US 857849 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
PATENTED JUNE 25, 1907.
J. V. E. TITUS.
APPLIOATION FILED 0GT.20, 1904.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
JOSEPH V. E. TITUS, ()F KEOKUK, IOWA, ASSIGNOR T ELECTRIC SERVICE SUPPLIES COMPANY, OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, A CORPORA- TION OF NEW JERSEY.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented June 25, 1907.
Application filed October 20, 1904. ri N 229,296.
To (all whom itmmy concern.-
Be it known that I, Josnrn V. E. TrrUs, a citizen of the United States, residing at Keokuk, in the county of Lee and State of Iowa, have invented new and useful Improvements in Lightning-Arresters, of which the following is a full, clear, concise, and exact description, reference being had to the accompanying drawing, forming a part of [0 this specification.
My invention relates to improvements in protective. devices designedmore particu larly to guard electric apparatus from the destructive eil'ects of lightning discharges and 1 excessive. currents in light and power circuits.
It is well known that lightning arresters are intended to provide a path for a static discharge, such as lightning, in order to prevent injury by said discharge to machines or ap aratus connected to the line. It is also wel known that great diiliculty is always found in designing lightning arresters efficient for this purpose, on account of the 2 5 tendency of the line current to follow the lightning discharge, continue to are across the dischargers ol' the arrester and thus maintain a short circuit to the ground. My present invention is designed to overcome this 0 dilliculty by the use of simple and efficient means. i
Furthermore, it is desirable in lightning arresters for use on long distance transmission lines to not only provide means for protect- 3 5 ing the line from direct discharges of lightning, but also provide means for protecting the line in event of a static potential that builds up by induction and it is one of the objects of my present invention to provide a single device in which static accumulations on the line will be gradually discharged and a path also be provided for extremely heavy discharges such as lightning.
I have illustrated one form of my inven- 4 5 tion in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a plan View of my device; and,
Fig. 2 is a central longitudinal sectional view thereof.
In the preferred construction of my invention, upon asuitable insulating base 1, provided with a projection 2, are arranged a series of circular metallic plates 3, 3, having formed on their outer periphery beads 4,
which formg contact points. Arranged between the metallic plates are circular plates 5, formed of graphite or other material of high resistance and supporting the plates 3 in such a manner that between the beads formed on the outer periphery of the metallic plates, are formed a series of spark gaps 6, 6, the metallic plates 3 and the resistance plates 5 constituting a shunt about the spark gaps 6, 6. Arranged between the top plate 7 and the next lower plate is a circular plate 8 of non-conducting material, which spaces the top and the next late apart to form a spark gap 9. This spar gap 9 is smaller than the spark gaps 6, 6, but is greater than the striking distance of the line current. Through a suitable opening 11 formed through the center of the resistance plates and the metallic plates is adapted to be passed a bolt 12 secured at its lower end to the base 1, and having at its upper end, a nut 13, which, when screwed down, holds all of the plates in a rigid position.
A binding post 14 is secured to the top plate 7, and is provided with the usual screw 15 and opening for securing the line wire thereto. A second binding post 16 is mounted upon the base 1 and is provided with the usual screw and opening for securing thereto a ground wire. The binding post 16 is connected with the bottom metallic plate 17 by asuitable conductor 18.
In operation, a small static charge will break down the air gap at 9 and will pass through the alternate plates of metal and graphite through the connection 18 to the binding post 16 and thence through the ground wire to the ground. The reristance, however, of this path to the normal current is so great that the same will not maintain an are at 9.
A large discharge, such as a direct lightning line, the same discharging radually through the resistance blocks 5 wlilc at the same time a large surface is rovided over the air gaps 6 which is amp e to carry ofl the heaviest discharges.
My invention is shown and described as being particularly adapted for use on alternating current circuits but it will be understood that the same may be also used on direct current circuits.
While I have shown and described one embodiment of my invention, it will be understood that I do not wish to limit myself to this particular structure as there are numerous changes which may be made without departing from the spirit of my invention.
Having thus described my invention What 1 claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In a lightning arrester, the combination with a plurality of plates arranged to have spark gaps formed between the same, of a layer of resistance material arranged between each of said plates out of the path formed by said gaps, and electrically connecting the I same.
2. 111a lightning arrester, the combination with a plurality of superimposed plates of conducting material having spark gaps formed between a portion thereof, of layers of resistance material interposed between said plates, and electrically connecting the same.
3. In a lightning arrester, the combination with a plurality of circular plates having an nular beads formed on the cripl-iery thereof,
and arran ed to have spar \I gaps formed beplates, and electrically connecting the same.
5. In a lightnin arrestcr, the combination with a plurality 0? plates having spark gaps arranged between a portion thereof, of layers of resistance material interposed between said plates and electrically connecting the same, one of said plates being arranged in closer proximity to its neighbor than the remainder.
6. In a lightning arrester, the combination with a plurality of contacts having air gaps formed between the same, one of said gaps being smaller than the remainder and a rc sistance shunt extendingaround all but the smaller of said air gaps.
In witness whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name in the presence of two witnesses.
JOSEPH V. E. TITUS.
G. W. Cox, (301m A. LOEFFLER.