Improvement in injectors for boilers
US 86152 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. T. HANCOCK. INJECTOR FOR BOILERS.
No. 86,152. Patented Jan. 26, 1869.
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JOHN T. HANCOCK, OF JAMAICA PLAIN, MASSACHUSETTS.
Letters Patent No. 86,152, dated January 26, 1869.
IMPROVEMENT IN INJECTORS FOR BOILERS.
.l'he Schedule refer-rodeo in these Letters Patent and making part of the name.
To all whom it may concern f Be it known that I, J OHN HANCOCK, of Jamaica, Plain, in \Vest Roxbury, county of Norfolk, and State ofMassachusetts, haveinvented certain'lmprovements in an Apparatus for Inducing Mot-ion in Mobile'Sub-- stances or Bodies; and Ida hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof,
reference being made to the accompanying "drawings, making a part of this specification, in which-- 'Figure 1 represents a longitudinal section of my improved apparatus.
Figure 2 is a section in plane it 1 fig. 1, showing one face of part E with annular recess it.
I The subject of these improvements is'the apparatus whichwus employed by theancient metallurgists for the condensation of air, and of which the Wasscr Trommelg'cblit'se of the modern German metallurgists is the most familiar as well as perfect example yet produced.
From the Wasser Trommelgeblillse several devices have been derived, in which steam is used as the motor, instead of water, 'as in the original. The mere change of motors, without any essential change of details, has corrected none of the inherent defects of the original. Some of the defects which are prominent,
' are extravagance in the use of the motor, compared with the results accomplished, and a verv limited range in its capacities.
The objects of my improved apparatus are to economize the use of the motor; to increase the power of the apparatus; and toadapt it to useful purposes, other than the condensation and rarefaction of air, or the raising and forcing of liquids. These desirable results areobtained by certain original changes which I have made in the ancient apparatus, in accordance with what is claimed as the discovery of the real cause, of its action, the enunciation of the law governing which is reserved till my improvements have been described.
The original device referred to, in its most approved form, as well as the devices of more modern date, and of a similar charater, consists substantially of a tube, conical or otherwise, through which the actuating-body, or motor, is conveyed; second, alarger, longer, and similar tube, within which, and at the entrance thereof, the first-named tube is placed, the axis of both being in the same line; third, a communication between the space .outside the second tube and: the interval between the two tubes, through which the body to be acted upon is drawn or conveyed.
In some cases the oflices of the first tube and this last communication are transposed in the ancient as well as the more modern devices, but such change is immaterial.
When steam is substituted for water as the motor in such apparatus, it is evident that the heat in contact with the shorter tube will cause the enclosed or enveloping matter to become of a higher temperature 'tor'and the body or liquid to be acted upon.
The principal change which I make in the ancient apparatus is at this point, and it consists in substituting a plate, with an orifice, for the tube, and some simple yet essential changes, which will now be described.
In the di'awings- A A represent a cylinder, with induction-pipe B,
at right angles with A, the pipe B being connected.
with the source of power.
0 is a concentric tube, smaller than A, which is placed within, and firmly attached at one end to A. The bore of this tube 0 is conical from d to e and from d to g.
E is a plug, closely fitted into A, at the end opposite 0.
This plug has a central conical orifice, K, which presents an area at its inner face similar in size to the area of tube C at (Z.
This plug is provided on its inner face with the annular recess nn, thus providing a passage-way for the motor to the bore of tube 0.
The face of tube 0, at e, is in the same plane with the edge of orifice K in plug E, or nearly so.
When the plug E is in position in cylinder A, as
shown, the annular recess 1: n, on its face, becomes a continuation of the space mm, which surrounds tube 0.
D is a converging pipe, used at times when itis desired to force liquid to any distance. The ofiice of this will be described hereafter.
I have now, induction-pipe B, annular recess 12, which is a continuation of m, and the edge of this annular reccss coincides with edge of orifice K, at its termination.
The space from c to cl forms a combining-chamber, where liquid, or gas, or vapor coming in at V K combines with the motor passing through it to chamber e d.
A second chamber is formed by d g, which is gradually increased in area from d toward g.
To properly understand the action of this apparatus, it will here be necessary, for convenience of illustration, to assume that the apparatus is constructed of transparent material; that themotor is dry steam; that a liquid is the body acted upon; and that the velocity of the motor is not great. a
When the steam is allowed to flow through the annular space between the boundary of the inlet for liquid, K, and the wall of the combilling-chamber e d, the steam immediately commences to expand, and forms a hollow cone, enclosing the inlet K, the cone terminating just beyond the plane of the same.
Two things will now be observed, viz, first, that the liquid, in the form of small drops or line spray, is rapidly entering the steam at or nearly at right angles with the axis of the current from the edge of the liquid- 1 inlet; and second, that in consequence .of the rapid flow of said particles, and of the superior attraction which the, steam, at the moment of issue, has for the liquid, compared with the attraction above, and toward the apex of the described steam-cone, the sur-' face of the liquid appears to be depresse at the centre of the inlet, below the plane of the edg similar tothe phenomenon of capillary attraction. This depression is greater, as the velocity of the steam becomes increased.
- Oontinuin g my observations, the current-of now combined steam and liquid particles enters the second cham ber 11 g, while the former operation is being continuallyperformed on other particles, where, in consequence of the gradual increase of sectional area, the steam is allowed still further to expand laterally, thereby losing a'portion of its velocity and becoming absorbed'by the accompanying liqui ,while the liquid particles,
slightly increased in volume by the accession of the steam, and diminished in velocity by the distance they have travelled, and the effect of the vacuum produced by absorption, have gradually diminished the intervals between them, until, at the extremity of the'chamber, they have once more attained the compact form, and
' are ejected.
Now, if increased velocity is desired for the ejected This converging pipeis used in the case of fire, or
forcing-engines, or any instance when the result just describedis sought. I With the single exception ofcondensation, the same .phenomenaare observed when air is the motor, and liquid the body acted upon. -With air and air, liquid and liquid, or steam and air, of course there is no perceptible separation, and after-reunion of the'particles, but theroutine continues the same.
v In Figure 5, I have adapted my invention to raising and forcing water.
F is steam-pipe.
N, pipe leading to reservoir I The operation is identical to that heretofore described.
The converging pipe D here comes into use, and its efiectis to cause a full, solid stream to be ejected at i.
In Figure 6, I have applied my apparatus to the bellows of a forge, and by its use a greater volume'of air will be obtained by the same amount of labor.
I am aware of the antiquity of inventions of this nature, and of the various modifications, changes, and alleged improvements in the original apparatus, and that the complex and expensive construction and defective operation of those improvements heretofore made, have prevented their general use, so. that the little benefit. to be derived from them has not been secured, while my invention is simple and durable in its construction, and can be usedto perform'many important oflices, saving much power and labor.
v Having thus fully described my improvements,
What I claim as new, and desire to secure by Let ters Patent, is
1. The combination of the plug E with orifice K, and the tube 0 with the chamber'e d, when they are located, relatively to each other, substantially as described. v
2. The plug E with orifice K, and tube 0 withthe ,chamber -e d and chamber d g, as described.
' 3. The combination, with the above, of the tube D, substantially as described.
In testimony wnereof, I have signed my name to thisspecification, in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
' JOHN T. HANCOCK.
Witnesses Joan Howan'rn, CARROLL D. WRIGHT.