US 863770 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
No. 863,7?0. PATBNTBD AUG. 20, 1907.
W. J. WHITING AUTOMATIC FIREARMa APPLIUATION FILED 333.16, 1906.
3 BHEETS--EHEET 1.
g Ki PATENTED AUG. 20, 1907 W. J. WHI'EING.
AUTQEEIATK? FIREM3112?w APPLImTm: HLED 22.16, 1906.
3 SHEETS-SHEET Z.
No. 863,770. PATENTED AUG. 20, 1907.
W. J. WHITING.
APPLICATION FILED FEB. 16. 1906.
8 SHEETS-SHEET S.
WTNESS'ES 'L'Tm 1' 1 lil es,
rLLiAiLlonr-r "Fr; subject 11, r siding at E3 Donglzis armingham, En l ml, have in new and useful Improvements in GLUTEN. which Lilo following a speci ive cartridge Elli-3 rwclosing .d ofsl rig consnur.
do! -c 01 stoning for the so as buffer device for nioning lllfi Forward movonien recipro- Lle which is adapted to traverse upon lo surmonni a h ndle or grip conline, and. is connects l is through. the to the said 6 l slide medium of a frame and ho e tho "slono of the oi the return-spring lie arrangement being such e21 Llie breeclnslic A is forced reuiwardly by the the lever makes an angular movement am, ti o the spring which then roasts to move the lever in 2112s opposite direction and drive the lircecli-slide forward into its closed po- 1 a re oi the accompanying drawings represonls longitudinal vertical section of an automatic EH; zine pis construe cl ngod in accordance View sin 1 i parts Wild] my in in the p siolionmty or at rest in it yistol is loaded Lilo hammer nun. ninnmonlnr, E lG-LAll-D.
momma 1m 20, 190?.
read firing. Fig. 2 is a similar longitudinal section to that represented in Fig. 1 but it shows the brech slide at the end of the forward or closing movement do it mak s under the influence of its return spring and illusm. spring tri oi rho nisioi,
guard. Fig. 3 is another sectional View but represents the f. ed barrel in elevamd re sent; two cross setions of the 6 represents alnoher longitudinal section of the pistol, showing the opposite side to that which is named in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 and illustrating how the Eng. 8 shows a side elevation and an underside plan 7 one fixed, barrel separately. Fig. 9 shows the body 1 the pistol in elevation and plan and Fig. 1C) shows '0 views of tho spring trigger guard While Figs. 1]., 6. l3 show the different parts of the lock mechanpaint-(fl or dis-: einblod from one another: Figs. 14 and 15 are sectional side elevations, showing the safety dsvieo, and Figs. 16 and 17 are lop plans of the sumo.
The same reference numerals indicate corresponding parfs in the srwo'ral figures of the drawings.
Ed is mounted upon the lore part of the body 210i the pistol and its liaise is longitudinally grooved at 22 upon the opposite sidos and is adapted to slide from die front into a. channe or recess formed in the top of the said body and having internal guide-ribs 23, which engage with thesaid grooves 22 in the barrel base. To provide for the locking of the barrel to the body by moons of a spring trigger-guard, the front and rearward ends of the underside of the base are formed with. a pair of notches or recesses 24 and 25 and the for- W2 :1 edge of the front recess and the rearward edge of tho back one are suitably undercutat- 213, 27 respec tiyely While correspondingopenings or gaps 28, 29 are out through the bottom of the body to coincide or register With the said rowsses when the barrel is in its normal position. The triggr guard 30 is made from a how or loop of spring steel and the ends thereof are formed Will] lumps or lioololike interlocking pieces 31, 32 adapted to engage respectively with the undercut; re-
in the barrel has. When this locking Which "sepuwncs the undercut edges 26, 27 of the res how this movement is buffered by the '01 upon ihe denied lines x and.
guard is utilized as 2. spring buffer stop I d to is normal position after,
cesses but when the said ends are forced towards one i tendency of the said ends to spring sport, they are retained in engagement with the undercut recesses and thus the positive locking of. the barrel is effected, al- 7 though by forcing one or other of the hook-like ends out of its engagement, the guard can be removed and then the barrel is free to be detached from the body. The
." spring guard is also utilized as it buffering device for cushioning the impact of the reciprocating breech slide at the ends oi its opening and closing movements, and to provide for this the openings in the body are made larger than'the locking ends of the guard so as to admit of one or other of the said ends yielding or having some longitudinal ploy therein, and this enables the barrel to move with the yielding end either in a forward direction when it is struck by the breech slide on the latter coming to itsclosed position as represented in Fig. l, or in a rearward direction under the influence of the impact or blow which is delivered by the said slide against a suitable stop 38 on the barrel when the slide is fullyopened as represented in Fig. 6. This arrangement eifectually cushions the reciprocating parts and preven the pistol being damaged by the shocks or concussion setup by the firing operation s.
