the same trom its outside'toward its center, perforating the mass longitudinally while under lateral pressure, applying heat to the mass during its movement through said tube or passage toward the retort or oven, to preheat the coal, and
applying coking heat to the portion of the mass within said retort or oven.
In testimony, that I claim the foregoing as my invention I aiiix my signature in the presence of two "witnesses, this 28th day of September A. D. 1906. Y
SAMUEL B. SHELDON.
A. C. BYAM, A. H. VOGEL.