Thehreeeh-slide 34! is mount il so as to slide upon th alter part of thebody Whose external guide ribs engage with corresponding channels 35 on the opposite inner sides of the base of the said slide, which is fitted, as usual with a firing pin and extractor, While its under side is formed with s hammer cockingend locking rib 3Gadapted to act upon the hammer and cock the Same during its rearward movement, and to force the uppsfmost cartridge from the magazine (which is contained ivithin the grip of the pistol) into the chamber oi the barrel during its forward or closing movement. At the front end, this slide is extended into a hood or cover 37 which telescopes over the alter part of the fixed or roletively stationary barrel when the pistol is closed and is provided upon one side with: it gap or opening 38 Wherethrough the spent cartridge shell is ejected during th opening movement.
The rearward movement of the combined hreecli slide and hood is limited, and the detachment of this part from the body is prevented by the stop collar 33 on the breech end of the barrel cooperating with an internal abutment 39 at the forward end of the hood. The inside of the said hood is of cylindrical form and the stop collar fits closely therein, hut in order to admit of the separation or detachment of the two parts after they have been slid collectively off the body, suits-ole gaps or gates may he formed at 40, ll on the opposite sides of the hood adjacent to its junction with the breech slide and when the collar is brought coincident'with these gaps, the barrel can be dropped out or removed.
The detachable In Z1116 is secured within the hollo'w' handle of the bony by t suitab etch and one r or projection iilge shell ini- -t7li1tillilfi? my til-rough side oi the upper end of some with a i iinst which the 1 pingos on being the extractor anc by tipped and e ected the opening in the s cl the breech hood.
The hammer 43 and its main spring or the spec. n from the in" sear 44 depending from the front of the sear, whose nose takes into it lull-cock bent in the hub of the hammer. The extension 46 is adapted to be tilted so that it will he moved out of the path of the bar 45 when the latter is forced inwardly by the trigger. Such tilting is had when the hammer is moved. to a. position of half cock so that no engagement can'be'had between the bar 45 and the extension 46 to actuate the hammer. To provide further nomactuating of the hammer, the bar 46 during the rearward movement oi the trigger has its free end ceinined ewny froin the extension 45 such cam action being bad owing to the curved form of the bar 45 in connection with the wall of the recess 45.
47 is the breech-slide return spring and 48 is the lever which tmnsmits the effort of said spring (which is compressed by the rearward movement oithe said slide) for the purpose of giving the forward or closing movement.
In connection with the firing mechanism, I propose to employ a safety device which, on being operated by the shooter when the hammer is st full cock, allows the said hammer to be disengaged from the sear and lowered by the hammer-spring into n half-cock position and locks it there, so that it is impossible for the pistol to be discharged until the hammer has been pulled buck again to full-cock. Thus the side of the hammer is cut away to provide it recess 51 in which is arranged a Slllr'lll. safety arm or lever 50 independently pivoted upon the hammer at 52 and having a. limited angular movement therein, the normal position of the said arm being that in which its upper edge abuts against the top of the recess and is retained there suitably-applied spring move into the hull-cock position while the part which is forward of the pivot and lies ageinstthe side oi the hammer hub, is formed with a half-cock notch or bent 54 which, when the hammer is at full coclc and thelever is in its normeland uninfiuencing posi; tion, approximately coincides with the full-cock notch or bent (57). i
In addition to the half-cock. bent 54, the forward ex treinit-y of the. safety lever is also formed with a itllllike part 56 which comes below the said hent. 54 and lies underneath the-nose oi the scorn-hen the latter in engagement with the full-cock bent, so that when the thuml picce end or" the lever is depressed, this port 56 acts cam-wise on the sear andliits the nose of thelattor out of the full-cock bent without however d' tnr'bing' its engagement with the half-cock bentfi oi the soidf who letter bottom of the half cock notch coming against the bottom edge of the said recess 51 and their tendency to move forward together'under the influence of the hammer-spring is prevented by the engagement of the sear in the half-cock bent of the safety lover.
The levering forward of the sear by the safety lever simultaneously tilts the tail or hanging extension 46 rcarwardly into a position in which it lies clear of the actuating bar 46 and positively retains the said sear in this position so that it cannot be acted upon or disengaged from the hammer-locking safety device should the trigger be pulled while the hammer is being held in the half-cock position. The sear is tilted and its tail moved out of the way of the actuating bar 45 by reason of the difference in depth of the full and half cock notches in ,the hammer, that is to say, byreason of the being farther from the pivotal center of the hammer than that of the full cock notch, which results in the nose of the sear being raised and its tail depressed and thrown backward when the hammer moves from full-cocked to half-cocked position. The discharge from the half-cock is prevented, not because the push-bar cannot act upon the sear. tail on the latter beng tilted when acted upon by the safety, but is due solely to the fact that the safety is capable of making only a limited angular movement in its recess in the side of the hammer .so that when the hammer is impelled forwards by its spring after the safety device has lovercd the sear out of the full cock hammer bent, the said safety lever and hammer become wedged together by the lower edge of the latter coming against the bottom edge of the recess 51, and the safety is absolutely incapable of making an independent angular movement in either direction until the hammer is drawn back to full cock. Further, the nose of the sear is never out of engagement with the bent 54 in the safety and therefore, when the hammer and safety are wedged together, the sear is locked with them and cannot be tilted to disengage its nose from the said bent 54 even by the application of considerable effort to the hanging tail.
There is no half-cock bent in the hammer itself and the hammer is only held in the half-cock position by the engagement of the scar with the bent of the safety which is wedged to the said hammer. On the other hand, when the gun. is at full cock, the bouts of the safety and hammer are in register and both engaged by th nose and to discharge the gun, the sear is tilted and s uultancously disengaged from the bcnts of hammer and safety which then move forward together.
No stop is employed to limit the range of motion of the push-bar, but as a matter of fact, the push-bar is pivoted to the trigger and a part of the frame is made to serve as a cam and to act upon the said bar in such a manner that after it has been moved by the trigger a certain distance it becomes influenced by the said cam like part, of the frame and is constrained to make a downward angular movement which causes it to slip the soar-tail and avoid exerting any positive pressure thereon when in its half-cock position or after the sear has been actuated for discharging the pistol.
The drawing or forcing of the hammer back to its full cock position automatically restores all parts of firing and safety mechanism to their normal positions.
Having fully described my invention, what I desire to claim and secure by Letters Patent is 1. In an automatic firearm a. detachable barrel, and a triggenguard constituting means for locking the barrel to the body of the arm.
2. An automatlc firearm comprising a stationary barrel, a reclprogatory breech slide, and a resilient rrlgger-guard constituting a buffer for cushioning the rcciprocatory movement of the breech-slide.
3. An automatic firearm, comprising an arm-body hava barrel having rccessesf'a reciprocatory and a resilient trigger guard extending interlocking with said recesses the barrel upon the arm-body, guard constituting a buffer of the breech-slide.
ing openings, breech slide, through said openings and in the barrel for retaining interlocking parts of the said for cushioning the movements 4. In an automatlcfirearm. the combination with firing mechanism embodying a sear and a hammer, of a safety device mounted in a recess formed in the side of the hammer and having a limited angular movement in said re cess whereby when the safety device is depressed the hammer and safety device are wedged together by the hammersprlng and the sear is engaged with the safety device.
In annutomatic firearm, the combination with the firing mechanism embodying a sour and a hammer, of a safety lever mounted in a recess formed in the hammer and adapted when operated to disengage the sear from the full'cock bent of the hammer, to be engaged by the sear for locking the hammer in a half-cock position and to move the sear from the influence of the trigger mechanism of the firearm.
G. In an automatic firearm, the combination with the firlng mechanism thereof, of n. safety lever mounted so as to be'cnpable of a limited independent movement within a recess in the hammer and serving as :1 means for discn gaging the senufrom the full-cock bent in the hammer, after which it is itself engaged by the sour and locks the hammer in the half-cock position. and further removlng and retaining the scar out of the influence of the trigger mechanism.
l. in an automatic firearm, means for locking the hammer in a half-cock position and also placing and positivcly retaining the sear out of the range of the operating bar of the trigger mechanism, said means comprising a safety lever which is monntell so as to be capable of :1 limitcrl independent movement Within a recess in the side of the hammer and provided with a halt-cock bent which when the hammer is at fullcock and the lever is in its n rmal uninfluencing position approximately coincides with the fulbco'rk bent in the hammer hub and is encaged by the sear which also lies in the full-cock bent of the hammer bub; the said lever also having a cam-like part 56 adapted, on the lever being operated, to tilt the sear so as to disengage the same from the full-cock bent and allow the hammer to be moved forward by its spring to the extent to which it is capable of moving independently of the safety-lever, the collective movement of-lmmmer and lever being then prevented by the engagement of the soar in the half-cock bent of the lever whereby all the parts are locked, substantlally as described.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand in presence of two subscribing witnesses WILLIAM JOHN WI-IITING. Witnesses:
lluNnY SKERRETL, HENRY Nou'rou Snnnni-rr'r.